HOME
The Info List - Aegina


--- Advertisement ---



Aegina
Aegina
(/iːˈdʒaɪnə/; Greek: Αίγινα, Aígina [ˈeʝina], Ancient Greek: Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands
Saronic Islands
of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 27 kilometres (17 miles) from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina
Aegina
the mother of the hero Aeacus, who was born on the island and became its king.[3] During ancient times Aegina was a rival of Athens, the great sea power of the era.

Contents

1 Administration

1.1 Municipality 1.2 Province

2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Earliest history (20th–7th centuries BC) 3.2 Coinage and sea power (7th–5th centuries BC) 3.3 Rivalry with Athens
Athens
(5th century BC) 3.4 Decline 3.5 Hellenistic period and Roman rule 3.6 Byzantine period 3.7 Frankish rule after 1204 3.8 Venetians in Aegina
Aegina
(1451–1537)

3.8.1 Administration 3.8.2 16th century

3.9 First Ottoman period (1540–1687) 3.10 Second Venetian period (1687–1715) 3.11 Second Ottoman period (1715–1821) 3.12 Greek Revolution

4 Landmarks 5 Culture

5.1 Mythology 5.2 Famous Aeginetans

6 Historical population 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Administration[edit] Municipality[edit] The municipality of Aegina
Aegina
consists of the island of Aegina
Aegina
and a few offshore islets. It is part of the Islands regional unit, Attica region. The municipality is subdivided into the following five communities (population in 2011 in parentheses ):[4][2]

Aegina
Aegina
(7253) Kypseli (2124) Mesagros (1361) Perdika (823) Vathy (1495)

The capital is the town of Aegina, situated at the northwestern end of the island. Due to its proximity to Athens, it is a popular vacation place during the summer months, with quite a few Athenians
Athenians
owning second houses on the island. Province[edit] The province of Aegina
Aegina
(Greek: Επαρχία Αίγινας) was one of the provinces of the Piraeus
Piraeus
Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Aegina
Aegina
and Agkistri.[5] It was abolished in 2006. Geography[edit] Aegina
Aegina
is roughly triangular in shape, approximately 15 km (9.3 mi) from east to west and 10 km (6.2 mi) from north to south, with an area of 87.41 km2 (33.75 sq mi).[6] An extinct volcano constitutes two-thirds of Aegina. The northern and western sides consist of stony but fertile plains, which are well cultivated and produce luxuriant crops of grain, with some cotton, vines, almonds, olives and figs,[3] but the most characteristic crop of Aegina
Aegina
today (2000s) is pistachio. Economically, the sponge fisheries are of notable importance. The southern volcanic part of the island is rugged and mountainous, and largely barren. Its highest rise is the conical Mount Oros (531 m) in the south, and the Panhellenian ridge stretches northward with narrow fertile valleys on either side. The beaches are also a popular tourist attraction. Hydrofoil
Hydrofoil
ferries from Piraeus
Piraeus
take only forty minutes to reach Aegina; the regular ferry takes about an hour, with ticket prices for adults within the 4–15 euro range. There are regular bus services from Aegina
Aegina
town to destinations throughout the island such as Agia Marina. Portes is a fishing village on the east coast.

A panorama of the island of Aegina, from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
sea.

History[edit] Earliest history (20th–7th centuries BC)[edit] Aegina, according to Herodotus,[7] was a colony of Epidaurus, to which state it was originally subject. Its placement between Attica
Attica
and the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
made it a site of trade even earlier, and its earliest inhabitants allegedly came from Asia Minor.[8] Minoan ceramics have been found in contexts of ca. 2000 BC. The famous Aegina
Aegina
Treasure, now in the British Museum
British Museum
is estimated to date between 1700 and 1500 BC.[9] The discovery on the island of a number of gold ornaments belonging to the last period of Mycenaean art suggests that Mycenaean culture existed in Aegina
Aegina
for some generations after the Dorian conquest of Argos
Argos
and Lacedaemon.[10] It is probable that the island was not doricised before the 9th century BC. One of the earliest historical facts is its membership in the Amphictyony or League of Calauria, attested around the 8th century BC. This ostensibly religious league included—besides Aegina—Athens, the Minyan (Boeotian) Orchomenos, Troezen, Hermione, Nauplia, and Prasiae. It was probably an organisation of city-states that were still Mycenaean, for the purpose of suppressing piracy in the Aegean that began as a result of the decay of the naval supremacy of the Mycenaean princes. Aegina
Aegina
seems to have belonged to the Eretrian
Eretrian
league during the Lelantine War; this, perhaps, may explain the war with Samos, a major member of the rival Chalcidian league during the reign of King Amphicrates (Herod. iii. 59), i.e. not later than the earlier half of the 7th century BC.[3] Coinage and sea power (7th–5th centuries BC)[edit]

Coins of Aegina

Silver stater of Aegina, 550–530 BC. Obv. Sea turtle
Sea turtle
with large pellets down centre. Rev. incuse square with eight sections.

Silver drachma of Aegina, 404–340 BC. Obverse: Land tortoise. Reverse: inscription ΑΙΓ(INA) "Aegina" and dolphin.

Its early history reveals that the maritime importance of the island dates back to pre-Dorian times. It is usually stated on the authority of Ephorus, that Pheidon
Pheidon
of Argos
Argos
established a mint in Aegina, the first city-state to issue coins in Europe, the Aeginetic stater. One stamped stater (having the mark of some authority in the form of a picture or words) can be seen in the Bibliothèque Nationale
Bibliothèque Nationale
of Paris. It is an electrum stater of a turtle, an animal sacred to Aphrodite, struck at Aegina
Aegina
that dates from 700 BC.[11] Therefore, it is thought that the Aeginetes, within 30 or 40 years of the invention of coinage in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
by the Ionian Greeks or the Lydians
Lydians
(c. 630 BC), might have been the ones to introduce coinage to the Western world. The fact that the Aeginetic standard of weights and measures (developed during the mid-7th century) was one of the two standards in general use in the Greek world (the other being the Euboic-Attic) is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.[3] The Aeginetic weight standard of about 12.3 grams was widely adopted in the Greek world during the 7th century BC. The Aeginetic stater was divided into three drachmae of 4.1 grams of silver. Staters depicting a sea-turtle were struck up to the end of the 5th century BC. Following the end of the Peloponnesian War, 404 BC, it was replaced by the land tortoise. During the naval expansion of Aegina
Aegina
during the Archaic Period, Kydonia was an ideal maritime stop for Aegina's fleet on its way to other Mediterranean
Mediterranean
ports controlled by the emerging sea-power Aegina.[12] During the next century Aegina
Aegina
was one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis
Naucratis
in Egypt, and it was the only Greek state near Europe that had a share in this factory.[13] At the beginning of the 5th century BC it seems to have been an entrepôt of the Pontic grain trade, which, at a later date, became an Athenian monopoly.[14] Unlike the other commercial states of the 7th and 6th centuries BC, such as Corinth, Chalcis, Eretria
Eretria
and Miletus, Aegina
Aegina
did not found any colonies. The settlements to which Strabo refers (viii. 376) cannot be regarded as any real exceptions to this statement.[3] Rivalry with Athens
Athens
(5th century BC)[edit] The known history of Aegina
Aegina
is almost exclusively a history of its relations with the neighbouring state of Athens, which began to compete with the thalassocracy (sea power) of Aegina
Aegina
about the beginning of the sixth century BC. Solon
Solon
passed laws limiting Aeginetan commerce in Attica. The legendary history of these relations, as recorded by Herodotus
Herodotus
(v. 79–89; vi. 49–51, 73, 85–94), involves critical problems of some difficulty and interest. He traces the hostility of the two states back to a dispute about the images of the goddesses Damia and Auxesia, which the Aeginetes had carried off from Epidauros, their parent state. The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the Athenian deities Athena
Athena
and Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian olive-wood of which the statues were made. Upon the refusal of the Aeginetes to continue these offerings, the Athenians
Athenians
endeavoured to carry away the images. Their design was frustrated miraculously – according to the Aeginetan version, the statues fell upon their knees – and only a single survivor returned to Athens. There he became victim to the fury of his comrades' widows who pierced him with their brooch-pins. No date is assigned by Herodotus
Herodotus
for this "old feud"; recent writers, e.g. J. B. Bury
J. B. Bury
and R. W. Macan, suggest the period between Solon
Solon
and Peisistratus, circa 570 BC. It is possible that the whole episode is mythical. A critical analysis of the narrative seems to reveal little else than a series of aetiological traditions (explanatory of cults and customs), e.g. of the kneeling posture of the images of Damia and Auxesia, of the use of native ware instead of Athenian in their worship, and of the change in women's dress at Athens
Athens
from the Dorian to the Ionian style.

Colour depiction of the Temple of Aphaea, sacred to a mother goddess, particularly worshiped on Aegina.

The Temple of Aphaea.

The account which Herodotus
Herodotus
gives of the hostilities between the two states during the early years of the 5th century BC is to the following effect. The Thebans, after the defeat by Athens
Athens
about 507 BC, appealed to Aegina
Aegina
for assistance. The Aeginetans at first contented themselves with sending the images of the Aeacidae, the tutelary heroes of their island. Subsequently, however, they contracted an alliance, and ravaged the seaboard of Attica. The Athenians
Athenians
were preparing to make reprisals, in spite of the advice of the Delphic oracle
Delphic oracle
that they should desist from attacking Aegina
Aegina
for thirty years, and content themselves meanwhile with dedicating a precinct to Aeacus, when their projects were interrupted by the Spartan intrigues for the restoration of Hippias. In 491 BC Aegina
Aegina
was one of the states which gave the symbols of submission ("earth and water") to Achaemenid Persia. Athens
Athens
at once appealed to Sparta
Sparta
to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I, one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it. His attempt was at first unsuccessful; but, after the deposition of Demaratus, he visited the island a second time, accompanied by his new colleague Leotychides, seized ten of the leading citizens and deposited them at Athens
Athens
as hostages. After the death of Cleomenes and the refusal of the Athenians
Athenians
to restore the hostages to Leotychides, the Aeginetes retaliated by seizing a number of Athenians
Athenians
at a festival at Sunium. Thereupon the Athenians
Athenians
concerted a plot with Nicodromus, the leader of the democratic party in the island, for the betrayal of Aegina. He was to seize the old city, and they were to come to his aid on the same day with seventy vessels. The plot failed owing to the late arrival of the Athenian force, when Nicodromus had already fled the island. An engagement followed in which the Aeginetes were defeated. Subsequently, however, they succeeded in winning a victory over the Athenian fleet. All the incidents subsequent to the appeal of Athens
Athens
to Sparta
Sparta
are referred expressly by Herodotus
Herodotus
to the interval between the sending of the heralds in 491 BC and the invasion of Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (cf. Herod. vi. 49 with 94). There are difficulties with this story, of which the following are the principal elements:

Herodotus
Herodotus
nowhere states or implies that peace was concluded between the two states before 481 BC, nor does he distinguish between different wars during this period. Hence it would follow that the war lasted from soon after 507 BC until the congress at the Isthmus of Corinth
Corinth
in 481 BC It is only for two years (BC 490 and 491) out of the twenty-five that any details are given. It is the more remarkable that no incidents are recorded in the period between the battles of Marathon and Salamis, since at the time of the Isthmian Congress the war was described as the most important one then being waged in Greece,[15] It is improbable that Athens
Athens
would have sent twenty vessels to the aid of the Ionians in 499 BC if at the time it was at war with Aegina. There is an incidental indication of time, which indicates the period after Marathon as the true date for the events which are referred by Herodotus
Herodotus
to the year before Marathon, viz. the thirty years that were to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to Aeacus
Aeacus
and the final victory of Athens.[16]

The ruins of the Temple of Apollo.

As the final victory of Athens
Athens
over Aegina
Aegina
was in 458 BC, the thirty years of the oracle would carry us back to the year 488 BC as the date of the dedication of the precinct and the beginning of hostilities. This inference is supported by the date of the building of the 200 triremes "for the war against Aegina" on the advice of Themistocles, which is given in the Constitution of Athens
Athens
as 483–482 BC.[17] It is probable, therefore, that Herodotus
Herodotus
is in error both in tracing back the beginning of hostilities to an alliance between Thebes and Aegina
Aegina
(c. 507 BC) and in claiming the episode of Nicodromus occurred prior to the battle of Marathon. Overtures were unquestionably made by Thebes for an alliance with Aegina
Aegina
c. 507 BC, but they came to nothing. The refusal of Aegina
Aegina
was in the diplomatic guise of "sending the Aeacidae." The real occasion of the beginning of the war was the refusal of Athens
Athens
to restore the hostages some twenty years later. There was but one war, and it lasted from 488 to 481 BC. That Athens
Athens
had the worst of it in this war is certain. Herodotus
Herodotus
had no Athenian victories to record after the initial success, and the fact that Themistocles
Themistocles
was able to carry his proposal to devote the surplus funds of the state to the building of so large a fleet seems to imply that the Athenians
Athenians
were themselves convinced that a supreme effort was necessary. It may be noted, in confirmation of this opinion, that the naval supremacy of Aegina
Aegina
is assigned by the ancient writers on chronology to precisely this period, i.e. the years 490–480.[3][18] Decline[edit] In the repulse of Xerxes I
Xerxes I
it is possible that the Aeginetes played a larger part than is conceded to them by Herodotus. The Athenian tradition, which he follows in the main, would naturally seek to obscure their services. It was to Aegina
Aegina
rather than Athens
Athens
that the prize of valour at Salamis was awarded, and the destruction of the Persian fleet appears to have been as much the work of the Aeginetan contingent as of the Athenian (Herod. viii. 91). There are other indications, too, of the importance of the Aeginetan fleet in the Greek scheme of defence. In view of these considerations it becomes difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them by Herodotus
Herodotus
(30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf. Greek History, sect. Authorities). During the next twenty years the Philo-Laconian policy of Cimon
Cimon
secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack. The change in Athenian foreign policy, which was consequent upon the ostracism of Cimon
Cimon
in 461 BC, resulted in what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War, during which most of the fighting was experienced by Corinth
Corinth
and Aegina. The latter state was forced to surrender to Athens
Athens
after a siege, and to accept the position of a subject-ally (c. 456 BC). The tribute was fixed at 30 talents. By the terms of the Thirty Years' Peace
Thirty Years' Peace
(445 BC) Athens
Athens
promised to restore to Aegina
Aegina
her autonomy, but the clause remained ineffective. During the first winter of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431 BC) Athens expelled the Aeginetans and established a cleruchy in their island. The exiles were settled by Sparta
Sparta
in Thyreatis, on the frontiers of Laconia
Laconia
and Argolis. Even in their new home they were not safe from Athenian rancour. A force commanded by Nicias
Nicias
landed in 424 BC, and killed most of them. At the end of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
Lysander restored the scattered remnants of the old inhabitants to the island, [19][20] which was used by the Spartans as a base for operations against Athens
Athens
during the Corinthian War. Its greatness, however, was at an end. The part which it plays henceforward is insignificant. It would be a mistake to attribute the demise of Aegina
Aegina
solely to the development of the Athenian navy. It is probable that the power of Aegina
Aegina
had steadily declined during the twenty years after Salamis, and that it had declined absolutely, as well as relatively to that of Athens. Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which seems to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia. Aegina's medism in 491 is to be explained by its commercial relations with the Persian Empire. It was forced into patriotism in spite of itself, and the glory won by the battle of Salamis was paid for by the loss of its trade and the decay of its marine. The completeness of the ruin of so powerful a state is explained by the economic conditions of the island, the prosperity of which was based on slave-labour. It is impossible, indeed, to accept Aristotle's (cf. Athenaeus vi. 272) estimate of 470,000 as the number of the slave-population; it is clear, however, that the number must have been much greater than that of the free inhabitants. In this respect the history of Aegina
Aegina
does but anticipate the history of Greece
Greece
as a whole. The constitutional history of Aegina
Aegina
is unusually simple. So long as the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy. There is no trace of heroic monarchy and no tradition of a tyrannis. The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little support. Hellenistic period and Roman rule[edit] Aegina
Aegina
with the rest of Greece
Greece
became dominated successively by the Macedonians (322–229 BC), the Achaeans (229–211 BC), Aetolians (211/10 BC), Attalus of Pergamum (210–133 BC) and the Romans (after 133 BC).[3] A sign at the Archaeological Museum of Aegina is reported to say that a Jewish community is believed to have been established in Aegina
Aegina
"at the end of the second and during the third century AD" by Jews fleeing the barbarian invasions of the time in Greece.[21] However, the first phases of those invasions began in the 4th century. Local Christian tradition has it that a Christian community was established there in the 1st century, having as its bishop Crispus, the ruler of the Corinthian synagogue, who became a Christian,[22] and was baptised by Paul the Apostle.[23] There are written records of participation by later bishops of Aegina, Gabriel and Thomas, in the Council of Constantinople (869)
Council of Constantinople (869)
and the Council of Constantinople. The see was at first a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Corinth, but was later given the rank of archdiocese.[24][25] No longer a residential bishopric, Aegina
Aegina
is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[26] Byzantine period[edit]

Church of Theotokos

Aegina
Aegina
belonged to the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire after the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395. It remained Eastern Roman during the period of crisis of the 7th–8th centuries, when most of the Balkans
Balkans
and the Greek mainland were overrun by Slavic invasions. Indeed, according to the Chronicle of Monemvasia, the island served as a refuge for the Corinthians fleeing these incursions.[27] The island flourished during the early 9th century, as evidenced by church construction activity, but suffered greatly from Arab raids originating from Crete. Various hagiographies record a large-scale raid ca. 830, that resulted in the flight of much of the population to the Greek mainland. During that time, some of the population sought refuge in the island's hinterland, establishing the settlement of Palaia Chora.[27][28] According to the 12th-century bishop of Athens, Michael Choniates, by his time the island had become a base for pirates.[27] This is corroborated by Benedict of Peterborough's graphic account of Greece, as it was in 1191; he states that many of the islands were uninhabited for fear of pirates and that Aegina, along with Salamis and Makronisos, were their strongholds. Frankish rule after 1204[edit] Further information: Frankokratia After the dissolution and partition of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
in 1204, Aegina
Aegina
was accorded to the Republic of Venice. In the event, it became controlled by the Duchy of Athens. The Catalan Company seized control of Athens, and with it Aegina, in 1317, and in 1425 the island became controlled by the Venetians,[29] when Alioto Caopena, at that time ruler of Aegina, placed himself by treaty under the Republic's protection to escape the danger of a Turkish raid. The island must then have been fruitful, for one of the conditions by which Venice accorded him protection was that he should supply grain to Venetian colonies. He agreed to surrender the island to Venice if his family became extinct. Antonio II Acciaioli
Antonio II Acciaioli
opposed the treaty for one of his adopted daughters had married the future lord of Aegina, Antonello Caopena. Venetians in Aegina
Aegina
(1451–1537)[edit]

The Venetian era Markellos tower

In 1451, Aegina
Aegina
became Venetian. The islanders welcomed Venetian rule; the claims of Antonello's uncle Arnà, who had lands in Argolis, were satisfied by a pension. A Venetian governor (rettore) was appointed, who was dependent on the authorities of Nauplia. After Arnà's death, his son Alioto renewed his claim to the island but was told that the republic was resolved to keep it. He and his family were pensioned and one of them aided in the defence of Aegina
Aegina
against the Turks in 1537, was captured with his family, and died in a Turkish dungeon. In 1463 the Turco-Venetian war began, which was destined to cost the Venetians Negroponte (Euboea), the island of Lemnos, most of the Cyclades
Cyclades
islands, Scudra and their colonies in the Morea. Peace was concluded in 1479. Venice still retained Aegina, Lepanto (Naupactus), Nauplia, Monemvasia, Modon, Navarino, Coron, and the islands Crete, Mykonos
Mykonos
and Tinos. Aegina
Aegina
remained subject to Nauplia. Administration[edit] Aegina
Aegina
obtained money for its defences by reluctantly sacrificing its cherished relic, the head of St. George, which had been carried there from Livadia by the Catalans. In 1462, the Venetian Senate ordered the relic to be removed to St. Giorgio Maggiore in Venice and on 12 November, it was transported from Aegina
Aegina
by Vettore Cappello, the famous Venetian commander. In return, the Senate gave the Aeginetes 100 ducats apiece towards fortifying the island. In 1519, the government was reformed. The system of having two rectors was found to result in frequent quarrels and the republic thenceforth sent out a single official styled Bailie and Captain, assisted by two councillors, who performed the duties of camerlengo by turns. The Bailie's authority extended over the rector of Aegina, whereas Kastri[disambiguation needed] (opposite the island Hydra) was granted to two families, the Palaiologoi
Palaiologoi
and the Alberti. Society at Nauplia
Nauplia
was divided into three classes: nobles, citizens and plebeians, and it was customary for nobles alone to possess the much-coveted local offices, such as the judge of the inferior court and inspector of weights and measures. The populace now demanded its share and the home government ordered that at least one of the three inspectors should be a non-noble. Aegina
Aegina
had always been exposed to the raids of corsairs and had oppressive governors during these last 30 years of Venetian rule. Venetian nobles were not willing to go to this island. In 1533, three rectors of Aegina
Aegina
were punished for their acts of injustice and there is a graphic account of the reception given by the Aeginetans to the captain of Nauplia, who came to command an enquiry into the administration of these delinquents (vid. inscription over the entrance of St. George the Catholic in Paliachora). The rectors had spurned their ancient right to elect an islander to keep one key of the money-chest. They had also threatened to leave the island en masse with the commissioner, unless the captain avenged their wrongs. To spare the economy of the community, it was ordered that appeals from the governor's decision should be made on Crete, instead of in Venice. The republic was to pay a bakshish to the Turkish governor of the Morea
Morea
and to the voivode who was stationed at the frontier of Thermisi (opposite Hydra). The fortifications too, were allowed to become decrepit and were inadequately guarded. 16th century[edit]

The ruins of Palaiochora. Walls, houses, and castle have been desroyed, only the chapels were restored.

After the end of the Duchy of Athens
Athens
and the principality of Achaia, the only Latin possessions left on the mainland of Greece
Greece
were the papal city of Monemvasia, the fortress of Vonitsa, the Messenian stations Coron and Modon, Lepanto, Pteleon, Navarino, and the castles of Argos
Argos
and Nauplia, to which the island of Aegina
Aegina
was subordinate. In 1502/03, the new peace treaty left Venice with nothing but Cephalonia, Monemvasia
Monemvasia
and Nauplia, with their appurtenances in the Morea. And against the sack of Megara, it had to endure the temporary capture of the castle of Aegina
Aegina
by Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
and the abduction of 2000 inhabitants. This treaty was renewed in 1513 and 1521. All supplies of grain from Nauplia
Nauplia
and Monemvasia
Monemvasia
had to be imported from Turkish possessions, while corsairs rendered dangerous all traffic by sea. In 1537, sultan Suleiman declared war upon Venice and his admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
devastated much of the Ionian Islands, and in October invaded the island of Aegina. On the fourth day Palaiochora was captured, but the Latin church of St George was spared. Hayreddin Barbarossa had the adult male population massacred and took away 6000 surviving women and children as slaves. Then Barbarossa sailed to Naxos, whence he carried off an immense booty, compelling the Duke of Naxos
Naxos
to purchase his further independence by paying a tribute of 5000 ducats. With the peace of 1540, Venice ceded Nauplia
Nauplia
and Monemvasia. For nearly 150 years afterwards, Venice ruled no part of the mainland of Greece
Greece
except Parga
Parga
and Butrinto (subordinate politically to the Ionian Islands), but it still retained its insular dominions Cyprus, Crete, Tenos
Tenos
and six Ionian islands. First Ottoman period (1540–1687)[edit] The island was attacked and left desolate by Francesco Morosini
Francesco Morosini
during the Cretan War (1654). Second Venetian period (1687–1715)[edit]

Aegina
Aegina
in 1845, by Carl Rottmann.

In 1684, the beginning of the Morean War
Morean War
between Venice and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
resulted in the temporary reconquest of a large part of the country by the Republic. In 1687 the Venetian army arrived in Piraeus
Piraeus
and captured Attica. The number of the Athenians
Athenians
at that time exceeded 6000, the Albanians from the villages of Attica
Attica
excluded, whilst in 1674 the population of Aegina
Aegina
did not seem to exceed 3000 inhabitants, ⅔ of which were women. The Aeginetans had been reduced to poverty to pay their taxes. The most significant plague epidemic began in Attica
Attica
during 1688, an occasion that caused the massive migration of Athenians
Athenians
toward the south; most of them settled in Aegina. In 1693 Morosini resumed command, but his only acts were to refortify the castle of Aegina, which he had demolished during the Cretan war in 1655, the cost of upkeep being paid as long as the war lasted by the Athenians, and to place it and Salamis under Malipiero as Governor. This caused the Athenians
Athenians
to send him a request for the renewal of Venetian protection and an offer of an annual tribute. He died in 1694 and Zeno was appointed at his place. In 1699, thanks to English mediation, the war ended with the peace of Karlowitz by which Venice retained possession of the 7 Ionian islands as well as Butrinto and Parga, the Morea, Spinalonga
Spinalonga
and Suda, Tenos, Santa Maura
Santa Maura
and Aegina
Aegina
and ceased to pay a tribute for Zante, but which restored Lepanto to the Ottoman sultan. Cerigo
Cerigo
and Aegina
Aegina
were united administratively since the peace with Morea, which not only paid all the expenses of administration but furnished a substantial balance for the naval defence of Venice, in which it was directly interested. Second Ottoman period (1715–1821)[edit] During the early part of the Ottoman–Venetian War of 1714–1718 the Ottoman Fleet commanded by Canum Hoca captured Aegina. Ottomans rule in Aegina
Aegina
and the Morea
Morea
was resumed and confirmed by the Treaty of Passarowitz, and they retained control of the island with the exception of a brief Russian occupation Orlov Revolt
Orlov Revolt
(early 1770s), until the beginning of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
in 1821. Greek Revolution[edit] During the Greek War of Independence, Aegina
Aegina
became an administrative centre for the Greek revolutionary authorities. Ioannis Kapodistrias was briefly established here. Landmarks[edit]

Panorama of Aegina's port.

View of the port.

The cathedral of Saint Nectarios of Aegina.

Traditional street at the town

Aegina
Aegina
town centre.

A bust of Kapodistrias

Temple of Aphaea, dedicated to its namesake, a goddess who was later associated with Athena; the temple was part of a pre-Christian, equilateral holy triangle of temples including the Athenian Parthenon and the temple of Poseidon
Poseidon
at Sounion. Monastery of Agios Nectarios, dedicated to Nectarios of Aegina, a recent saint of the Greek Orthodox Church. Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
(1776–1831), the first administrator of free modern Greece, had a large building constructed; intended as a barracks, it was used subsequently as a museum, a library and a school. The museum was the first institution of its kind in Greece, but the collection was transferred to Athens
Athens
in 1834. A statue in the principal square commemorates him. Temple of Zeus
Zeus
Hellanios, near the village of Pachia Rachi, is a 13th-century Byzantine church, built on the ruins of the ancient temple to Zeus
Zeus
Hellanios, built in the 4th century BC. The staircase leading up to the church, some of the original walls, and loose stones from the earlier temple remain.

Culture[edit] Mythology[edit] In Greek mythology, Aegina
Aegina
was a daughter of the river god Asopus and the nymph Metope. She bore at least two children: Menoetius by Actor, and Aeacus
Aeacus
by the god Zeus. When Zeus
Zeus
abducted Aegina, he took her to Oenone, an island close to Attica. Here, Aegina
Aegina
gave birth to Aeacus, who would later become king of Oenone; thenceforth, the island's name was Aegina. Aegina
Aegina
was the gathering place of Myrmidons; in Aegina
Aegina
they gathered and trained. Zeus
Zeus
needed an elite army and at first thought that Aegina, which at the time did not have any villagers, was a good place. So he changed some ants (Greek: Μυρμύγκια, Myrmigia) into warriors who had 6 hands and wore black armour. Later, the Myrmidons, commanded by Achilles, were known as the most fearsome fighting unit in Greece. Famous Aeginetans[edit]

Aeacus, the first king of Aegina
Aegina
according to mythology, in whose honour the Aeacea were celebrated Smilis
Smilis
(6th century BC), sculptor Onatas
Onatas
(5th century BC), sculptor Ptolichus (5th century BC), sculptor Philiscus of Aegina (4th century BC), Cynic philosopher Cosmas II Atticus (12th century), Patriarch of Constantinople Paul of Aegina
Paul of Aegina
(7th century), medical scholar and physician Saint Athanasia of Aegina (9th century), abbess and saint Nectarios of Aegina
Nectarios of Aegina
(1846–1920), bishop and saint Aristeidis Moraitinis (aviator)

The influential Leoussi family originated on the isle of Aigina; their ancestry can be traced as far back as the 15th century. Historical population[edit]

Year Town population Municipal/Island population

1981 6,730 11,127

1991 6,373 11,639

2001 7,410 13,552

2011 7,253 13,056

See also[edit]

Flag of Aegina

References[edit]

^ https://weloveaegina.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/DSC_7479.jpg ^ a b c "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ a b c d e f g  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aegina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 251–254.  This cites:

Herodotus
Herodotus
loc cit. Thucydides i. 105, 108, ii. 27, iv. 56, 57. For the criticism of Herodotus's account of the relations of Athend and Aegina, Wilamowitz, Aristoteles und Athen, ii. 280–288, is indispensable. See also Macan, Herodotus
Herodotus
iv.-vi., ii. 102–120.

^ Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.  (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.  ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
v. 83, viii.46; Pausanias 2.29.9 ^ Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976 ^ "Collection search: You searched for Made on Crete, or by immigrant Cretan craftsmen on Aegina". britishmuseum.org.  ^ A. J. Evans, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xiii. p. 195[when?] ^ British Museum
British Museum
Catalogue 11 – Attica
Attica
Megaris
Megaris
Aegina, 700 – 550 BC, plate XXIII. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Cydonia, Modern Antiquarian, January 23, 2008 ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
ii. 178 ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
vii. 147 ^ Herod. vii. 145 ^ Herod. v. 89 ^ Herod. vii. 144; Ath. Pol. r2. 7 ^ Eusebius, Houston Chronicle. Can. p. 337 ^ Xenophon. Hellenica, 2.2.9: "Meantime Lysander, upon reaching Aegina, restored the state to the Aeginetans, gathering together as many of them as he could, and he did the same thing for the Melians also and for all the others who had been deprived of their native states." ^ Plutarch. Life of Lysander, 14.3: "But there were other measures of Lysander
Lysander
upon which all the Greeks looked with pleasure, when, for instance, the Aeginetans, after a long time, received back their own city, and when the Melians and Scionaeans were restored to their homes by him, after the Athenians
Athenians
had been driven out and had delivered back the cities." ^ Mosaic floor of a Jewish synagogue (Sign). Aegina, Greece: Archaeological Museum of Aegina.  ^ Acts of the Apostles 18:8 ^ 1 Corinthians 1:14 ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 226–227 ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, pp. 430–431 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838 ^ a b c Kazhdan (1991), p. 40 ^ Christides (1981), pp. 87–89 ^ Kazhdan (1991), pp. 40–41

Sources[edit]

Welter Gabriel, Aigina, Archäol. Inst. d. Deutschen Reiches, Berlin 1938. Christides, Vassilios (1981), "The Raids of the Moslems of Crete
Crete
in the Aegean Sea: Piracy
Piracy
and Conquest", Byzantion, 51: 76–111  Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.  Miller William, Essays on the Latin orient, Rome 1921 (reprint: Amsterdam 1964).[1] Miller William, "Η Παληαχώρα της Αιγίνης. Ηρημωμένη ελληνική πόλις", Νέος Ελληνομνήμων Κ΄ (1926), p. 363–365.[2] Rubio y Lluch A., "Συμβολαί εις την ιστορίαν των Καταλωνίων εν Ελλάδι", Δελτίον της Ιστορικής και Εθνολογικής Εταιρείας της Ελλάδος Β΄(1883), p. 458–466.[3] Lambros Spyridon ed., Έγγραφα αναφερόμενα εις την μεσαιωνικήν ιστορίαν των Αθηνών, Athens
Athens
1906. D' Olwer Nic., Les seigneurs Catalans d' Egine, τόμος εις μνήμην του Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου, Athens
Athens
1935. Koulikourdi Georgia, Αίγινα, 2 vols., Athens
Athens
1990. Moutsopoulos Nikolaos, Η Παλιαχώρα της Αιγίνης. Ιστορική και μορφολογική εξέτασις των μνημείων, Athens
Athens
1962. Nikoloudis Nikolaos [4], "Η Αίγινα κατά τον Μεσαίωνα και την Τουρκοκρατία", Βυζαντινός Δόμος 7(1993–94), pp:13–21. Pennas Charalambos [5], The Byzantine Aegina[6], Athens
Athens
2004. John N. Koumanoudes [7][permanent dead link], Ανεμομυλικά ΙΙ, Αγκίστρι, Αίγινα, Αστυπάλαια, Λήμνος, Σαλαμίνα, Σπέτσες, Σύμη, Χίος και Ψαρά[8], Τεχνικό Επιμελητήριο Ελλάδας, 2010.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aegina.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aegina.

The feud between Athens
Athens
and Aegina The Municipality of Aegina
Aegina
– official website Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Aigina, Greece" Map of Ancient Greece
Greece
(includes Aegina
Aegina
Island) AeginaGreece.com Tourist guide

v t e

Argo-Saronic Islands

Major islands

Salamina Aegina Hydra Poros Spetses Agistri Dokos

Minor islands

Psyttaleia Leros
Leros
Salaminos Revythoussa Moni Aiginas Spetsopoula Romvi Plateia Agios Georgios Patroklos Fleves Agios Georgios Salaminos Ypsili Diaporion Ypsili Argolidos Agios Thomas Diaporion Agios Ioannis Diaporion Plateia Aiginis Laousses Islets Kyra Aiginis Trikeri Hydras Alexandros Hydras Stavronisi Hydras Velopoula Falkonera Psili

v t e

Administrative division of the Attica
Attica
Region

Area 3,808 km2 (1,470 sq mi) Population 3,827,624 (as of 2011) Municipalities 66 (since 2011) Capital Athens

Regional unit of Central Athens

Athens Dafni-Ymittos Filadelfeia-Chalkidona Galatsi Ilioupoli Kaisariani Vyronas Zografou

Regional unit of North Athens

Agia Paraskevi Chalandri Filothei-Psychiko Irakleio Kifissia Lykovrysi-Pefki Marousi Metamorfosi Nea Ionia Papagou-Cholargos Penteli Vrilissia

Regional unit of West Athens

Agia Varvara Agioi Anargyroi-Kamatero Aigaleo Chaidari Ilion Peristeri Petroupoli

Regional unit of South Athens

Agios Dimitrios Alimos Elliniko-Argyroupoli Glyfada Kallithea Moschato-Tavros Nea Smyrni Palaio Faliro

Regional unit of Piraeus

Keratsini-Drapetsona Korydallos Nikaia-Agios Ioannis Rentis Perama Piraeus

Regional unit of East Attica

Acharnes Dionysos Kropia Lavreotiki Marathon Markopoulo Oropos Paiania Pallini Rafina-Pikermi Saronikos Spata-Artemida Vari-Voula-Vouliagmeni

Regional unit of West Attica

Aspropyrgos Eleusis Fyli Mandra-Eidyllia Megara

Regional unit of Islands

Aegina Agistri Hydra Kythira Poros Salamis Spetses Troizinia-Methana

Regional governor Rena Dourou
Rena Dourou
(since 2014) Decentralized Administration Attica

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Aegina

Municipal unit of Aegina

Aegina Kypseli Mesagros Perdika Vathy

v t e

Aegean Sea

General

Countries

 Greece  Turkey

Other

Aegean civilizations Aegean dispute Aegean Islands

Aegean Islands

Cyclades

Amorgos Anafi Andros Antimilos Antiparos Delos Despotiko Donousa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kardiotissa Kea Keros Kimolos Koufonisia Kythnos Milos Mykonos Naxos Paros Polyaigos Rineia Santorini Schoinoussa Serifopoula Serifos Sifnos Sikinos Syros Therasia Tinos Vous

Dodecanese

Agathonisi Arkoi Armathia Alimia Astakida Astypalaia Çatalada Chamili Farmakonisi Gaidaros Gyali Halki Imia/Kardak Kalolimnos Kalymnos Kandelioussa Kara Ada Karpathos Kasos Kinaros Kos Küçük Tavşan Adası Leipsoi
Leipsoi
(Lipsi) Leros Levitha
Levitha
(Lebynthos) Nimos Nisyros Pacheia Patmos Platy Pserimos Rhodes Salih Ada Saria Symi Syrna Telendos Tilos Zaforas

North Aegean

Agios Efstratios Agios Minas Ammouliani Ayvalık Islands Büyük Ada Chios Chryse Cunda Foça Islands Fournoi Korseon Icaria Imbros Koukonesi Lemnos Lesbos Metalik Ada Nisiopi Oinousses Pasas Psara Samiopoula Samos Samothrace Tenedos Thasos Thymaina Uzunada Zourafa

Saronic

Aegina Agios Georgios Agistri Dokos Hydra Poros Psyttaleia Salamis Spetses

Sporades

Adelfoi Islets Agios Georgios Skopelou Alonnisos Argos
Argos
Skiathou Dasia Erinia Gioura Grammeza Kyra Panagia Lekhoussa Peristera Piperi Psathoura Repi Sarakino Skandili Skantzoura Skiathos Skopelos Skyropoula Skyros Tsoungria Valaxa

Cretan

Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Agioi Apostoloi Agioi Pantes Agioi Theodoroi Agios Nikolaos Anavatis Arnaouti Aspros Volakas Avgo Crete Daskaleia Dia Diapori Dionysades Elasa Ftena Trachylia Glaronisi Gramvousa Grandes Kalydon (Spinalonga) Karavi Karga Katergo Kavallos Kefali Kolokythas Koursaroi Kyriamadi Lazaretta Leon Mavros Mavros
Mavros
Volakas Megatzedes Mochlos Nikolos Palaiosouda Peristeri Peristerovrachoi Petalida Petalouda Pontikaki Pontikonisi Praso (Prasonisi) Prosfora Pseira Sideros Souda Valenti Vryonisi

Other

Antikythera Euboea Kythira Makronisos

v t e

Former provinces of Greece

Grouped by region and prefecture

Attica

East and West Attica

Attica

Piraeus

Aegina Hydra Kythira Piraeus Troizinia

West Attica

Megaris

Central Greece

Boeotia

Livadeia Thebes

Euboea

Chalcis Istiaia Karystia

Phocis

Dorida Parnassida

Phthiotis

Domokos Locris Phthiotis

Central Macedonia

Chalkidiki

Arnaia Chalkidiki

Imathia

Imathia Naousa

Kilkis

Kilkis Paionia

Pella

Almopia Edessa Giannitsa

Serres

Fyllida Serres Sintiki Visaltia

Thessaloniki

Lagkadas Thessaloniki

Crete

Chania

Apokoronas Kissamos Kydonia Selino Sfakia

Heraklion

Kainourgio Malevizi Monofatsi Pediada Pyrgiotissa Temenos Viannos

Lasithi

Ierapetra Lasithi Mirampello Siteia

Rethymno

Agios Vasileios Amari Mylopotamos Rethymno

East Macedonia and Thrace

Evros

Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli

Kavala

Kavala Nestos Pangaio Thasos

Rhodope

Komotini Sapes

Epirus

Ioannina

Dodoni Konitsa Metsovo Pogoni

Thesprotia

Filiates Margariti Souli Thyamida

Ionian Islands

Corfu

Corfu Paxoi

Kefallinia

Ithaca Kranaia Pali Sami

North Aegean

Lesbos

Lemnos Mithymna Mytilene Plomari

Samos

Ikaria Samos

Peloponnese

Arcadia

Gortynia Kynouria Mantineia Megalopoli

Argolis

Argos Ermionida Nafplia

Laconia

Epidavros Limira Gytheio Lacedaemon Oitylo

Messenia

Kalamai Messini Pylia Trifylia

South Aegean

Cyclades

Andros Kea Milos Naxos Paros Syros Thira Tinos

Dodecanese

Kalymnos Karpathos Kos Rhodes

Thessaly

Larissa

Agia Elassona Farsala Larissa Tyrnavos

Magnesia

Almyros Skopelos Volos

Trikala

Kalampaka Trikala

West Greece

Achaea

Aigialeia Kalavryta Patras

Aetolia-Acarnania

Missolonghi Nafpaktia Trichonida Valtos Vonitsa-Xiromero

Elis

Elis Olympia

West Macedonia

Kozani

Eordaia Kozani Voio

Note: not all prefectures were subdivided into provinces.

Authority control

.