Aegina (/iːˈdʒaɪnə/; Greek: Αίγινα, Aígina [ˈeʝina],
Ancient Greek: Αἴγῑνα) is one of the
Saronic Islands of Greece
in the Saronic Gulf, 27 kilometres (17 miles) from Athens. Tradition
derives the name from
Aegina the mother of the hero Aeacus, who was
born on the island and became its king. During ancient times Aegina
was a rival of Athens, the great sea power of the era.
3.1 Earliest history (20th–7th centuries BC)
3.2 Coinage and sea power (7th–5th centuries BC)
3.3 Rivalry with
Athens (5th century BC)
3.5 Hellenistic period and Roman rule
3.6 Byzantine period
3.7 Frankish rule after 1204
3.8 Venetians in
3.8.2 16th century
3.9 First Ottoman period (1540–1687)
3.10 Second Venetian period (1687–1715)
3.11 Second Ottoman period (1715–1821)
3.12 Greek Revolution
5.2 Famous Aeginetans
6 Historical population
7 See also
10 External links
The municipality of
Aegina consists of the island of
Aegina and a few
offshore islets. It is part of the Islands regional unit, Attica
region. The municipality is subdivided into the following five
communities (population in 2011 in parentheses ):
The capital is the town of Aegina, situated at the northwestern end of
the island. Due to its proximity to Athens, it is a popular vacation
place during the summer months, with quite a few
second houses on the island.
The province of
Aegina (Greek: Επαρχία Αίγινας) was one
of the provinces of the
Piraeus Prefecture. Its territory corresponded
with that of the current municipalities
Aegina and Agkistri. It was
abolished in 2006.
Aegina is roughly triangular in shape, approximately 15 km
(9.3 mi) from east to west and 10 km (6.2 mi) from
north to south, with an area of 87.41 km2
(33.75 sq mi).
An extinct volcano constitutes two-thirds of Aegina. The northern and
western sides consist of stony but fertile plains, which are well
cultivated and produce luxuriant crops of grain, with some cotton,
vines, almonds, olives and figs, but the most characteristic crop
Aegina today (2000s) is pistachio. Economically, the sponge
fisheries are of notable importance. The southern volcanic part of the
island is rugged and mountainous, and largely barren. Its highest rise
is the conical Mount Oros (531 m) in the south, and the Panhellenian
ridge stretches northward with narrow fertile valleys on either side.
The beaches are also a popular tourist attraction.
Piraeus take only forty minutes to reach Aegina; the regular
ferry takes about an hour, with ticket prices for adults within the
4–15 euro range. There are regular bus services from
Aegina town to
destinations throughout the island such as Agia Marina. Portes is a
fishing village on the east coast.
A panorama of the island of Aegina, from the
Earliest history (20th–7th centuries BC)
Aegina, according to Herodotus, was a colony of Epidaurus, to which
state it was originally subject. Its placement between
Attica and the
Peloponnesus made it a site of trade even earlier, and its earliest
inhabitants allegedly came from Asia Minor. Minoan ceramics have
been found in contexts of ca. 2000 BC. The famous
Aegina Treasure, now
British Museum is estimated to date between 1700 and 1500
BC. The discovery on the island of a number of gold ornaments
belonging to the last period of Mycenaean art suggests that Mycenaean
culture existed in
Aegina for some generations after the Dorian
Argos and Lacedaemon. It is probable that the island
was not doricised before the 9th century BC.
One of the earliest historical facts is its membership in the
Amphictyony or League of Calauria, attested around the 8th century BC.
This ostensibly religious league included—besides Aegina—Athens,
the Minyan (Boeotian) Orchomenos, Troezen, Hermione, Nauplia, and
Prasiae. It was probably an organisation of city-states that were
still Mycenaean, for the purpose of suppressing piracy in the Aegean
that began as a result of the decay of the naval supremacy of the
Aegina seems to have belonged to the
Eretrian league during the
Lelantine War; this, perhaps, may explain the war with Samos, a major
member of the rival Chalcidian league during the reign of King
Amphicrates (Herod. iii. 59), i.e. not later than the earlier half of
the 7th century BC.
Coinage and sea power (7th–5th centuries BC)
Coins of Aegina
Silver stater of Aegina, 550–530 BC. Obv.
Sea turtle with large
pellets down centre. Rev. incuse square with eight sections.
Silver drachma of Aegina, 404–340 BC. Obverse: Land tortoise.
Reverse: inscription ΑΙΓ(INA) "Aegina" and dolphin.
Its early history reveals that the maritime importance of the island
dates back to pre-Dorian times. It is usually stated on the authority
of Ephorus, that
Argos established a mint in Aegina, the
first city-state to issue coins in Europe, the Aeginetic stater. One
stamped stater (having the mark of some authority in the form of a
picture or words) can be seen in the
Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris.
It is an electrum stater of a turtle, an animal sacred to Aphrodite,
Aegina that dates from 700 BC. Therefore, it is thought
that the Aeginetes, within 30 or 40 years of the invention of
Asia Minor by the Ionian Greeks or the
Lydians (c. 630 BC),
might have been the ones to introduce coinage to the Western world.
The fact that the Aeginetic standard of weights and measures
(developed during the mid-7th century) was one of the two standards in
general use in the Greek world (the other being the Euboic-Attic) is
sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the
island. The Aeginetic weight standard of about 12.3 grams was
widely adopted in the Greek world during the 7th century BC. The
Aeginetic stater was divided into three drachmae of 4.1 grams of
silver. Staters depicting a sea-turtle were struck up to the end of
the 5th century BC. Following the end of the Peloponnesian War, 404
BC, it was replaced by the land tortoise.
During the naval expansion of
Aegina during the Archaic Period,
Kydonia was an ideal maritime stop for Aegina's fleet on its way to
Mediterranean ports controlled by the emerging sea-power
Aegina. During the next century
Aegina was one of the three
principal states trading at the emporium of
Naucratis in Egypt, and it
was the only Greek state near Europe that had a share in this
factory. At the beginning of the 5th century BC it seems to have
been an entrepôt of the Pontic grain trade, which, at a later date,
became an Athenian monopoly.
Unlike the other commercial states of the 7th and 6th centuries BC,
such as Corinth, Chalcis,
Eretria and Miletus,
Aegina did not found
any colonies. The settlements to which Strabo refers (viii. 376)
cannot be regarded as any real exceptions to this statement.
Athens (5th century BC)
The known history of
Aegina is almost exclusively a history of its
relations with the neighbouring state of Athens, which began to
compete with the thalassocracy (sea power) of
Aegina about the
beginning of the sixth century BC.
Solon passed laws limiting
Aeginetan commerce in Attica. The legendary history of these
relations, as recorded by
Herodotus (v. 79–89; vi. 49–51, 73,
85–94), involves critical problems of some difficulty and interest.
He traces the hostility of the two states back to a dispute about the
images of the goddesses Damia and Auxesia, which the Aeginetes had
carried off from Epidauros, their parent state.
The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the
Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian
olive-wood of which the statues were made. Upon the refusal of the
Aeginetes to continue these offerings, the
Athenians endeavoured to
carry away the images. Their design was frustrated miraculously –
according to the Aeginetan version, the statues fell upon their knees
– and only a single survivor returned to Athens. There he became
victim to the fury of his comrades' widows who pierced him with their
brooch-pins. No date is assigned by
Herodotus for this "old feud";
recent writers, e.g.
J. B. Bury
J. B. Bury and R. W. Macan, suggest the period
Solon and Peisistratus, circa 570 BC. It is possible that the
whole episode is mythical. A critical analysis of the narrative seems
to reveal little else than a series of aetiological traditions
(explanatory of cults and customs), e.g. of the kneeling posture of
the images of Damia and Auxesia, of the use of native ware instead of
Athenian in their worship, and of the change in women's dress at
Athens from the Dorian to the Ionian style.
Colour depiction of the Temple of Aphaea, sacred to a mother goddess,
particularly worshiped on Aegina.
The Temple of Aphaea.
The account which
Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two
states during the early years of the 5th century BC is to the
following effect. The Thebans, after the defeat by
Athens about 507
BC, appealed to
Aegina for assistance. The Aeginetans at first
contented themselves with sending the images of the Aeacidae, the
tutelary heroes of their island. Subsequently, however, they
contracted an alliance, and ravaged the seaboard of Attica. The
Athenians were preparing to make reprisals, in spite of the advice of
Delphic oracle that they should desist from attacking
thirty years, and content themselves meanwhile with dedicating a
precinct to Aeacus, when their projects were interrupted by the
Spartan intrigues for the restoration of Hippias.
In 491 BC
Aegina was one of the states which gave the symbols of
submission ("earth and water") to Achaemenid Persia.
Athens at once
Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I, one
of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who
were responsible for it. His attempt was at first unsuccessful; but,
after the deposition of Demaratus, he visited the island a second
time, accompanied by his new colleague Leotychides, seized ten of the
leading citizens and deposited them at
Athens as hostages.
After the death of Cleomenes and the refusal of the
restore the hostages to Leotychides, the Aeginetes retaliated by
seizing a number of
Athenians at a festival at Sunium. Thereupon the
Athenians concerted a plot with Nicodromus, the leader of the
democratic party in the island, for the betrayal of Aegina. He was to
seize the old city, and they were to come to his aid on the same day
with seventy vessels. The plot failed owing to the late arrival of the
Athenian force, when Nicodromus had already fled the island. An
engagement followed in which the Aeginetes were defeated.
Subsequently, however, they succeeded in winning a victory over the
All the incidents subsequent to the appeal of
referred expressly by
Herodotus to the interval between the sending of
the heralds in 491 BC and the invasion of
Artaphernes in 490
BC (cf. Herod. vi. 49 with 94).
There are difficulties with this story, of which the following are the
Herodotus nowhere states or implies that peace was concluded between
the two states before 481 BC, nor does he distinguish between
different wars during this period. Hence it would follow that the war
lasted from soon after 507 BC until the congress at the Isthmus of
Corinth in 481 BC
It is only for two years (BC 490 and 491) out of the twenty-five that
any details are given. It is the more remarkable that no incidents are
recorded in the period between the battles of Marathon and Salamis,
since at the time of the Isthmian Congress the war was described as
the most important one then being waged in Greece,
It is improbable that
Athens would have sent twenty vessels to the aid
of the Ionians in 499 BC if at the time it was at war with Aegina.
There is an incidental indication of time, which indicates the period
after Marathon as the true date for the events which are referred by
Herodotus to the year before Marathon, viz. the thirty years that were
to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to
Aeacus and the
final victory of Athens.
The ruins of the Temple of Apollo.
As the final victory of
Aegina was in 458 BC, the thirty
years of the oracle would carry us back to the year 488 BC as the date
of the dedication of the precinct and the beginning of hostilities.
This inference is supported by the date of the building of the 200
triremes "for the war against Aegina" on the advice of Themistocles,
which is given in the Constitution of
Athens as 483–482 BC. It
is probable, therefore, that
Herodotus is in error both in tracing
back the beginning of hostilities to an alliance between Thebes and
Aegina (c. 507 BC) and in claiming the episode of Nicodromus occurred
prior to the battle of Marathon.
Overtures were unquestionably made by Thebes for an alliance with
Aegina c. 507 BC, but they came to nothing. The refusal of
in the diplomatic guise of "sending the Aeacidae." The real occasion
of the beginning of the war was the refusal of
Athens to restore the
hostages some twenty years later. There was but one war, and it lasted
from 488 to 481 BC. That
Athens had the worst of it in this war is
Herodotus had no Athenian victories to record after the
initial success, and the fact that
Themistocles was able to carry his
proposal to devote the surplus funds of the state to the building of
so large a fleet seems to imply that the
Athenians were themselves
convinced that a supreme effort was necessary.
It may be noted, in confirmation of this opinion, that the naval
Aegina is assigned by the ancient writers on chronology
to precisely this period, i.e. the years 490–480.
In the repulse of
Xerxes I it is possible that the Aeginetes played a
larger part than is conceded to them by Herodotus. The Athenian
tradition, which he follows in the main, would naturally seek to
obscure their services. It was to
Aegina rather than
Athens that the
prize of valour at Salamis was awarded, and the destruction of the
Persian fleet appears to have been as much the work of the Aeginetan
contingent as of the Athenian (Herod. viii. 91). There are other
indications, too, of the importance of the Aeginetan fleet in the
Greek scheme of defence. In view of these considerations it becomes
difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them
Herodotus (30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf. Greek History,
sect. Authorities). During the next twenty years the Philo-Laconian
Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league,
from attack. The change in Athenian foreign policy, which was
consequent upon the ostracism of
Cimon in 461 BC, resulted in what is
sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War, during which most of the
fighting was experienced by
Corinth and Aegina. The latter state was
forced to surrender to
Athens after a siege, and to accept the
position of a subject-ally (c. 456 BC). The tribute was fixed at 30
By the terms of the
Thirty Years' Peace
Thirty Years' Peace (445 BC)
Athens promised to
Aegina her autonomy, but the clause remained ineffective.
During the first winter of the
Peloponnesian War (431 BC) Athens
expelled the Aeginetans and established a cleruchy in their island.
The exiles were settled by
Sparta in Thyreatis, on the frontiers of
Laconia and Argolis. Even in their new home they were not safe from
Athenian rancour. A force commanded by
Nicias landed in 424 BC, and
killed most of them. At the end of the
Peloponnesian War Lysander
restored the scattered remnants of the old inhabitants to the island,
 which was used by the Spartans as a base for operations
Athens during the Corinthian War. Its greatness, however, was
at an end. The part which it plays henceforward is insignificant.
It would be a mistake to attribute the demise of
Aegina solely to the
development of the Athenian navy. It is probable that the power of
Aegina had steadily declined during the twenty years after Salamis,
and that it had declined absolutely, as well as relatively to that of
Athens. Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade,
which seems to have been principally with the Levant, must have
suffered seriously from the war with Persia. Aegina's medism in 491 is
to be explained by its commercial relations with the Persian Empire.
It was forced into patriotism in spite of itself, and the glory won by
the battle of Salamis was paid for by the loss of its trade and the
decay of its marine. The completeness of the ruin of so powerful a
state is explained by the economic conditions of the island, the
prosperity of which was based on slave-labour. It is impossible,
indeed, to accept Aristotle's (cf. Athenaeus vi. 272) estimate of
470,000 as the number of the slave-population; it is clear, however,
that the number must have been much greater than that of the free
inhabitants. In this respect the history of
Aegina does but anticipate
the history of
Greece as a whole.
The constitutional history of
Aegina is unusually simple. So long as
the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy.
There is no trace of heroic monarchy and no tradition of a tyrannis.
The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic
party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little
Hellenistic period and Roman rule
Aegina with the rest of
Greece became dominated successively by the
Macedonians (322–229 BC), the Achaeans (229–211 BC), Aetolians
(211/10 BC), Attalus of Pergamum (210–133 BC) and the Romans (after
133 BC). A sign at the
Archaeological Museum of Aegina is reported
to say that a Jewish community is believed to have been established in
Aegina "at the end of the second and during the third century AD" by
Jews fleeing the barbarian invasions of the time in Greece.
However, the first phases of those invasions began in the 4th century.
Local Christian tradition has it that a Christian community was
established there in the 1st century, having as its bishop Crispus,
the ruler of the Corinthian synagogue, who became a Christian, and
was baptised by Paul the Apostle. There are written records of
participation by later bishops of Aegina, Gabriel and Thomas, in the
Council of Constantinople (869)
Council of Constantinople (869) and the Council of Constantinople. The
see was at first a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Corinth, but
was later given the rank of archdiocese. No longer a
Aegina is today listed by the Catholic Church
as a titular see.
Church of Theotokos
Aegina belonged to the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire after the
division of the
Roman Empire in 395. It remained Eastern Roman during
the period of crisis of the 7th–8th centuries, when most of the
Balkans and the Greek mainland were overrun by Slavic invasions.
Indeed, according to the Chronicle of Monemvasia, the island served as
a refuge for the Corinthians fleeing these incursions. The island
flourished during the early 9th century, as evidenced by church
construction activity, but suffered greatly from Arab raids
originating from Crete. Various hagiographies record a large-scale
raid ca. 830, that resulted in the flight of much of the population to
the Greek mainland. During that time, some of the population sought
refuge in the island's hinterland, establishing the settlement of
According to the 12th-century bishop of Athens, Michael Choniates, by
his time the island had become a base for pirates. This is
corroborated by Benedict of Peterborough's graphic account of Greece,
as it was in 1191; he states that many of the islands were uninhabited
for fear of pirates and that Aegina, along with Salamis and
Makronisos, were their strongholds.
Frankish rule after 1204
Further information: Frankokratia
After the dissolution and partition of the Byzantine Empire by the
Fourth Crusade in 1204,
Aegina was accorded to the Republic of Venice.
In the event, it became controlled by the Duchy of Athens. The Catalan
Company seized control of Athens, and with it Aegina, in 1317, and in
1425 the island became controlled by the Venetians, when Alioto
Caopena, at that time ruler of Aegina, placed himself by treaty under
the Republic's protection to escape the danger of a Turkish raid. The
island must then have been fruitful, for one of the conditions by
which Venice accorded him protection was that he should supply grain
to Venetian colonies. He agreed to surrender the island to Venice if
his family became extinct.
Antonio II Acciaioli
Antonio II Acciaioli opposed the treaty for
one of his adopted daughters had married the future lord of Aegina,
The Venetian era Markellos tower
Aegina became Venetian. The islanders welcomed Venetian rule;
the claims of Antonello's uncle Arnà, who had lands in Argolis, were
satisfied by a pension. A Venetian governor (rettore) was appointed,
who was dependent on the authorities of Nauplia. After Arnà's death,
his son Alioto renewed his claim to the island but was told that the
republic was resolved to keep it. He and his family were pensioned and
one of them aided in the defence of
Aegina against the Turks in 1537,
was captured with his family, and died in a Turkish dungeon.
In 1463 the Turco-Venetian war began, which was destined to cost the
Venetians Negroponte (Euboea), the island of Lemnos, most of the
Cyclades islands, Scudra and their colonies in the Morea. Peace was
concluded in 1479. Venice still retained Aegina, Lepanto (Naupactus),
Nauplia, Monemvasia, Modon, Navarino, Coron, and the islands Crete,
Mykonos and Tinos.
Aegina remained subject to Nauplia.
Aegina obtained money for its defences by reluctantly sacrificing its
cherished relic, the head of St. George, which had been carried there
from Livadia by the Catalans. In 1462, the Venetian Senate ordered the
relic to be removed to St. Giorgio Maggiore in Venice and on 12
November, it was transported from
Aegina by Vettore Cappello, the
famous Venetian commander. In return, the Senate gave the Aeginetes
100 ducats apiece towards fortifying the island.
In 1519, the government was reformed. The system of having two rectors
was found to result in frequent quarrels and the republic thenceforth
sent out a single official styled Bailie and Captain, assisted by two
councillors, who performed the duties of camerlengo by turns. The
Bailie's authority extended over the rector of Aegina, whereas
Kastri[disambiguation needed] (opposite the island Hydra) was granted
to two families, the
Palaiologoi and the Alberti.
Nauplia was divided into three classes: nobles, citizens
and plebeians, and it was customary for nobles alone to possess the
much-coveted local offices, such as the judge of the inferior court
and inspector of weights and measures. The populace now demanded its
share and the home government ordered that at least one of the three
inspectors should be a non-noble.
Aegina had always been exposed to the raids of corsairs and had
oppressive governors during these last 30 years of Venetian rule.
Venetian nobles were not willing to go to this island. In 1533, three
Aegina were punished for their acts of injustice and there
is a graphic account of the reception given by the Aeginetans to the
captain of Nauplia, who came to command an enquiry into the
administration of these delinquents (vid. inscription over the
entrance of St. George the Catholic in Paliachora). The rectors had
spurned their ancient right to elect an islander to keep one key of
the money-chest. They had also threatened to leave the island en masse
with the commissioner, unless the captain avenged their wrongs. To
spare the economy of the community, it was ordered that appeals from
the governor's decision should be made on Crete, instead of in Venice.
The republic was to pay a bakshish to the Turkish governor of the
Morea and to the voivode who was stationed at the frontier of Thermisi
(opposite Hydra). The fortifications too, were allowed to become
decrepit and were inadequately guarded.
The ruins of Palaiochora. Walls, houses, and castle have been
desroyed, only the chapels were restored.
After the end of the Duchy of
Athens and the principality of Achaia,
the only Latin possessions left on the mainland of
Greece were the
papal city of Monemvasia, the fortress of Vonitsa, the Messenian
stations Coron and Modon, Lepanto, Pteleon, Navarino, and the castles
Argos and Nauplia, to which the island of
Aegina was subordinate.
In 1502/03, the new peace treaty left Venice with nothing but
Monemvasia and Nauplia, with their appurtenances in the
Morea. And against the sack of Megara, it had to endure the temporary
capture of the castle of
Kemal Reis and the abduction of
2000 inhabitants. This treaty was renewed in 1513 and 1521. All
supplies of grain from
Monemvasia had to be imported from
Turkish possessions, while corsairs rendered dangerous all traffic by
In 1537, sultan Suleiman declared war upon Venice and his admiral
Hayreddin Barbarossa devastated much of the Ionian Islands, and in
October invaded the island of Aegina. On the fourth day Palaiochora
was captured, but the Latin church of St George was spared. Hayreddin
Barbarossa had the adult male population massacred and took away 6000
surviving women and children as slaves. Then Barbarossa sailed to
Naxos, whence he carried off an immense booty, compelling the Duke of
Naxos to purchase his further independence by paying a tribute of 5000
With the peace of 1540, Venice ceded
Nauplia and Monemvasia. For
nearly 150 years afterwards, Venice ruled no part of the mainland
Parga and Butrinto (subordinate politically to the
Ionian Islands), but it still retained its insular dominions Cyprus,
Tenos and six Ionian islands.
First Ottoman period (1540–1687)
The island was attacked and left desolate by
Francesco Morosini during
the Cretan War (1654).
Second Venetian period (1687–1715)
Aegina in 1845, by Carl Rottmann.
In 1684, the beginning of the
Morean War between Venice and the
Ottoman Empire resulted in the temporary reconquest of a large part of
the country by the Republic. In 1687 the Venetian army arrived in
Piraeus and captured Attica. The number of the
Athenians at that time
exceeded 6000, the Albanians from the villages of
whilst in 1674 the population of
Aegina did not seem to exceed 3000
inhabitants, ⅔ of which were women. The Aeginetans had been reduced
to poverty to pay their taxes. The most significant plague epidemic
Attica during 1688, an occasion that caused the massive
Athenians toward the south; most of them settled in
Aegina. In 1693 Morosini resumed command, but his only acts were to
refortify the castle of Aegina, which he had demolished during the
Cretan war in 1655, the cost of upkeep being paid as long as the war
lasted by the Athenians, and to place it and Salamis under Malipiero
as Governor. This caused the
Athenians to send him a request for the
renewal of Venetian protection and an offer of an annual tribute. He
died in 1694 and Zeno was appointed at his place.
In 1699, thanks to English mediation, the war ended with the peace of
Karlowitz by which Venice retained possession of the 7 Ionian islands
as well as Butrinto and Parga, the Morea,
Spinalonga and Suda, Tenos,
Santa Maura and
Aegina and ceased to pay a tribute for Zante, but
which restored Lepanto to the Ottoman sultan.
united administratively since the peace with Morea, which not only
paid all the expenses of administration but furnished a substantial
balance for the naval defence of Venice, in which it was directly
Second Ottoman period (1715–1821)
During the early part of the Ottoman–Venetian War of 1714–1718 the
Ottoman Fleet commanded by Canum Hoca captured Aegina. Ottomans rule
Aegina and the
Morea was resumed and confirmed by the Treaty of
Passarowitz, and they retained control of the island with the
exception of a brief Russian occupation
Orlov Revolt (early 1770s),
until the beginning of the
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence in 1821.
During the Greek War of Independence,
Aegina became an administrative
centre for the Greek revolutionary authorities. Ioannis Kapodistrias
was briefly established here.
Panorama of Aegina's port.
View of the port.
The cathedral of Saint Nectarios of Aegina.
Traditional street at the town
Aegina town centre.
A bust of Kapodistrias
Temple of Aphaea, dedicated to its namesake, a goddess who was later
associated with Athena; the temple was part of a pre-Christian,
equilateral holy triangle of temples including the Athenian Parthenon
and the temple of
Poseidon at Sounion.
Monastery of Agios Nectarios, dedicated to Nectarios of Aegina, a
recent saint of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776–1831), the first administrator of free
modern Greece, had a large building constructed; intended as a
barracks, it was used subsequently as a museum, a library and a
school. The museum was the first institution of its kind in Greece,
but the collection was transferred to
Athens in 1834. A statue in the
principal square commemorates him.
Zeus Hellanios, near the village of Pachia Rachi, is a
13th-century Byzantine church, built on the ruins of the ancient
Zeus Hellanios, built in the 4th century BC. The staircase
leading up to the church, some of the original walls, and loose stones
from the earlier temple remain.
In Greek mythology,
Aegina was a daughter of the river god
the nymph Metope. She bore at least two children: Menoetius by Actor,
Aeacus by the god Zeus. When
Zeus abducted Aegina, he took her to
Oenone, an island close to Attica. Here,
Aegina gave birth to Aeacus,
who would later become king of Oenone; thenceforth, the island's name
Aegina was the gathering place of Myrmidons; in
Aegina they gathered
Zeus needed an elite army and at first thought that
Aegina, which at the time did not have any villagers, was a good
place. So he changed some ants (Greek: Μυρμύγκια, Myrmigia)
into warriors who had 6 hands and wore black armour. Later, the
Myrmidons, commanded by Achilles, were known as the most fearsome
fighting unit in Greece.
Aeacus, the first king of
Aegina according to mythology, in whose
Aeacea were celebrated
Smilis (6th century BC), sculptor
Onatas (5th century BC), sculptor
Ptolichus (5th century BC), sculptor
Philiscus of Aegina (4th century BC), Cynic philosopher
Cosmas II Atticus (12th century), Patriarch of Constantinople
Paul of Aegina
Paul of Aegina (7th century), medical scholar and physician
Athanasia of Aegina (9th century), abbess and saint
Nectarios of Aegina
Nectarios of Aegina (1846–1920), bishop and saint
Aristeidis Moraitinis (aviator)
The influential Leoussi family originated on the isle of Aigina; their
ancestry can be traced as far back as the 15th century.
Flag of Aegina
^ a b c "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών
2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic
^ a b c d e f g One or more of the preceding
sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public
domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aegina". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
pp. 251–254. This cites:
Herodotus loc cit.
Thucydides i. 105, 108, ii. 27, iv. 56, 57.
For the criticism of Herodotus's account of the relations of Athend
and Aegina, Wilamowitz, Aristoteles und Athen, ii. 280–288, is
See also Macan,
Herodotus iv.-vi., ii. 102–120.
^ Kallikratis law
Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 3 March 2016. (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French)
^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average
elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.
Herodotus v. 83, viii.46; Pausanias 2.29.9
^ Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites,
^ "Collection search: You searched for Made on Crete, or by immigrant
Cretan craftsmen on Aegina". britishmuseum.org.
^ A. J. Evans, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xiii. p.
British Museum Catalogue 11 –
Megaris Aegina, 700 – 550
BC, plate XXIII.
^ C. Michael Hogan, Cydonia, Modern Antiquarian, January 23, 2008
Herodotus ii. 178
Herodotus vii. 147
^ Herod. vii. 145
^ Herod. v. 89
^ Herod. vii. 144; Ath. Pol. r2. 7
^ Eusebius, Houston Chronicle. Can. p. 337
^ Xenophon. Hellenica, 2.2.9: "Meantime Lysander, upon reaching
Aegina, restored the state to the Aeginetans, gathering together as
many of them as he could, and he did the same thing for the Melians
also and for all the others who had been deprived of their native
^ Plutarch. Life of Lysander, 14.3: "But there were other measures of
Lysander upon which all the Greeks looked with pleasure, when, for
instance, the Aeginetans, after a long time, received back their own
city, and when the Melians and Scionaeans were restored to their homes
by him, after the
Athenians had been driven out and had delivered back
^ Mosaic floor of a Jewish synagogue (Sign). Aegina, Greece:
Archaeological Museum of Aegina.
^ Acts of the Apostles 18:8
^ 1 Corinthians 1:14
^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus
digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 226–227
^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae,
Leipzig 1931, pp. 430–431
^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013
ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838
^ a b c Kazhdan (1991), p. 40
^ Christides (1981), pp. 87–89
^ Kazhdan (1991), pp. 40–41
Welter Gabriel, Aigina, Archäol. Inst. d. Deutschen Reiches, Berlin
Christides, Vassilios (1981), "The Raids of the Moslems of
the Aegean Sea:
Piracy and Conquest", Byzantion, 51: 76–111
Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Miller William, Essays on the Latin orient, Rome 1921 (reprint:
Miller William, "Η Παληαχώρα της Αιγίνης.
Ηρημωμένη ελληνική πόλις", Νέος
Ελληνομνήμων Κ΄ (1926), p. 363–365.
Rubio y Lluch A., "Συμβολαί εις την ιστορίαν
των Καταλωνίων εν Ελλάδι", Δελτίον της
Ιστορικής και Εθνολογικής Εταιρείας
της Ελλάδος Β΄(1883), p. 458–466.
Lambros Spyridon ed., Έγγραφα αναφερόμενα εις
την μεσαιωνικήν ιστορίαν των Αθηνών,
D' Olwer Nic., Les seigneurs Catalans d' Egine, τόμος εις
μνήμην του Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου,
Koulikourdi Georgia, Αίγινα, 2 vols.,
Moutsopoulos Nikolaos, Η Παλιαχώρα της Αιγίνης.
Ιστορική και μορφολογική εξέτασις των
Nikoloudis Nikolaos , "Η Αίγινα κατά τον
Μεσαίωνα και την Τουρκοκρατία",
Βυζαντινός Δόμος 7(1993–94), pp:13–21.
Pennas Charalambos , The Byzantine Aegina,
John N. Koumanoudes [permanent dead link], Ανεμομυλικά
ΙΙ, Αγκίστρι, Αίγινα, Αστυπάλαια,
Λήμνος, Σαλαμίνα, Σπέτσες, Σύμη, Χίος
και Ψαρά, Τεχνικό Επιμελητήριο
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aegina.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aegina.
The feud between
Athens and Aegina
The Municipality of
Aegina – official website
Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites,
1976: "Aigina, Greece"
Map of Ancient
AeginaGreece.com Tourist guide
Agios Georgios Salaminos
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