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Advent
Advent
is a season observed in many Christian
Christian
churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus
Jesus
at Christmas
Christmas
as well as the return of Jesus
Jesus
at the second coming. The term is a version of the Latin word meaning "coming". The term "Advent" is also used in Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
for the 40-day Nativity Fast, which has practices different from those in the West.[3] Latin adventus is the translation of the Greek word parousia, commonly used to refer to the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Christ. For Christians, the season of Advent
Advent
anticipates the coming of Christ from three different perspectives. "Since the time of Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(d.1153) Christians have spoken of the three comings of Christ: in the flesh in Bethlehem, in our hearts daily, and in glory at the end of time."[4] The season offers the opportunity to share in the ancient longing for the coming of the Messiah, and to be alert for his Second Coming. Advent
Advent
is the beginning of the Western liturgical year and commences on the fourth Sunday before Christmas
Christmas
(sometimes known as Advent Sunday), the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day
St. Andrew's Day
(30 November), in the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Catholic Church, the Western Rite of the Orthodox Church, and in the Anglican, Lutheran, Moravian, Presbyterian, and Methodist calendars.[5] In the Ambrosian Rite
Ambrosian Rite
and the Mozarabic Rite of the Catholic Church, Advent
Advent
begins on the sixth Sunday before Christmas, the Sunday after St. Martin's Day
St. Martin's Day
(11 November).[6] Practices associated with Advent
Advent
include keeping an Advent
Advent
calendar, lighting an Advent
Advent
wreath, praying an Advent
Advent
daily devotional,[1] erecting a Chrismon tree,[1] lighting a Christingle,[2] as well as other ways of preparing for Christmas, such as setting up Christmas decorations,[7][8][9] a custom that is sometimes done liturgically through a hanging of the greens ceremony.[1][10] The equivalent of Advent
Advent
in Eastern Christianity
Christianity
is called the Nativity Fast, but it differs in length and observances, and does not begin the liturgical church year as it does in the West. The Eastern Nativity Fast
Nativity Fast
does not use the equivalent parousia in its preparatory services.[11]

Contents

1 History 2 Traditions

2.1 Liturgical colours 2.2 Music 2.3 Fasting 2.4 Local rituals

3 Advent
Advent
wreath 4 Four Sundays 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External links 8 Further reading

History[edit] It is unknown when the period of preparation for Christmas
Christmas
that is now called Advent
Advent
first began – it was certainly in existence from about 480 – and the novelty introduced by the Council of Tours of 567 was to order monks to fast every day in the month of December until Christmas.[12] Some have even said it goes back to the time of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
or that it was founded by Saint Peter.[13] This has led to the conclusion that it is "impossible to claim with confidence a credible explanation of the origin of Advent".[14] Associated with Advent
Advent
was a period of fasting, known also as the Nativity Fast
Nativity Fast
or the Fast of December.[15]

Representation of Saint Perpetuus

According to some sources, the celebration of Advent
Advent
began in the fifth century when the Bishop Perpetuus directed that starting with the feast of St. Martin, 11 November, until Christmas, one fasts three times per week; this is why Advent
Advent
is also named Lent
Lent
of St. Martin. According to historians, this practice remained limited to the diocese of Tours until the sixth century.[16] But the Macon council held in 581 adopted the practice in Tours and soon all France observed three days of fasting a week from the feast of Saint Martin until Christmas. The most devout worshipers in some countries exceeded the requirements adopted by the Council of Macon, and fasted every day of Advent. The homilies of Gregory the Great in the late sixth century showed four weeks to the liturgical season of Advent, but without the observance of a fast.[17] However, under Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in the ninth century, writings claim that the fast was still widely observed. In the thirteenth century, the fast of Advent
Advent
was not commonly practised although, according to Durand of Mende, fasting was still generally observed. As quoted in the bull of canonisation of St. Louis, the zeal with which he observed this fast was no longer a custom observed by Christians of great piety. It was then limited to the period from Saint Andrew until Christmas
Christmas
Day, since the solemnity of this apostle was more universal than that of St. Martin. When Pope Urban V ascended the papal seat in 1362, he simply forced people in his court to abstinence but there was no question of fasting. It was then customary in Rome
Rome
to observe five weeks of Advent
Advent
before Christmas. This is particularly discussed in the Sacramentary of St. Gregory.[citation needed] Ambrosiana or Milan Liturgies have six.[citation needed] The Greeks show no more real consistency; Advent was an optional fasting that some begin on 15 November, while others begin on 6 December or only a few days before Christmas.[citation needed] The Catholic Church, for centuries, has begun the season of Advent
Advent
on the fourth Sunday before Christmas
Christmas
and neither fast nor abstinence are observed. No canonical penalty has ever been attached to the neglect of the practices of Advent. The Church has at times declined to administer the sacrament of matrimony during Advent, because of the joy connected with the celebration. The liturgy of Advent
Advent
remained unchanged until the Second Vatican Council, in 1963, introduced minor changes, differentiating the spirit of Lent
Lent
from that of Advent, emphasising Advent
Advent
as a season of hope for Christ's coming now as a promise of his Second Coming.[18] Traditions[edit]

Rorate mass in Prague Cathedral, Czech Republic

Liturgical year

Western

Advent Christmastide Epiphanytide Ordinary Time Pre- Lent
Lent
/ Shrovetide Lent Holy Week Paschal Triduum Eastertide Pentecost Ordinary Time
Ordinary Time
/ Kingdomtide

Eastern

Nativity Fast Christmastide Ordinary Time Pre-Great Lent Great Lent Eastertide Apostles' Fast Ordinary Time

East Syriac Rite

Weeks of Annunciation Weeks of Epiphany Weeks of Great Fast Weeks of Resurrection Slihe or Weeks of Apostles Qaita or Weeks of Summer Eliya-Sliba-Muse or Weeks of Eliyah, Cross and Muse Qudas Edta or Weeks of Dedication of Church

v t e

The theme of readings and teachings during Advent
Advent
is often the preparation for the Second Coming, while also commemorating the First Coming of Christ at Christmas. The first clear references in the Western Church to Advent
Advent
occur in the Gelasian Sacramentary, which provides Advent
Advent
Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for the five Sundays preceding Christmas
Christmas
and for the corresponding Wednesdays and Fridays.[19] While the Sunday readings relate to the first coming of Jesus
Jesus
Christ as saviour as well as to his second coming as judge, traditions vary in the relative importance of penitence and expectation during the weeks in Advent. Liturgical colours[edit]

Censing
Censing
during solemn Advent
Advent
vespers

See also: Liturgical colours Since approximately the 13th century, the usual liturgical colour in Western Christianity
Christianity
for Advent
Advent
has been violet; Pope Innocent III declared black to be the proper colour for Advent, though Durandus of Saint-Pourçain claims violet has preference over black.[20] The violet or purple colour is often used for hangings around the church, the vestments of the clergy, and often also the tabernacle. In some Christian
Christian
denominations, blue, a colour representing hope, is an alternative liturgical colour for Advent, a custom traced to the usage of the Church of Sweden
Church of Sweden
(Lutheran) and the medieval Sarum Rite
Sarum Rite
in England. In addition, the colour blue is also used in the Mozarabic Rite (Catholic and Anglican), which dates from the 8th century. This colour is often referred to as "Sarum blue". The Lutheran Book of Worship
Lutheran Book of Worship
lists blue as the preferred colour for Advent
Advent
while the Methodist Book of Worship and the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Book of Common Worship identify purple or blue as appropriate for Advent. There has been an increasing trend in Protestant churches to supplant purple with blue during Advent
Advent
as it is a hopeful season of preparation that anticipates both Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and the consummation of history in the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[21] Proponents of this new liturgical trend argue that purple is traditionally associated with solemnity and somberness, which is fitting to the repentant character of Lent. The Roman Catholic Church retains the traditional violet.[22] Blue is not generally used in Latin Catholicism,[23] and where it does regionally, it has nothing to do with Advent
Advent
specifically, but with veneration of the Blessed Virgin.[24] However, on some occasions that are heavily associated with Advent, such as the Rorate Mass
Rorate Mass
(but not on Sundays), white is used.[citation needed] On the third Sunday of Advent, Gaudete Sunday, rose may be used instead, referencing the rose used on Laetare Sunday, the fourth Sunday of Lent.[25] A rose coloured candle in Western Christianity
Christianity
is referenced as a sign of joy (Gaudete) lit on the 3rd Sunday of Advent.[26] During the Nativity Fast, red is used by Eastern Christianity, although gold is an alternative colour.[27] Music[edit]

Medieval manuscript of Gregorian chant setting of "Rorate Coeli"

Many churches also hold special musical events, such as Nine Lessons and Carols and singing of Handel's Messiah oratorio. Also, the Advent Prose, an antiphonal plainsong, may be sung. The "Late Advent Weekdays", 17–24 December, mark the singing of the Great Advent
Advent
'O antiphons'.[28] These are the daily antiphons for the Magnificat
Magnificat
at Vespers, or Evening Prayer (in the Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches) and Evensong in Anglican
Anglican
churches, and mark the forthcoming birth of the Messiah. They form the basis for each verse of the popular Advent
Advent
hymn, "O come, O come, Emmanuel". German songs for Advent
Advent
include "Es kommt ein Schiff, geladen" from the 15th century and "O Heiland, reiß die Himmel auf", published in 1622. Johann Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas for Advent
Advent
in Weimar, from Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, to Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147a, but only one more in Leipzig where he worked for the longest time, because there Advent
Advent
was a silent time which allowed cantata music only on the first of the four Sundays. During Advent, the Gloria of the Mass is omitted, so that the return of the angels' song at Christmas
Christmas
has an effect of novelty.[29] Mass compositions written especially for Lent, such as Michael Haydn's Missa tempore Quadragesimae, in D minor for choir and organ, have no Gloria and so are appropriate for use in Advent. Fasting[edit] Bishop Perpetuus of Tours, who died in 490, ordered fasting three days a week from the day after Saint Martin's Day (11 November). In the 6th century, local councils enjoined fasting on all days except Saturdays and Sundays from Saint Martin's Day to Epiphany (the feast of baptism), a period of 56 days, but of 40 days fasting, like the fast of Lent. It was therefore called Quadragesima Sancti Martini (Saint Martin's Lent).[6] This period of fasting was later shortened and called "Advent" by the Church.[30] In the Anglican
Anglican
and Lutheran churches this fasting rule was later relaxed. The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
later abolished the precept of fasting (at an unknown date at the latest in 1917), later, but kept Advent
Advent
as a season of penitence. In addition to fasting, dancing and similar festivities were forbidden in these traditions. On Rose Sunday, relaxation of the fast was permitted. Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
churches still hold the tradition of fasting for 40 days before Christmas. Local rituals[edit] In England, especially in the northern counties, there was a custom (now extinct) for poor women to carry around the " Advent
Advent
images", two dolls dressed to represent Jesus
Jesus
and the Blessed Virgin
Blessed Virgin
Mary. A halfpenny coin was expected from every one to whom these were exhibited and bad luck was thought to menace the household not visited by the doll-bearers before Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
at the latest.[31] In Normandy, farmers employed children under twelve to run through the fields and orchards armed with torches, setting fire to bundles of straw, and thus it was believed driving out such vermin as were likely to damage the crops.[32] In Italy, among other Advent
Advent
celebrations is the entry into Rome
Rome
in the last days of Advent
Advent
of the Calabrian pifferari, or bagpipe players, who play before the shrines of Mary, the mother of Jesus: in Italian tradition, the shepherds played these pipes when they came to the manger at Bethlehem
Bethlehem
to pay homage to the infant Jesus.[33] In recent times the most common observance of Advent
Advent
outside church circles has been the keeping of an advent calendar or advent candle, with one door being opened in the calendar, or one section of the candle being burned, on each day in December leading up to Christmas Eve. In many countries, the first day of Advent
Advent
often heralds the start of the Christmas
Christmas
season, with many people opting to erect their Christmas
Christmas
trees and Christmas
Christmas
decorations on or immediately before Advent
Advent
Sunday.[9] Since 2011, an Advent
Advent
labyrinth consisting of 2500 tealights has been formed for the third Saturday of Advent
Advent
in Frankfurt-Bornheim.[34][35] Advent
Advent
wreath[edit] See also: Advent
Advent
wreath

Advent wreath
Advent wreath
with three violet candles surrounding the central Christ Candle

Giant Advent wreath
Advent wreath
in Kaufbeuren
Kaufbeuren
(Bavaria, Germany)

The concept of the Advent wreath
Advent wreath
originated among German Lutherans in the 16th Century.[36] However, it was not until three centuries later that the modern Advent wreath
Advent wreath
took shape.[37] The modern Advent wreath, with its candles representing the Sundays of Advent, originated from an 1839 initiative by Johann Hinrich Wichern, a Protestant pastor in Germany and a pioneer in urban mission work among the poor. In view of the impatience of the children he taught as they awaited Christmas, he made a ring of wood, with nineteen small red tapers and four large white candles. Every morning a small candle was lit, and every Sunday a large candle. Custom has retained only the large candles.[38] The wreath crown is traditionally made of fir tree branches knotted with a red ribbon and decorated with pine cones, holly, laurel, and sometimes mistletoe. It is also an ancient symbol signifying several things; first of all, the crown symbolises victory, in addition to its round form evoking the sun and its return each year. The number four represents, in addition to the four weeks of Advent, the four seasons and the four cardinal virtues, and the green colour is a sign of life and hope. The fir tree is a symbol of strength and laurel a symbol of victory over sin and suffering. The latter two, with the holly, do not lose their leaves, and thus represent the eternity of God. The flames of candles are the representation of the Christmas
Christmas
light approaching and bringing hope and peace, as well as the symbol of the struggle against darkness. For Christians, this crown is also the symbol of Christ the King, the holly recalling the crown of thorns resting on the head of Christ. The keeping of an Advent wreath
Advent wreath
is a common practice in homes or churches. The Advent wreath
Advent wreath
is traditionally placed on a table with four candles or, without candles, on the front door of the house as a welcome sign.[39] The Advent wreath
Advent wreath
is adorned with candles, usually three violet or purple and one pink, the pink candle being lit on the Third Sunday of Advent, called Gaudete Sunday
Gaudete Sunday
after the opening word, Gaudete, meaning "Rejoice", of the entrance antiphon at Mass. Some add a fifth candle (white), known as the Christ Candle, in the middle of the wreath, to be lit on Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
or Day.[40] The candles added to the wreath crown symbolise, in one interpretation, the great stages of salvation before the coming of the Messiah; the first is the symbol of the forgiveness granted to Adam and Eve, the second is the symbol of the faith of Abraham
Abraham
and of the patriarchs who believe in the gift of the Promised Land, the third is the symbol of the joy of David whose lineage does not stop and also testifies to his covenant with God, and the fourth and last candle is the symbol of the teaching of the prophets who announce a reign of justice and peace. Or they symbolise the four stages of human history; creation, the Incarnation, the redemption of sins, and the Last Judgment.[41] In Orthodox churches there are sometimes wreaths with six candles, in line with the six-week duration of the Nativity Fast/Advent. In Sweden, white candles, symbol of festivity and purity, are used in celebrating Saint Lucy's Day, 13 December, which always falls within Advent. Four Sundays[edit]

Celtic cross at Advent
Advent
in memorial garden, Bon Air Presbyterian Church, Virginia, USA

/

Advent
Advent
candles

In the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Catholic Church, the readings of Mass on the Sundays of Advent
Advent
have distinct themes:[40]

On the First Sunday, they look forward to the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Christ. On the Second Sunday, the Gospel reading recalls the preaching of John the Baptist, who came to "prepare the way of the Lord"; the other readings have associated themes. On the Third Sunday, the Gospel reading is again about John the Baptist, the other readings about the joy associated with the coming of the Saviour. On the Fourth Sunday, the Gospel reading is about the events involving Mary and Joseph that led directly to the birth of Jesus, while the other readings are related to these.

In another tradition:[42][43]

The readings for the first Sunday in Advent
Advent
relate to the Old Testament patriarchs who were Christ's ancestors, so some call the first Advent candle
Advent candle
that of hope. The readings for the second Sunday concern Christ's birth in a manger and other prophecies, so the candle may be called that of Bethlehem, the way, or of the prophets. The third Sunday, Gaudete Sunday
Gaudete Sunday
after the first word of the introit (Philippians 4:4), is celebrated with rose-coloured vestments similar to Laetare Sunday
Laetare Sunday
at the middle point of Lent. The readings relate to John the Baptist, and the rose candle may be called that of joy or of the shepherds. In the Episcopal Church USA, the collect "Stir up" (the first words of the collect) may be read during this week, although before the 1979 revision of the Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
it was sometimes read in the first Sunday of Advent. Even earlier, 'Stir-up Sunday' was once jocularly associated with the stirring of the Christmas mincement, begun before Advent. The phrase "stir up' occurs at the start of the collect for the last Sunday before Advent
Advent
in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.[44] The readings for the fourth Sunday relate to the annunciation of Christ's birth, so the candle may be known as the Angel's candle. The Magnificat
Magnificat
or Song of Mary may be featured. Where an Advent wreath
Advent wreath
includes a fifth candle, it is known as the Christ candle and is lit during the Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
service.

Other variants of the themes celebrated on each of the four Sundays include:

The Prophets' Candle, symbolizing hope; the Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Candle, symbolizing faith; the Shepherds' Candle, symbolizing joy; the Angel's Candle, symbolizing peace[40] Hope–Peace–Joy–Love[45] Faithulness–Hope–Joy–Love[46] Prophets–Angels–Shepherds–Magi[46] Faith–Prepare–Joy–Love[47]

See also[edit]

Dormition Fast Fasting
Fasting
and abstinence in the Roman Catholic Church Great Lent Mortification of the flesh in Christianity Nativity Fast Rogation days

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Kennedy, Rodney Wallace; Hatch, Derek C (27 August 2013). Baptists at Work in Worship. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 9781621898436. There are a variety or worship practices that enable a congregation to celebrate Advent: lighting an advent wreath, a hanging of the greens service, a Chrismon tree, and an Advent
Advent
devotional booklet.  ^ a b Geddes, Gordon; Griffiths, Jane (2001). Christianity. Heinemann. p. 99. ISBN 9780435306953. Many churches hold Christingle services during Advent. Children are given a Christingle.adaa  ^ perspective., Articles on moral / morality from Orthodox Christian. "Fr. Patrick Henry Reardon -- The Origins of Advent". orthodoxytoday.org. Retrieved 15 November 2017.  ^ Pfatteicher, Philip H., "Journey into the Heart of God: Living the Liturgical Year", Oxford University Press, 2013 ISBN 9780199997145 ^ Company, Our Sunday Visitor Catholic Publishing. "Our Sunday Visitor Catholic Publishing Company > My Faith > Church Seasons and Feasts > Advent". osv.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.  ^ a b Philip H. Pfatteicher, Journey into the Heart of God (Oxford University Press) 2013 ISBN 978-0-19999714-5 ^ The Lutheran Witness. 80. Concordia Publishing House. 1961.  ^ Michelin (10 October 2012). Germany Green Guide Michelin 2012-2013. Michelin. p. 73. ISBN 9782067182110. Advent
Advent
- The four weeks before Christmas
Christmas
are celebrated by counting down the days with an advent calendar, hanging up Christmas
Christmas
decorations and lightning an additional candle every Sunday on the four-candle advent wreath.  ^ a b Normark, Helena (1997). Modern Christmas. Graphic Garden. Christmas
Christmas
in Sweden starts with Advent, which is the await for the arrival of Jesus. The symbol for it is the Advent
Advent
candlestick with four candles in it, and we light one more candle for each of the four Sundays before Christmas. Most people start putting up the Christmas decorations on the first of Advent.  ^ Rice, Howard L.; Huffstutler, James C. (1 January 2001). Reformed Worship. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 197. ISBN 9780664501471. Another popular activity is the "Hanging of the Greens," a service in which the sanctuary is decorated for Christmas.  ^ "Four Reasons It's Not 'Advent.'". Kevin (Basil) Fritts. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Prosper Guéranger, The Liturgical Year: Advent
Advent
(Dublin, James Duffy, 1870), pp. 23–25 ^ James Luke Meagher, The Festal Year (republished by Ripol Klassik) ISBN 978-58-7709716-2, pp. 78–79 ^ J. Neil Alexander, "Advent" in Paul F. Bradshaw, New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship ( Hymns Ancient and Modern
Hymns Ancient and Modern
Ltd. 2013 ISBN 978-0-33404932-6), p. 2 ^ Bingham, Joseph (1726). The Antiquities of the Christian
Christian
Church. Robert Knaplock. p. 357. Retrieved 20 December 2014.  ^ Tours.), Gregory (st, bp of (1836). Histoire ecclésiastique des Francs, revue et collationnée et tr. par mm. J. Guadet et Taranne (in French).  ^ "Flashpress". infocatho.cef.fr. Retrieved 15 November 2017.  ^ Origines et raison de la liturgie catholique, 1842 - Published in La France pittoresque, 2012. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian
Christian
Church [Ed. F.L.Cross, 2nd ed., O.U.P., 1974]" p. 19. ^ Kellner, K. A. H. (1908). Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from Their Origin to the Present Day Kegan Paul Trench Trubner & Co Limited. p. 430. ^ "The Season of Advent
Advent
- Anticipation and Hope". CRI/Voice, Institute. Archived from the original on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2009.  ^ GIRM, 346 d. ^ GIRM, 346-347 ^ "Blue Liturgical Vestments". ewtn.com. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ GIRM, 346 f. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Gaudete Sunday". newadvent.org. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ "Liturgical Vestment Colors of the Orthodox Church". Aggreen. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.  ^ Saunders, William, "What are the 'O Antiphons'?", Catholic Education, retrieved 30 November 2009 . ^ Clement A. Miles, Christmas
Christmas
Customs and Traditions (Courier Corporation 1912), p. 91 ^ "Saint Martin's Lent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ Chambers, Robert, ed. (1864), The book of days: a miscellany of popular antiquities in connection with the calendar, 2, Philadelphia, pp. 724–5  ^ Hone, William (1832), "5 December: Advent
Advent
in Normandy", The Year Book of Daily Recreation and Information, London: Thomas Tegg, retrieved 2 May 2010 . ^ Miles, Clement A, Christmas
Christmas
customs and traditions, their history and significance, p. 112, ISBN 978-0-486-23354-3 . ^ "Terminanmeldung - Meditation und Gestaltung eines Adventslabyrinths (=Appointment - Meditation and design of an Advent
Advent
labyrinth)" (in German). Heilig Kreuz – Zentrum für christliche Meditation und Spiritualität. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.  ^ Stefanie Matulla (11 December 2016). "Das "Türchen" zum 3. Advent (=The "door" to the 3rd Advent)" (in German). Referat für Mädchen- und Frauenarbeit des Bistums Limburg (=Department for Girls' and Women's Work of the Diocese of Limburg). Retrieved 24 December 2016.  ^ Colbert, Teddy (1996). The Living Wreath. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 9780879057008. It is believed that the European advent wreath began as a Lutheran innovation in the sixteenth century.  ^ Mosteller, Angie (2010-05-15). Christmas, Celebrating the Christian History of Classic Symbols, Songs and Stories. Holiday Classics Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 098456490X. The first clear association with Advent
Advent
is generally attributed to German Lutherans in the 16th century. However, another three centuries would pass before the modern Advent wreath
Advent wreath
took shape. Specifically, a German theologian and educator by the name of Johann Hinrich Wichern
Johann Hinrich Wichern
(1808-1881) is credited with the idea of lighting an increasing number of candles as Christmas
Christmas
approached.  ^ " Johann Hinrich Wichern
Johann Hinrich Wichern
– Der Erfinder des Adventskranzes" (in German). medienwerkstatt-online.de/. Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ (in French)"How to prepare an Advent
Advent
Wreath" (in French). Retrieved 29 October 2017.  ^ a b c Felix Just, "Resources for Liturgy and Prayer for the Seasons of Advent
Advent
and Christmas" ^

"Božić u Hrvata" (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 October 2017.  ^ Advent
Advent
Archived 17 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine., St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Kingsville, MD ^ " Advent
Advent
wreath", Growing in faith (FAQ), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America . ^ Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989 (first published in New English Dictionary, 1917). In the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
since 1969, and in most Anglican
Anglican
churches since at least 2000, the final Sunday of the liturgical year before Advent
Advent
is celebrated as the Feast of Christ the King. This feast is now also widely observed in many Protestant churches, sometimes as the Reign of Christ. ^ " Advent
Advent
Themes". Our Daily Bread. December 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ a b Hoffman, Jan Luben (September 1993). "Circle of Light: Four themes for use with the Advent
Advent
wreath". Reformed Worship. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Tullos, Matt (1 December 2017). " Advent
Advent
Devotional (Week 1): Faith". lifeway.com. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAdventat's sister projects

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Daily Advent
Advent
Devotional (LHM) The Season of Advent
Advent
( Christian
Christian
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Advent
Sermon Series from the Society of Saint John the Evangelist, a monastic community in the Episcopal Church Catholic Encyclopedia: Advent American Catholic: Advent
Advent
to Epiphany Prayers, calendar and activities Liturgical Resources for Advent Advent
Advent
FAQ at the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod web site Advent
Advent
Online Devotional site Online Resources for the Season of Advent
Advent
at The Text This Week

Further reading[edit]

Book of Common Prayer, 1979 according to the usage of The Episcopal Church

v t e

Advent

Liturgy

Advent
Advent
Sunday Angelus Ave Maria Christmas
Christmas
Eve Ember days Gaudete Sunday Magnificat Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
Day

Narratives

Fall of man Christian
Christian
messianic prophecies

Isaiah 9:6 Isaiah 53

Davidic dynasty in Bible prophecy Genealogy of Jesus John 1:1 John the Baptist Saint Joseph's dreams Tree of Jesse

Traditions

Advent
Advent
calendar Advent
Advent
candle Christingle Hanging of the greens Christmas
Christmas
markets

List

Stir-up Sunday Advent
Advent
wreath Moravian star

Songs and hymns

"Adam lay ybounden" " Advent
Advent
är mörker och kyla" Advent
Advent
song Adventstid Angelus
Angelus
ad virginem "Bereden väg för Herran" "Come, thou Redeemer of the earth" "Conditor alme siderum" "The Cherry-Tree Carol" "Come, Thou Long Expected Jesus" "Det är advent" "Es ist ein Ros entsprungen" Gabriel's Message "The Holly and the Ivy" "Hosianna, Davids son" " Jesus
Jesus
Christ the Apple Tree" "Lo! He comes with clouds descending" "Long Ago, Prophets Knew" "Macht hoch die Tür" "Maria durch ein Dornwald ging" "Der Morgenstern ist aufgedrungen" "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland" O Antiphons "O Come, O Come, Emmanuel" "O Heiland, reiß die Himmel auf" "Of the Father's Heart Begotten" Rorate Coeli "Sei uns willkommen, Herre Christ" "Night of Silence" "There is no rose of such virtue" "Vi tänder ett ljus i advent" "Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme"

Cantatas and music

Ärgre dich, o Seele, nicht, BWV 186a Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn, BWV 132 Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147a Handel's Messiah (Part I) Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61 Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 62 This Is the Record of John Unser lieben Frauen Traum Virga Jesse (Bruckner) Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 Wachet! betet! betet! wachet! BWV 70a List of Advent
Advent
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Music publications

Carols for Choirs New English Hymnal The Oxford Book of Carols The New Oxford Book of Carols Piae Cantiones English Hymnal Hymns Ancient and Modern The Hymnal 1982

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