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"ADVANCE AUSTRALIA FAIR" is the national anthem of Australia
Australia
. Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick , the song was first performed in 1878 and sung in Australia
Australia
as a patriotic song. It replaced " God Save the Queen
God Save the Queen
" as the official national anthem in 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national song in 1977 . Other songs and marches have been influenced by "Advance Australia Fair", such as the Australian vice-regal salute .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origin * 1.2 Competitions, plebiscite and adoption

* 2 Lyrics * 3 Copyright
Copyright
* 4 Orchestral version * 5 Development of lyrics * 6 Criticism * 7 Unofficial Christian variant * 8 Notable change advocates * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

ORIGIN

Peter Dodds McCormick, the composer of "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair".

"Advance Australia
Australia
Fair" was composed in the late 19th century by Peter Dodds McCormick under the pen-name "Amicus" (which means "friend" in Latin). It was first performed by Andrew Fairfax at a Highland Society function in Sydney on 30 November 1878. The song quickly gained popularity and an amended version was sung by a choir of around 10,000 at the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. In 1907 the Australian Government awarded McCormick £100 for his composition.

In a letter to R.B. Fuller, dated 1 August 1913, McCormick described the circumstances that inspired him to write "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair":

One night I attended a great concert in the Exhibition Building, when all the National Anthems of the world were to be sung by a large choir with band accompaniment. This was very nicely done, but I felt very aggravated that there was not one note for Australia. On the way home in a bus, I concocted the first verse of my song & when I got home I set it to music. I first wrote it in the Tonic Sol-fa notation, then transcribed it into the Old Notation, & I tried it over on an instrument next morning, & found it correct. Strange to say there has not been a note of it altered since. Some alteration has been made in the wording, but the sense is the same. It seemed to me to be like an inspiration, & I wrote the words We've golden soil and wealth for toil; Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in nature's gifts Of beauty rich and rare; In history's page, let every stage Advance Australia
Australia
Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair. Verse 2 Beneath our radiant Southern Cross We'll toil with hearts and hands; To make this Commonwealth of ours Renowned of all the lands; For those who've come across the seas We've boundless plains to share; With courage let us all combine To Advance Australia
Australia
Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia
Australia
Fair.

COPYRIGHT

Even though any copyright of Peter Dodds McCormick's original lyrics has expired, as he died in 1916, the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
claims copyright on the official lyrics and particular arrangements of music. Non-commercial use of the anthem is permitted without case-by-case permission, but the Commonwealth government requires permission for commercial use.

ORCHESTRAL VERSION

The wordless orchestral version of "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair" that is now regularly played for Australian victories at international sporting medal ceremonies, and at the openings of major domestic sporting, cultural and community events, is by Tommy Tycho , an immigrant from Hungary. It was first commissioned by ABC Records in 1984 and then televised by Channel 10 in 1986 in their Australia
Australia
Day Broadcast, featuring Julie Anthony as the soloist.

DEVELOPMENT OF LYRICS

Since the original lyrics were written in 1879, there have been several changes, in some cases with the intent of increasing the anthem's inclusiveness and gender neutrality. Some of these were minor while others have significantly changed the song. The original song was four verses long. For its adoption as the national anthem, the song was cut from four verses to two. The first verse was kept largely as the 1879 original, except for the change in the first line from "AUSTRALIA\'S SONS let us rejoice" to "AUSTRALIANS ALL let us rejoice". The second, third and fourth verses of the original were dropped, in favour of a modified version of the new third verse which was sung at Federation in 1901.

The original lyrics published in 1879 were as follows:

Verse 1 Australia's sons let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We've golden soil and wealth for toil, Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in Nature's gifts Of beauty rich and rare; In hist'ry's page, let ev'ry stage Advance Australia
Australia
fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia
Australia
fair. Verse 2 When gallant Cook from Albion
Albion
sailed, To trace wide oceans o'er, True British courage bore him on, Til he landed on our shore. Then here he raised Old England
England
's flag, The standard of the brave; "With all her faults we love her still" "Britannia rules the wave ." In joyful strains then let us sing Advance Australia
Australia
fair. Verse 3 While other nations of the globe Behold us from afar, We'll rise to high renown and shine Like our glorious southern star; From England
England
soil and Fatherland, Scotia and Erin fair, Let all combine with heart and hand To advance Australia
Australia
fair. In joyful strains then let us sing Advance Australia
Australia
fair. Verse 4 Should foreign foe e'er sight our coast, Or dare a foot to land, We'll rouse to arms like sires of yore, To guard our native strand; Britannia then shall surely know, Though oceans roll between, Her sons in fair Australia's land Still keep their courage green. In joyful strains then let us sing Advance Australia
Australia
fair.*

The 1901 Federation version of the third verse was originally sung as: Third verse Beneath our radiant Southern Cross, We'll toil with hearts and hands; To make our youthful Commonwealth, Renowned of all the lands; For loyal sons beyond the seas We've boundless plains to share; With courage let us all combine To advance Australia
Australia
fair. In joyful strains then let us sing Advance Australia
Australia
fair!*

CRITICISM

Both the lyrics and melody of the official anthem have been criticised in some quarters as being dull and unendearing to the Australian people. A National Party senator, Sandy Macdonald , said in 2001 that "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair" is so boring that the nation risks singing itself to sleep, with boring music and words impossible to understand. A parliamentary colleague, Peter Slipper , said that Australia
Australia
should consider another anthem. One suggested replacement was " I Am Australian ", notably in 2011 by former Victorian Premier Jeff Kennett .

Specific criticism is also directed at the fourth line of lyrics, "our home is girt by sea", for its use of the archaic word "girt" to acknowledge the fact that Australia
Australia
is an island. The current version of the anthem has a mix of old and new language, rather than having one style of language consistently throughout. Criticism has come from various people, including Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
politician Craig Emerson , but others, including former Labor leader Kim Beazley , have defended it.

UNOFFICIAL CHRISTIAN VARIANT

A variant of the national anthem penned in 1988 by Sri Lankan immigrant Ruth Ponniah and sung in some Christian schools replaces the second verse with the following: With Christ our head and cornerstone, We'll build our nation's might; Whose way and truth and light alone, Can guide our path aright; Our lives a sacrifice of love, Reflect our master's care; With faces turned to heav'n above, Advance Australia
Australia
Fair; In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.

NOTABLE CHANGE ADVOCATES

* Sandy Macdonald (politician) * Peter Slipper (politician) * Jeff Kennett (politician)

REFERENCES

* ^ "Letters ". National Library of Australia
Australia
. Retrieved 26 October 2008. Letter to R.B. Fuller Esq. dated 1 August 1913 * ^ The Landing of the Australian Troops in Egypt from National Film and Sound Archive, at australianscreen online * ^ "Media Resources – Images and Audio files for Download". National Film and Sound Archive . Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. (1943 – The Majestic Fanfare by Charles Williams, the ABC radio news theme) * ^ "Song and Two Anthems". Sydney Morning Herald. 30 November 1943. Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair official Australian Anthem: year 2000 text from Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Factsheet 17". Lachlan.bluehaze.com.au. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ "Australian National Anthem – History". Australian Government. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. * ^ Graham Freudenberg, "We've been sacked", The Sunday Age, 6 November 2005, p. 13 * ^ "Plebiscite results: National Song Poll". Parliament of Australia
Australia
. 30 June 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008. * ^ "Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
– National Symbols". Parliament of Australia
Australia
. 21 September 2005. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. (proclamation by Governor-General dated 19 April 1984) * ^ A B "The Australian National Anthem". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade . Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. * ^ "Australian National Anthem – Commercial use". Australian Government. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007. * ^ Tommy Tycho—Arranger * ^ "Digital Collections – Advance Australia
Australia
Fair (1901–1919)". National Library of Australia
Australia
. Retrieved 3 May 2008. * ^ "Digital Collections – Advance Australia
Australia
Fair (1879)". National Library of Australia
Australia
. Retrieved 1 November 2007. * ^ Barbie Dutter (27 June 2001). "Call to scrap Australia\'s \'dull\' anthem". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. Retrieved 20 December 2007. * ^ "Senator reignites debate over national anthem". ABC . 21 June 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007. * ^ Grant McArthur (11 February 2011). " Jeff Kennett wants national anthem change". The Advertiser . Retrieved 9 August 2014. * ^ Grant McArthur (11 February 2011). " Jeff Kennett wants national anthem change". The Advertiser . Retrieved 9 August 2014. * ^ Campbell, David (22 April 2008). "Time girt went down the gurgler". Herald Sun. Retrieved 19 April 2011. * ^ "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair strikes a sour note". The Australian. 2 January 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007. * ^ " Kim Beazley – Doorstop Interview (transcript)". Australian Labor Party . 21 June 2001. Archived from the original on 18 July 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007. * ^ "Schools under fire for \'Christian\' national anthem". ABC News . 23 September 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2017. * ^ "Christian schools re-write Australian national anthem". The Daily Telegraph . 2 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2017.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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