HOME
The Info List - Advaita Vedanta


--- Advertisement ---



Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila
Kumarila
Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
(/ədˈvaɪtə vɛˈdɑːntə/; Sanskrit: अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST: Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda,[1][note 1] is a school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.[2] The term Advaita refers to its idea that the soul (true Self, Atman) is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality
Reality
(Brahman). The followers of this school are known as Advaita
Advaita
Vedantins, or just Advaitins,[3] and they seek spiritual liberation through acquiring vidyā (knowledge)[4] of one's true identity as Atman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman.[5][6][7] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
traces its roots in the oldest Upanishads. It relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi. It gives "a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads",[8] the Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gita.[9][10] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta,[note 2] which is one of the six orthodox (āstika) Hindu
Hindu
philosophies (darśana). Although its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is considered by the tradition to be 8th century scholar Adi Shankara.[11][12][13] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha (freedom, liberation) is achievable in this life in contrast to Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.[14][15] The school uses concepts such as Brahman, Atman, Maya, Avidya, meditation and others that are found in major Indian religious traditions,[10][16][17] but interprets them in its own way for its theories of moksha.[18][19] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is one of the most studied and most influential schools of classical Indian thought.[20][21][22] Many scholars describe it as a form of monism,[23][24][25] others describe the Advaita
Advaita
philosophy as non-dualistic.[26][27] Advaita
Advaita
influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies such as Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedanta, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, other sub-schools of Vedanta, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement.[28][29][30] Beyond Hinduism, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
interacted and developed with the other traditions of India such as Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism.[31] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara.[32] In modern times, its views appear in various Neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
movements.[33] It has been termed as the paradigmatic example of Hindu
Hindu
spirituality.[34][35]

Contents

1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 Darśana (philosophy) - central concerns 3 Ideas and aims

3.1 Atman 3.2 Brahman 3.3 Puruṣārtha
Puruṣārtha
- the four goals of human life 3.4 Moksha
Moksha
- liberation

3.4.1 Jivanmukta

3.5 Vidya, Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
and Anubhava 3.6 Mahavakya – The Great Sentences 3.7 Stages and practices

3.7.1 Jnana
Jnana
Yoga
Yoga
– path of practice 3.7.2 Samadhi 3.7.3 Guru

4 Ontology
Ontology
- the nature of Being

4.1 Levels of Reality, Truths 4.2 Three states of consciousness and Turiya 4.3 Identity of Atman and Brahman 4.4 Empirical reality - illusion and ignorance

4.4.1 Causality 4.4.2 Māyā (illusion) 4.4.3 Avidya (ignorance)

5 Epistemology
Epistemology
- ways of knowing

5.1 Pratyakṣa (perception) 5.2 Anumāṇa (inference) 5.3 Upamāṇa (comparison, analogy) 5.4 Arthāpatti (postulation) 5.5 Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) 5.6 Śabda (relying on testimony)

6 Ethics 7 Texts

7.1 Prasthanatrayi 7.2 Textual authority

8 History of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta

8.1 Pre-Shankara Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta

8.1.1 Earliest Vedanta
Vedanta
- Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahma
Brahma
Sutras 8.1.2 Bādarāyana's Brahma
Brahma
Sutras 8.1.3 Between Brahma
Brahma
Sutras and Shankara

8.2 Gaudapada
Gaudapada
and Māṇḍukya Kārikā

8.2.1 Mandukya Karika 8.2.2 Shri Gaudapadacharya Math

8.3 Adi Shankara

8.3.1 Historical context 8.3.2 Writings 8.3.3 Influence of Shankara

8.4 Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra 8.5 Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
sub-schools

8.5.1 Padmapada
Padmapada
- Pancapadika school 8.5.2 Vachaspati Misra – Bhamati
Bhamati
school 8.5.3 Prakasatman - Vivarana school 8.5.4 Vimuktatman - Ista-Siddhi

8.6 Later Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition

9 Sampradaya

9.1 Monastic order: Advaita
Advaita
Mathas 9.2 Shri Gaudapadacharya Math 9.3 Shankara's monastic tradition

10 Relationship with other forms of Vedanta

10.1 Vishishtadvaita 10.2 Shuddhadvaita 10.3 Dvaita

11 Historical influence

11.1 Smarta Tradition 11.2 Other Hindu
Hindu
traditions 11.3 Development of central position

11.3.1 Unifying Hinduism 11.3.2 Hindu
Hindu
nationalism 11.3.3 Swami Vivekananda 11.3.4 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 11.3.5 Mahatama Gandhi

11.4 New religious movements

11.4.1 Neo-Advaita 11.4.2 Non-dualism

12 Relationship with Buddhism

12.1 Similarities with Buddhism 12.2 Gaudapada 12.3 Differences from Buddhism

12.3.1 Atman and anatta 12.3.2 Epistemology 12.3.3 Ontology 12.3.4 Shankara on Buddhism

13 Reception 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Sources

17.1 Printed sources 17.2 Web-sources

18 Further reading 19 External links

Etymology and nomenclature[edit] The Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school has been historically referred to by various names, such as Advaita-vada (speaker of Advaita), Abheda-darshana (view of non-difference), Dvaita-vada-pratisedha (denial of dual distinctions), and Kevala-dvaita (non-dualism of the isolated).[36] According to Richard King, a professor of Buddhist and Asian studies, the term Advaita
Advaita
first occurs in a recognizably Vedantic context in the prose of Mandukya Upanishad.[36] In contrast, according to Frits Staal, a professor of Philosophy specializing in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Vedic studies, the word Advaita
Advaita
is from the Vedic era, and the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
(8th or 7th-century BCE[37][38]) is credited to be the one who coined it.[39] Stephen Phillips, a professor of philosophy and Asian studies, translates the Advaita
Advaita
containing verse excerpt in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as follows:

सलिले एकस् द्रष्टा अद्वैतस् भवति एष ब्रह्मलोकस् सम्राट् ति ह एनम् उवाच अनुशशास याज्ञवल्क्यस् एषा अस्य परमा गतिस् एषास्य परमा सम्पद्

An ocean, a single seer without duality becomes he whose world is Brahman, O King, Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
instructed This is his supreme way. This is his supreme achievement.

—Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
4.3.32[40] —Transl: Stephen Phillips[41][note 3]

Darśana (philosophy) - central concerns[edit] Further information: Hindu
Hindu
philosophy Advaita
Advaita
is a subschool of Vedanta, the latter being one of the six classical Hindu
Hindu
darśanas. It, like nearly all these philosophies,[note 4] has an integrated body of textual interpretations and religious practices for what Hinduism
Hinduism
considers four proper aims of life: virtue (dharma), material prosperity (artha), desire (kama) and the fourth and final aim being moksha, the spiritual liberation or release from cycles of rebirth (samsara).[43][44] Traditional Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
centers on the study of the sruti especially the Principal Upanishads, along with the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita.[45][46] Within the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
are many sub-schools, of which Advaita
Advaita
is one. Unlike Buddhism, but like Jainism, all Vedanta schools consider the existence of Atman (real self, soul) as self-evident.[47][48] The Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition also posits the concept of Brahman
Brahman
as the eternal, unchanging metaphysical reality. The sub-schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
disagree on the relation between Atman and Brahman. The Advaita
Advaita
darsana considers them to be identical.[49][5][6] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
believes that the knowledge of one's true self or Atman is liberating.[50] Along with self-knowledge,[51] it teaches that moksha can be achieved by the correct understanding of one's true identity as Ātman, the dispassionate and unmoveable observer, and the identity of Ātman and Brahman.[52] The process of acquiring this knowledge entails realising that one’s True Self, the Atman, is essentially the same as Brahman. This is achieved through what Sankara refers to as anubhava, immediate intuition. Sankara contends that this direct awareness is construction-free, and not construction-filled. Self-knowledge is, therefore, not seen as an awareness of Brahman, but instead an awareness that is Brahman, since one will transcend any form of duality in this state of consciousness.[53] Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya, psychological and perceptual errors related to Atman and Brahman,[54] is obtained through three stages of practice, sravana (hearing), manana (thinking) and nididhyasana (meditation).[55] The Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of Hinduism
Hinduism
rejects the dualism of Samkhya. The Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu
Hindu
thought proposes two metaphysical realities, namely Purusha (spirit) and Prakriti
Prakriti
(inert primal matter), then states that Purusha is the efficient cause of all existence while Prakriti
Prakriti
is its material cause.[56] Advaita, like all Vedanta
Vedanta
schools, states that Brahman
Brahman
is both the efficient and the material cause, "that from which the origination, subsistence, and dissolution of this universe proceed." What created all existence is also present in and reflected in all beings and inert matter, the creative principle was and is everywhere, always.[57] This Brahman
Brahman
it postulates is sat-cit-ananda (truth-consciousness-bliss). By accepting this postulation, various theoretical difficulties arise which Advaita
Advaita
and other Vedanta
Vedanta
traditions offer different answers for:[58] first, how did sat Brahman
Brahman
without any distinction become manifold universe? second, how did cit Brahman
Brahman
create material world? third, if ananda Brahman
Brahman
is pure bliss, why did the empirical world of sufferings arise? These are the questions that Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
thinkers have historically attempted to answer, as did the non- Advaita
Advaita
schools of Hinduism.[58] Advaita
Advaita
establishes its truths, in part, from the oldest Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
(sruti), the Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and numerous other Hindu
Hindu
texts.[10] Reason is used to support revelation, the sruti, the ultimate source of truth.[59] Reason clarifies the truth and removes objections, according to the Advaita
Advaita
school, however it believes that pure logic cannot lead to philosophical truths and only experience and meditative insights do. The Sruti, it believes is a collection of experience and meditative insights about liberating knowledge.[60] The Advaita
Advaita
literature also provide a criticism of opposing systems, including the dualistic school of Hinduism, as well as non- Hindu
Hindu
philosophies such as Buddhism.[61] Ideas and aims[edit]

Part of a series on

Hindu
Hindu
philosophy

Orthodox

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa

Vedanta

Advaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaitadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda Shuddhadvaita

Heterodox

Charvaka Ājīvika Buddhism Jainism

Other schools

Vaishnava Smarta Shakta Īśvara

Shaiva: Pratyabhijña Pashupata Siddhanta

Tantra

Teachers (Acharyas)

Nyaya

Akṣapāda Gotama Jayanta Bhatta Raghunatha Siromani

Mīmāṃsā

Jaimini Kumārila Bhaṭṭa Prabhākara

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta

Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vācaspati Miśra Vidyaranya Sadananda Madhusūdana Sarasvatī Vijnanabhiksu Ramakrishna Vivekananda Ramana Maharshi Siddharudha Chinmayananda Nisargadatta

Vishishtadvaita

Nammalvar Alvars Yamunacharya Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Pillai Lokacharya Manavala Mamunigal

Dvaita

Madhvacharya Jayatirtha Vyasatirtha Sripadaraja Vadirajatirtha Vijayendra Tirtha Raghavendra Swami Padmanabha Tirtha Naraharitirtha

Achintya Bheda Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Jiva
Jiva
Goswami Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada

Tantra Shakta

Abhinavagupta Nigamananda Paramahansa Ramprasad Sen Bamakhepa Kamalakanta Bhattacharya Anandamayi Ma

Others

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Vaisheshika

Kanada, Prashastapada

Dvaitadvaita

Nimbarka

Shuddhadvaita

Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya

Major texts

Sruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Upanishads

Principal Upanishads Minor Upanishads

Other scriptures

Bhagavat Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Shastras and Sutras

Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

Pramana
Pramana
Sutras

Puranas Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Tirumurai Shiva
Shiva
Samhita

Hinduism Other Indian philosophies

v t e

Atman[edit] Main article: Ātman (Hinduism) See also: Samadhi, Buddha-nature, Sunyata, and Choiceless awareness Ātman (IAST: ātman, Sanskrit: आत्मन्) is a central idea in Hindu
Hindu
philosophy and a foundational premise of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. It is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word that means "real self" of the individual,[62][63] "essence",[web 1] and soul.[62][64] Ātman is the first principle in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, along with its concept of Brahman, with Atman being the perceptible personal particular and Brahman
Brahman
the inferred unlimited universal, both synonymous and interchangeable.[65] It is, to an Advaitin, the unchanging, enduring, eternal absolute.[66][67] It is the "true self" of an individual, a consciousness, states Sthaneshwar Timalsina, that is "self-revealed, self-evident and self-aware (svaprakashata)".[68] Atman, states Eliot Deutsch, is the "pure, undifferentiated, supreme power of awareness", it is more than thought, it is a state of being, that which is conscious and transcends subject-object divisions and momentariness.[69] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy considers Atman as self-existent awareness, limitless and non-dual.[70] It asserts that there is "spirit, soul, self" (Atman) within each living entity, which are same as each other and identical to the universal eternal Brahman.[71] It is an experience of "oneness" which unifies all beings, in which there is the divine in every being, in which all existence is a single Reality, and in which there is no "divine" distinct from the individual Atman.[72][73][74] Atman is not the constantly changing body, not the desires, not the emotions, not the ego, nor the dualistic mind in Advaita Vedanta.[75][76][77] It is the introspective, inwardly self-conscious "on-looker" (saksi).[78] To Advaitins, human beings, in a state of unawareness and ignorance, see their "I-ness" as different than the being in others, then act out of impulse, fears, cravings, malice, division, confusion, anxiety, passions, and a sense of distinctiveness.[79][80][81] Brahman[edit] Main articles: Brahman
Brahman
and Satcitananda According to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Brahman
Brahman
is the highest Reality,[82][83][84] That which is unborn and unchanging,[83][85] and "not sublatable",[82] and cannot be superseded by a still higher reality.[86][note 5][note 6] Other than Brahman, everything else, including the universe, material objects and individuals, are ever-changing and therefore maya. Brahman
Brahman
is Paramarthika Satyam, "Absolute Truth",[101] and

the true Self, pure consciousness ... the only Reality
Reality
(sat), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublatable".[82]

In Advaita, Brahman
Brahman
is the substrate and cause of all changes.[102][85] Brahman
Brahman
is considered to be the material cause[note 7] and the efficient cause[note 8] of all that exists.[84][103][104] Brahman
Brahman
is the "primordial reality that creates, maintains and withdraws within it the universe."[92] It is the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".[105] Advaita's Upanishadic roots state Brahman's qualities[note 9] to be Sat-cit-ānanda (being-consciousness-bliss)[106][107] It means "true being-consciousness-bliss," [108][109] or "Eternal Bliss Consciousness".[110] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
held that satcitananda is identical with Brahman
Brahman
and Atman.[108] The Advaitin scholar Madhusudana Sarasvati explained Brahman
Brahman
as the Reality
Reality
that is simultaneously an absence of falsity (sat), absence of ignorance (cit), and absence of sorrow/self-limitation (ananda).[108] According to Adi Shankara, the knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
that Shruti
Shruti
provides cannot be obtained in any other means besides self inquiry.[111] Puruṣārtha
Puruṣārtha
- the four goals of human life[edit] Advaita, like other schools, accepts Puruṣārtha
Puruṣārtha
- the four goals of human life as natural and proper:[112]

Dharma: the right way to life, the "duties and obligations of the individual toward himself and the society as well as those of the society toward the individual";[113] Artha: the means to support and sustain one's life; Kāma: pleasure and enjoyment; Mokṣa: liberation, release.

Of these, much of the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy focuses on the last, gaining liberation in one's current life.[114] The first three are discussed and encouraged by Advaitins, but usually in the context of knowing Brahman
Brahman
and Self-realization.[115] Moksha
Moksha
- liberation[edit] See also: Jnana, Prajna, and Prajñānam Brahma The soteriological goal, in Advaita, is to gain self-knowledge and complete understanding of the identity of Atman and Brahman. Correct knowledge of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
leads dissolution of all dualistic tendencies and to liberation,[note 10] Moksha
Moksha
is attained by realizing one's true identity as Ātman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman, the complete understanding of one's real nature as Brahman
Brahman
in this life.[5] This is stated by Shankara as follows:

I am other than name, form and action. My nature is ever free! I am Self, the supreme unconditioned Brahman. I am pure Awareness, always non-dual.

— Adi Shankara, Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
11.7, [5]

According to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, liberation can be achieved while living, and is called Jivanmukti.[116] The Atman-knowledge, that is the knowledge of true Self and its relationship to Brahman
Brahman
is central to this liberation in Advaita
Advaita
thought.[note 11] Atman-knowledge, to Advaitins, is that state of full awareness, liberation and freedom which overcomes dualities at all levels, realizing the divine within oneself, the divine in others and all beings, the non-dual Oneness, that Brahman
Brahman
is in everything, and everything is Brahman.[70][71][117] According to Rambachan, in Advaita, this state of liberating self-knowledge includes and leads to the understanding that "the self is the self of all, the knower of self sees the self in all beings and all beings in the self."[74] Jivanmukta[edit] In Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, the interest is not in liberation in after life, but in one's current life.[118] This school holds that liberation can be achieved while living, and a person who achieves this is called a Jivanmukta.[116][119] The concept of Jivanmukti
Jivanmukti
of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
contrasts with Videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death) in theistic sub-schools of Vedanta.[120] Jivanmukti
Jivanmukti
is a state that transforms the nature, attributes and behaviors of an individual, after which the liberated individual shows attributes such as:[121]

he is not bothered by disrespect and endures cruel words, treats others with respect regardless of how others treat him; when confronted by an angry person he does not return anger, instead replies with soft and kind words; even if tortured, he speaks and trusts the truth; he does not crave for blessings or expect praise from others; he never injures or harms any life or being (ahimsa), he is intent in the welfare of all beings; he is as comfortable being alone as in the presence of others; he is as comfortable with a bowl, at the foot of a tree in tattered robe without help, as when he is in a mithuna (union of mendicants), grama (village) and nagara (city); he doesn’t care about or wear sikha (tuft of hair on the back of head for religious reasons), nor the holy thread across his body. To him, knowledge is sikha, knowledge is the holy thread, knowledge alone is supreme. Outer appearances and rituals do not matter to him, only knowledge matters; for him there is no invocation nor dismissal of deities, no mantra nor non-mantra, no prostrations nor worship of gods, goddess or ancestors, nothing other than knowledge of Self; he is humble, high spirited, of clear and steady mind, straightforward, compassionate, patient, indifferent, courageous, speaks firmly and with sweet words.

Vidya, Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
and Anubhava[edit] Main article: Svādhyāya Sruti
Sruti
(scriptures), proper reasoning and meditation are the main sources of knowledge (vidya) for the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta tradition.[122][123][55] It teaches that correct knowledge of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
is achievable by svādhyāya,[124] study of the self and of the Vedic texts, and three stages of practice: sravana (perception, hearing), manana (thinking) and nididhyasana (meditation),[55] a three-step methodology that is rooted in the teachings of chapter 4 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.[125][126] Sravana literally means hearing, and broadly refers to perception and observations typically aided by a counsellor or teacher (guru),[127] wherein the Advaitin listens and discusses the ideas, concepts, questions and answers.[55][125] Manana refers to thinking on these discussions and contemplating over the various ideas based on svadhyaya and sravana.[125][127][128] Nididhyāsana
Nididhyāsana
refers to meditation, realization and consequent conviction of the truths, non-duality and a state where there is a fusion of thought and action, knowing and being.[129][125] Bilimoria states that these three stages of Advaita
Advaita
practice can be viewed as sadhana practice that unifies Yoga
Yoga
and Karma
Karma
ideas, and was most likely derived from these older traditions.[130][127] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
uses anubhava interchangeably with pratipatta, "understanding".[131] Dalal and others state that anubhava does not center around some sort of "mystical experience," but around the correct knowledge of Brahman.[123][132] Nikhalananda states that (knowledge of) Atman and Brahman
Brahman
can only be reached by buddhi, "reason,"[133] stating that mysticism is a kind of intuitive knowledge, while buddhi is the highest means of attaining knowledge.[134] Mahavakya – The Great Sentences[edit] Main article: Mahāvākyas Several Mahavakyas, or "the great sentences", have Advaitic theme, that is "the inner immortal self and the great cosmic power are one and the same".[135]

Sr. No. Vakya Meaning Upanishad Veda

1 प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म (pragñānam brahma) Prajñānam[note 12] is Brahman[note 13] Aitareya V.3 Rigveda

2. अहं ब्रह्मास्मि (aham brahmāsmi) I am Brahman, or I am Divine[138] Brhadāranyaka I.4.10 Shukla Yajurveda

3. तत्त्वमसि (tat tvam asi) That thou art Chandogya VI.8.7 Samaveda

4. अयमात्मा ब्रह्म (ayamātmā brahma) This Atman is Brahman Mandukya II Atharvaveda

Stages and practices[edit] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
entails more than self-inquiry or bare insight into one's real nature,[note 14] but also includes self-restraint, textual studies and ethical perfection. It is described in classical Advaita books like Shankara's Upadesasahasri[140] and the Vivekachudamani, which is also attributed to Shankara. Jnana
Jnana
Yoga
Yoga
– path of practice[edit] Main article: Jnana
Jnana
Yoga Classical Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
emphasises the path of Jnana
Jnana
Yoga, a progression of study and training to attain moksha.[141][142] It consists of fourfold qualities,[143] or behavioral qualifications (Samanyasa, Sampattis, sādhana-catustaya):[144][145][146][note 15]

Nityānitya vastu viveka (नित्यानित्य वस्तु विवेकम्) — The ability (viveka) to correctly discriminate between the real and eternal (nitya) and the substance that is apparently real, aging, changing and transitory (anitya).[144][146] Ihāmutrārtha phala bhoga virāga (इहाऽमुत्रार्थ फल भोगविरागम्) — The renunciation (virāga) of petty desires that distract the mind (artha phala bhoga), willing to give up everything that is an obstacle to the pursuit of truth and self-knowledge.[146][147] Śamādi ṣatka sampatti (शमादि षट्क सम्पत्ति) — the sixfold virtues or qualities,

Śama (mental tranquility, ability to focus the mind).[146][147] Dama (self-restraint,[note 16] the virtue of temperance).[146][147] Uparati
Uparati
(dispassion, ability to be quiet and disassociated from everything;[146] "discontinuation of religious ceremonies"[147]) Titikṣa (endurance, perseverance, ability to be patient during demanding circumstances).[146][147] Śraddhā (the faith in teacher and Sruti
Sruti
texts).[146] Samādhāna (attention, intentness of mind).[146][147]

Mumukṣutva (मुमुक्षुत्वम्) — A positive longing for freedom and wisdom, driven to the quest of knowledge and understanding.[146][143]

Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya, psychological and perceptual errors related to Atman and Brahman,[54] is obtained in jnanayoga through three stages of practice,[145] sravana (hearing), manana (thinking) and nididhyasana (meditation).[55] This three-step methodology is rooted in the teachings of chapter 4 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad:[125][126]

Sravana, listening to the teachings of the sages on the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, studying the Vedantic texts, such as the Brahma Sutras, and discussions with the guru (teacher, counsellor);[144][127][55] Manana, refers to thinking on these discussions and contemplating over the various ideas based on svadhyaya and sravana.[125] It is the stage of reflection on the teachings;[125][127] Nididhyāsana, the stage of meditation and introspection.[146][web 3] This stage of practice aims at realization and consequent conviction of the truths, non-duality and a state where there is a fusion of thought and action, knowing and being.[129][125]

Samadhi[edit] While Shankara emphasized sravana ("hearing"), manana ("reflection") and nididhyasana ("repeated meditation"), later texts like the Dŗg-Dŗśya-Viveka
Dŗg-Dŗśya-Viveka
(14th century) and Vedantasara (of Sadananda) (15th century) added samadhi as a means to liberation, a theme that was also emphasized by Swami Vivekananda. Guru[edit] Main article: Guru Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school has traditionally had a high reverence for Guru (teacher), and recommends that a competent Guru
Guru
be sought in one's pursuit of spirituality. However, the Guru
Guru
is not mandatory in Advaita school, states Clooney, but reading of Vedic literature and followed by reflection is.[151] Adi Shankara, states Comans, regularly employed compound words "such as Sastracaryopadesa (instruction by way of the scriptures and the teacher) and Vedantacaryopadesa (instruction by way of the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the teacher) to emphasize the importance of Guru".[151] This reflects the Advaita
Advaita
tradition which holds a competent teacher as important and essential to gaining correct knowledge, freeing oneself from false knowledge, and to self-realization.[152] A guru is someone more than a teacher, traditionally a reverential figure to the student, with the guru serving as a "counselor, who helps mold values, shares experiential knowledge as much as literal knowledge, an exemplar in life, an inspirational source and who helps in the spiritual evolution of a student.[153] The guru, states Joel Mlecko, is more than someone who teaches specific type of knowledge, and includes in its scope someone who is also a "counselor, a sort of parent of mind and soul, who helps mold values and experiential knowledge as much as specific knowledge, an exemplar in life, an inspirational source and who reveals the meaning of life."[153] Ontology
Ontology
- the nature of Being[edit] See also: Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Ontology

The swan is an important motif in Advaita. It symbolises two things: first, the swan is called hamsah in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(which becomes hamso if the first letter in the next word is /h/). Upon repeating this hamso indefinitely, it becomes so-aham, meaning, "I am That". Second, just as a swan lives in a lake but its feathers are not soiled by water, similarly a liberated Advaitin lives in this world but is not soiled by its maya.

Levels of Reality, Truths[edit] See also: Two truths doctrine The classical Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
explains all reality and everything in the experienced world to be same as the Brahman.[10] To Advaitins, there is a unity in multiplicity, and there is no dual hierarchy of a Creator and the created universe.[10][154] All objects, all experiences, all matter, all consciousness, all awareness, in Advaita philosophy is not the property but the very nature of this one fundamental reality Brahman.[10] With this premise, the Advaita
Advaita
school states that any ontological effort must presuppose a knowing self, and this effort needs to explain all empirical experiences such as the projected reality while one dreams during sleep, and the observed multiplicity of living beings. This Advaita
Advaita
does by positing its theory of three levels of reality,[155] the theory of two truths,[156] and by developing and integrating these ideas with its theory of errors (anirvacaniya khyati).[157][10] Shankara proposes three levels of reality, using sublation as the ontological criterion:[158][155][159]

Pāramārthika (paramartha, absolute), the Reality
Reality
that is metaphysically true and ontologically accurate. It is the state of experiencing that "which is absolutely real and into which both other reality levels can be resolved". This reality is the highest, it can't be sublated (assimilated) by any other.[158][160] Vyāvahārika (vyavahara), or samvriti-saya,[161] consisting of the empirical or pragmatical reality. It is ever changing over time, thus empirically true at a given time and context but not metaphysically true. It is "our world of experience, the phenomenal world that we handle every day when we are awake". It is the level in which both jiva (living creatures or individual souls) and Iswara
Iswara
are true; here, the material world is also true but this is incomplete reality and is sublatable.[160][162] Prāthibhāsika (pratibhasika, apparent reality, unreality), "reality based on imagination alone". It is the level of experience in which the mind constructs its own reality. Well-known examples of pratibhasika is the imaginary reality such as the "roaring of a lion" fabricated in dreams during one's sleep, and the perception of a rope in the dark as being a snake.[160][163][164]

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
acknowledges and admits that from the empirical perspective there are numerous distinctions.[165] It states that everything and each reality has multiple perspectives, both absolute and relative. All these are valid and true in their respective contexts, states Advaita, but only from their respective particular perspectives. This "absolute and relative truths" explanation, Advaitins call as the "two truths" doctrine.[156][165][166] John Grimes, a professor of Indian Religions specializing on Vedanta, explains this Advaita
Advaita
doctrine with the example of light and darkness.[165] From sun's perspective, it neither rises nor sets, there is no darkness, and "all is light". From the perspective of a person on earth, sun does rise and set, there is both light and darkness, not "all is light", there are relative shades of light and darkness. Both are valid realities and truths, given their perspectives. Yet, they are contradictory. What is true from one point of view, states Grimes, is not from another. To Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, this does not mean there are two truths and two realities, but it only means that the same one Reality
Reality
and one Truth is explained or experienced from two different perspectives.[165][167] As they developed these theories, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars were influenced by some ideas from the Nyaya, Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[168][159] These theories have not enjoyed universal consensus among Advaitins, and various competing ontological interpretations have flowered within the Advaita tradition.[10][169][170] Three states of consciousness and Turiya[edit] See also: Three Bodies Doctrine (Vedanta)
Three Bodies Doctrine (Vedanta)
and Kosha Advaita
Advaita
posits three states of consciousness, namely waking (jagrat), dreaming (svapna), deep sleep (suṣupti), which are empirically experienced by human beings,[171][172] and correspond to the Three Bodies Doctrine:[173]

The first state is the waking state, in which we are aware of our daily world.[174] This is the gross body. The second state is the dreaming mind. This is the subtle body.[174] The third state is the state of deep sleep. This is the causal body.[174]

Advaita
Advaita
also posits the fourth state of Turiya, which some describe as pure consciousness, the background that underlies and transcends these three common states of consciousness.[web 4][web 5] Turiya is the state of liberation, where states Advaita
Advaita
school, one experiences the infinite (ananta) and non-different (advaita/abheda), that is free from the dualistic experience, the state in which ajativada, non-origination, is apprehended.[175] According to Candradhara Sarma, Turiya state is where the foundational Self is realized, it is measureless, neither cause nor effect, all prevading, without suffering, blissful, changeless, self-luminous, real, immanent in all things and transcendent.[176] Those who have experienced the Turiya stage of self-consciousness have reached the pure awareness of their own non-dual Self as one with everyone and everything, for them the knowledge, the knower, the known becomes one, they are the Jivanmukta.[177][178][179] Advaita
Advaita
traces the foundation of this ontological theory in more ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts.[180] For example, chapters 8.7 through 8.12 of Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
discuss the "four states of consciousness" as awake, dream-filled sleep, deep sleep, and beyond deep sleep.[180][181] One of the earliest mentions of Turiya, in the Hindu scriptures, occurs in verse 5.14.3 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.[182] The idea is also discussed in other early Upanishads.[183] Identity of Atman and Brahman[edit] According to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Atman is identical to Brahman.[184][185] This is expressed in the mahavakya "tat tvam asi", "thou are that." There is "a common ground, viz. consciousness, to the individual and Brahman."[185] Each soul, in Advaita
Advaita
view, is non-different from the infinite.[186] According to Shankara, Atman and Brahman
Brahman
seem different at the empirical level of reality, but this difference is unreal, and at the highest level of reality they are really identical.[187] Moksha
Moksha
is attained by realizing the identity of Atman and Brahman, the complete understanding of one's real nature as Brahman
Brahman
in this life.[5] This is frequently stated by Advaita
Advaita
scholars, such as Shankara, as:

I am other than name, form and action. My nature is ever free! I am Self, the supreme unconditioned Brahman. I am pure Awareness, always non-dual.

— Adi Shankara, Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
11.7, [5]

Empirical reality - illusion and ignorance[edit] According to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Brahman
Brahman
is the sole reality. The status of the phenomenal world is an important question in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, and different solutions have been proposed. The perception of the phenomenal world as real is explained by maya (constantly changing reality) and avidya ("ignorance"). Other than Brahman, everything else, including the universe, material objects and individuals, are ever-changing and therefore maya. Brahman
Brahman
is Paramarthika Satyam, "Absolute Truth",[101] and "the true Self, pure consciousness, the only Reality
Reality
(sat), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublatable".[82] Causality[edit] Main article: Cause and effect in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta All schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
subscribe to the theory of Satkāryavāda,[web 6] which means that the effect is pre-existent in the cause. But there are different views on the causal relationship and the nature of the empirical world from the perspective of metaphysical Brahman. The Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, the ancient Vedantins, most sub-schools of Vedanta,[188][web 6] as well as Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu philosophy,[web 6] support Parinamavada, the idea that the world is a real transformation (parinama) of Brahman.[188] Scholars disagree on the whether Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and his Advaita
Advaita
system explained causality through vivarta.[web 6][188][189] According to Andrew Nicholson, instead of parinama-vada, the competing causality theory is Vivartavada, which says "the world, is merely an unreal manifestation (vivarta) of Brahman. Vivartavada states that although Brahman
Brahman
appears to undergo a transformation, in fact no real change takes place. The myriad of beings are unreal manifestation, as the only real being is Brahman, that ultimate reality which is unborn, unchanging, and entirely without parts". The advocates of this illusive, unreal transformation based causality theory, states Nicholson, have been the Advaitins, the followers of Shankara.[188] "Although the world can be described as conventionally real", adds Nicholson, "the Advaitins claim that all of Brahman’s effects must ultimately be acknowledged as unreal before the individual self can be liberated".[web 6] However, other scholars such as Hajime Nakamura and Paul Hacker disagree. Hacker and others state that Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
did not advocate Vivartavada, and his explanations are "remote from any connotation of illusion". According to these scholars, it was the 13th century scholar Prakasatman who gave a definition to Vivarta, and it is Prakasatman's theory that is sometimes misunderstood as Adi Shankara's position.[189][note 17] Andrew Nicholson concurs with Hacker and other scholars, adding that the vivarta-vada isn't Shankara's theory, that Shankara's ideas appear closer to parinama-vada, and the vivarta explanation likely emerged gradually in Advaita
Advaita
subschool later.[web 6] According to Eliot Deutsch, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
states that from "the standpoint of Brahman-experience and Brahman
Brahman
itself, there is no creation" in the absolute sense, all empirically observed creation is relative and mere transformation of one state into another, all states are provisional and a cause-effect driven modification.[192] Māyā (illusion)[edit] Main article: Maya (illusion) The doctrine of Maya is used to explain the empirical reality in Advaita.[193][note 18] Jiva, when conditioned by the human mind, is subjected to experiences of a subjective nature, states Vedanta school, which leads it to misunderstand Maya and interpret it as the sole and final reality. Advaitins assert that the perceived world, including people and other existence, is not what it appears to be".[195] It is Māyā, they assert, which manifests and perpetuates a sense of false duality or divisional plurality.[196] The empirical manifestation is real but changing, but it obfuscates the true nature of metaphysical Reality
Reality
which is never changing. Advaita
Advaita
school holds that liberation is the unfettered realization and understanding of the unchanging Reality
Reality
and truths – the Self, that the Self (Soul) in oneself is same as the Self in another and the Self in everything (Brahman).[197] In Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy, there are two realities: Vyavaharika (empirical reality) and Paramarthika (absolute, spiritual Reality).[198] Māyā is the empirical reality that entangles consciousness. Māyā has the power to create a bondage to the empirical world, preventing the unveiling of the true, unitary Self—the Cosmic Spirit also known as Brahman. This theory of māyā was expounded and explained by Adi Shankara. Competing theistic Dvaita scholars contested Shankara's theory,[199] and stated that Shankara did not offer a theory of the relationship between Brahman
Brahman
and Māyā.[200] A later Advaita
Advaita
scholar Prakasatman addressed this, by explaining, "Maya and Brahman
Brahman
together constitute the entire universe, just like two kinds of interwoven threads create a fabric. Maya is the manifestation of the world, whereas Brahman, which supports Maya, is the cause of the world."[201] Brahman
Brahman
is the sole metaphysical truth in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Māyā is true in epistemological and empirical sense; however, Māyā is not the metaphysical and spiritual truth. The spiritual truth is the truth forever, while what is empirical truth is only true for now. Complete knowledge of true Reality
Reality
includes knowing both Vyavaharika (empirical) and Paramarthika (spiritual), the Māyā and the Brahman. The goal of spiritual enlightenment, state Advaitins, is to realize Brahman, realize the unity and Oneness of all reality.[198][202][117] Avidya (ignorance)[edit] Due to ignorance (avidyā), Brahman
Brahman
is perceived as the material world and its objects (nama rupa vikara). According to Shankara, Brahman
Brahman
is in reality attributeless and formless. Brahman, the highest truth and all (Reality), does not really change; it is only our ignorance that gives the appearance of change. Also due to avidyā, the true identity is forgotten, and material reality, which manifests at various levels, is mistaken as the only and true reality. The notion of avidyā and its relationship to Brahman
Brahman
creates a crucial philosophical issue within Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
thought: how can avidyā appear in Brahman, since Brahman
Brahman
is pure consciousness?[203] Sengaku Mayeda writes, in his commentary and translation of Adi Shankara's Upadesasahasri:

Certainly the most crucial problem which Sankara left for his followers is that of avidyā. If the concept is logically analysed, it would lead the Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy toward dualism or nihilism and uproot its fundamental position.[204]

To Advaitins, human beings, in a state of unawareness and ignorance of this Universal Self, see their "I-ness" as different than the being in others, then act out of impulse, fears, cravings, malice, division, confusion, anxiety, passions, and a sense of distinctiveness.[81][205] Subsequent Advaitins gave somewhat various explanations, from which various Advaita
Advaita
schools arose. Epistemology
Epistemology
- ways of knowing[edit] See also: Pramana
Pramana
and Epistemology The ancient and medieval texts of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and other schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy discuss Pramana
Pramana
(epistemology). The theory of Pramana discusses questions like how correct knowledge can be acquired; how one knows, how one doesn't; and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.[206][207] Advaita Vedānta,[208] accepts the following six kinds of pramāṇas:[209][210]

Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्षाय) - perception Anumāṇa (अनुमान) - inference Upamāṇa (उपमान) - comparison, analogy Arthāpatti (अर्थापत्ति) - postulation, derivation from circumstances[207][211] Anupalabdi (अनुपलब्धि) - non-perception, negative/cognitive proof[212] Śabda (शब्द) - relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts[207][212]

Pratyakṣa (perception)[edit] Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्षाय), perception, is of two types: external - that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, and internal - perception of inner sense, the mind.[213] Advaita
Advaita
postulates four pre-requisites for correct perception: 1) Indriyarthasannikarsa (direct experience by one's sensory organ(s) with the object, whatever is being studied), 2) Avyapadesya (non-verbal; correct perception is not through hearsay, according to ancient Indian scholars, where one's sensory organ relies on accepting or rejecting someone else's perception), 3) Avyabhicara (does not wander; correct perception does not change, nor is it the result of deception because one's sensory organ or means of observation is drifting, defective, suspect) and 4) Vyavasayatmaka (definite; correct perception excludes judgments of doubt, either because of one's failure to observe all the details, or because one is mixing inference with observation and observing what one wants to observe, or not observing what one does not want to observe).[214] The internal perception concepts included pratibha (intuition), samanyalaksanapratyaksa (a form of induction from perceived specifics to a universal), and jnanalaksanapratyaksa (a form of perception of prior processes and previous states of a 'topic of study' by observing its current state).[215] Anumāṇa (inference)[edit] Anumāṇa (अनुमान), inference, is defined as applying reason to reach a new conclusion about truth from one or more observations and previous understanding of truths.[216] Observing smoke and inferring fire is an example of Anumana. This epistemological method for gaining knowledge consists of three parts: 1) Pratijna (hypothesis), 2) Hetu (a reason), and 3) drshtanta (examples).[217] The hypothesis must further be broken down into two parts: 1) Sadhya (that idea which needs to proven or disproven) and 2) Paksha (the object on which the Sadhya is predicated). The inference is conditionally true if Sapaksha (positive examples as evidence) are present, and if Vipaksha (negative examples as counter-evidence) are absent. For rigor, the Indian philosophies further demand Vyapti - the requirement that the hetu (reason) must necessarily and separately account for the inference in "all" cases, in both sapaksha and vipaksha.[217][218] A conditionally proven hypothesis is called a nigamana (conclusion).[219] Upamāṇa (comparison, analogy)[edit] Upamāṇa (उपमान), comparison, analogy.[207][211] Some Hindu
Hindu
schools consider it as a proper means of knowledge.[220] Upamana, states Lochtefeld,[221] may be explained with the example of a traveler who has never visited lands or islands with endemic population of wildlife. He or she is told, by someone who has been there, that in those lands you see an animal that sort of looks like a cow, grazes like cow but is different from a cow in such and such way. Such use of analogy and comparison is, state the Indian epistemologists, a valid means of conditional knowledge, as it helps the traveller identify the new animal later.[221] The subject of comparison is formally called upameyam, the object of comparison is called upamanam, while the attribute(s) are identified as samanya.[222] Arthāpatti (postulation)[edit] Arthāpatti (अर्थापत्ति), postulation, derivation from circumstances.[207][211] In contemporary logic, this pramana is similar to circumstantial implication.[223] As example, if a person left in a boat on river earlier, and the time is now past the expected time of arrival, then the circumstances support the truth postulate that the person has arrived. Many Indian scholars considered this Pramana
Pramana
as invalid or at best weak, because the boat may have gotten delayed or diverted.[224] However, in cases such as deriving the time of a future sunrise or sunset, this method was asserted by the proponents to be reliable. Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof)[edit] Anupalabdi (अनुपलब्धि), non-perception, negative/cognitive proof.[212] Anupalabdhi
Anupalabdhi
pramana suggests that knowing a negative, such as "there is no jug in this room" is a form of valid knowledge. If something can be observed or inferred or proven as non-existent or impossible, then one knows more than what one did without such means.[225] In Advaita
Advaita
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, a valid conclusion is either sadrupa (positive) or asadrupa (negative) relation - both correct and valuable. Like other pramana, Indian scholars refined Anupalabdi to four types: non-perception of the cause, non-perception of the effect, non-perception of object, and non-perception of contradiction. Only two schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
accepted and developed the concept "non-perception" as a pramana. Advaita considers this method as valid and useful when the other five pramanas fail in one's pursuit of knowledge and truth.[210][226] A variation of Anupaladbi, called Abhava
Abhava
(अभाव) has also been posited as an epistemic method. It means non-existence. Some scholars consider Anupalabdi to be same as Abhava,[207] while others consider Anupalabdi and Abhava
Abhava
as different.[226][227] Abhava-pramana has been discussed in Advaita
Advaita
in the context of Padārtha (पदार्थ, referent of a term). A Padartha is defined as that which is simultaneously Astitva (existent), Jneyatva (knowable) and Abhidheyatva (nameable).[228] Abhava
Abhava
was further refined in four types, by the schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
that accepted it as a useful method of epistemology: dhvamsa (termination of what existed), atyanta-abhava (impossibility, absolute non-existence, contradiction), anyonya-abhava (mutual negation, reciprocal absence) and pragavasa (prior, antecedent non-existence).[210][228][229] Śabda (relying on testimony)[edit] Śabda (शब्द), relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts.[207][212] Hiriyanna explains Sabda-pramana as a concept which means reliable expert testimony. The schools of Hinduism which consider it epistemically valid suggest that a human being needs to know numerous facts, and with the limited time and energy available, he can learn only a fraction of those facts and truths directly.[230] He must rely on others, his parent, family, friends, teachers, ancestors and kindred members of society to rapidly acquire and share knowledge and thereby enrich each other's lives. This means of gaining proper knowledge is either spoken or written, but through Sabda (words).[230] The reliability of the source is important, and legitimate knowledge can only come from the Sabda of reliable sources.[212][230] The disagreement between Advaita
Advaita
and other schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
has been on how to establish reliability.[231] Ethics[edit] Some claim, states Deutsch, "that Advaita
Advaita
turns its back on all theoretical and practical considerations of morality and, if not unethical, is at least 'a-ethical' in character".[232] However, adds Deutsch, ethics does have a firm place in this philosophy. Its ideology is permeated with ethics and value questions enter into every metaphysical and epistemological analysis, and it considers "an independent, separate treatment of ethics are unnecessary".[232][233] According to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, states Deutsch, there cannot be "any absolute moral laws, principles or duties", instead in its axiological view Atman is "beyond good and evil", and all values result from self-knowledge of the reality of "distinctionless Oneness" of one's real self, every other being and all manifestations of Brahman.[234] Advaitin ethics includes lack of craving, lack of dual distinctions between one's own soul and another being's, good and just Karma.[235] The values and ethics in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
emanate from what it views as inherent in the state of liberating self-knowledge. This state, according to Rambachan, includes and leads to the understanding that "the self is the self of all, the knower of self sees the self in all beings and all beings in the self."[74] Such knowledge and understanding of the indivisibility of one's and other's Atman, Advaitins believe leads to "a deeper identity and affinity with all". It does not alienate or separate an Advaitin from his or her community, rather awakens "the truth of life's unity and interrelatedness".[74] These ideas are exemplified in the Isha Upanishad
Upanishad
– a sruti for Advaita, as follows:

One who sees all beings in the self alone, and the self of all beings, feels no hatred by virtue of that understanding. For the seer of oneness, who knows all beings to be the self, where is delusion and sorrow?

— Isha Upanishad
Upanishad
6-7, Translated by A Rambachan[236]

Adi Shankara, a leading proponent of Advaita, in verse 1.25 to 1.26 of his Upadeśasāhasrī, asserts that the Self-knowledge is understood and realized when one's mind is purified by the observation of Yamas (ethical precepts) such as Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(non-violence, abstinence from injuring others in body, mind and thoughts), Satya
Satya
(truth, abstinence from falsehood), Asteya
Asteya
(abstinence from theft), Aparigraha (abstinence from possessiveness and craving) and a simple life of meditation and reflection.[237] Rituals and rites can help focus and prepare the mind for the journey to Self-knowledge,[238] however, Shankara discourages ritual worship and oblations to Deva (God), because that assumes the Self within is different than Brahman. The "doctrine of difference" is wrong, asserts Shankara, because, "he who knows the Brahman
Brahman
is one and he is another, does not know Brahman".[239] Elsewhere, in verses 1.26-1.28, the Advaita
Advaita
text Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
states the ethical premise of equality of all beings. Any Bheda (discrimination), states Shankara, based on class or caste or parentage is a mark of inner error and lack of liberating knowledge.[240] This text states that the fully liberated person understands and practices the ethics of non-difference.[240]

One, who is eager to realize this highest truth spoken of in the Sruti, should rise above the fivefold form of desire: for a son, for wealth, for this world and the next, and are the outcome of a false reference to the Self of Varna (castes, colors, classes) and orders of life. These references are contradictory to right knowledge, and reasons are given by the Srutis regarding the prohibition of the acceptance of difference. For when the knowledge that the one non-dual Atman (Self) is beyond phenomenal existence is generated by the scriptures and reasoning, there cannot exist a knowledge side by side that is contradictory or contrary to it. — Adi Shankara, Upadesha Sahasri 1.44, [241][242]

Texts[edit] The Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Brahma
Brahma
Sutras are the central texts of the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition, providing the truths about the identity of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
and their changeless nature.[243][244] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
gave a nondualist interpretation of these texts in his commentaries. Adi Shankara's Bhashya (commentaries) have become central texts in the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy, but are one among many ancient and medieval manuscripts available or accepted in this tradition.[13] The subsequent Advaita
Advaita
tradition has further elaborated on these sruti and commentaries. Prasthanatrayi[edit] The Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition provides exegeses of the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavadgita, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi, literally, three sources.[9][243][244]

The Upanishads,[note 19] or Śruti
Śruti
prasthāna; considered the Śruti (Vedic scriptures) foundation of Vedanta.[note 20][247][248][249] Most scholars, states Eliot Deutsch, are convinced that the Śruti
Śruti
in general, and the Upanishads
Upanishads
in particular, express "a very rich diversity" of ideas, with the early Upanishads
Upanishads
such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
and Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
being more readily amenable to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school's interpretation than the middle or later Upanishads.[250][251] In addition to the oldest Upanishads, states Williams, the Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads
Upanishads
group composed in pre-Shankara times "express a decidedly Advaita
Advaita
outlook".[252] The Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, or Nyaya
Nyaya
prasthana / Yukti prasthana; considered the reason-based foundation of Vedanta. The Brahma
Brahma
Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads. The diversity in the teachings of the Upanishads
Upanishads
necessitated the systematization of these teachings. The only extant version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana. Like the Upanishads, Brahma
Brahma
Sutras is also an aphoristic text, and can be interpreted as a non-theistic Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
text or as a theistic Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
text. This has led, states Stephen Phillips, to its varying interpretations by scholars of various sub-schools of Vedanta.[253] The Brahmasutra
Brahmasutra
is considered by the Advaita
Advaita
school as the Nyaya
Nyaya
Prasthana (canonical base for reasoning).[254] The Bhagavad Gita, or Smriti
Smriti
prasthāna; considered the Smriti (remembered tradition) foundation of Vedanta.[254] It has been widely studied by Advaita
Advaita
scholars, including a commentary by Adi Shankara.[255][256]

Textual authority[edit] The identity of Atman and Brahman, and their unchanging, eternal nature,[257] are basic truths in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. The school considers the knowledge claims in the Vedas
Vedas
to be the crucial part of the Vedas, not its karma-kanda (ritual injunctions).[243] The knowledge claims about self being identical to the nature of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
are found in the Upanishads, which Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
has regarded as "errorless revealed truth."[243] Nevertheless, states Koller, Advaita Vedantins did not entirely rely on revelation, but critically examined their teachings using reason and experience, and this led them to investigate and critique competing theories.[243] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, like all orthodox schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, accepts as an epistemic premise that Śruti
Śruti
(Vedic literature) is a reliable source of knowledge.[258][259][260] The Śruti
Śruti
includes the four Vedas
Vedas
including its four layers of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.[261] Of these, the Upanishads
Upanishads
are the most referred to texts in the Advaita
Advaita
school. The possibility of different interpretations of the Vedic literature, states Arvind Sharma, was recognized by ancient Indian scholars.[262][263] The Brahmasutra
Brahmasutra
(also called Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutra, composed in 1st millennium BCE) accepted this in verse 1.1.4 and asserts the need for the Upanishadic teachings to be understood not in piecemeal cherrypicked basis, rather in a unified way wherein the ideas in the Vedic texts are harmonized with other means of knowledge such as perception, inference and remaining pramanas.[262][254] This theme has been central to the Advaita
Advaita
school, making the Brahmasutra as a common reference and a consolidated textual authority for Advaita.[262][264] The Bhagavad Gita, similarly in parts can be interpreted to be a monist Advaita
Advaita
text, and in other parts as theistic Dvaita
Dvaita
text. It too has been widely studied by Advaita
Advaita
scholars, including a commentary by Adi Shankara.[265][263] History of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta[edit]

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
with Disciples, by Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma
(1904)

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
existed prior to Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
but found in him its most influential expounder.[266] Pre-Shankara Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta[edit] Of the Vedanta-school before the composition of the Brahma
Brahma
Sutras (400–450 CE[267]), wrote Nakamura in 1950, almost nothing is known.[267] The two Advaita
Advaita
writings of pre-Shankara period, known to scholars such as Nakamura in the first half of 20th-century, were the Vākyapadīya, written by Bhartṛhari (second half 5th century[268]), and the Māndūkya-kārikā written by Gaudapada
Gaudapada
(7th century CE).[267] Scholarship after 1950 suggests that almost all Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads have a strong Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
outlook.[269][270][271] Six of these Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads
Upanishads
– Aruni, Kundika, Kathashruti, Paramahamsa, Jabala and Brahma
Brahma
– were composed before the 3rd-century CE, likely in the centuries before or after the start of the common era, states Sprockhoff; the Asrama Upanishad
Upanishad
is dated to the 3rd-century.[272][273] The strong Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
views in these ancient texts may be, states Patrick Olivelle, because major Hindu
Hindu
monasteries of this period (early 1st millennium CE) belonged to the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta tradition.[269] Earliest Vedanta
Vedanta
- Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahma
Brahma
Sutras[edit] Main article: Brahma
Brahma
Sutras See also: Vedas, Upanishads, and Darsanas The Upanishads
Upanishads
form the basic texts, of which Vedanta
Vedanta
gives an interpretation.[274] The Upanishads
Upanishads
do not contain "a rigorous philosophical inquiry identifying the doctrines and formulating the supporting arguments".[275][note 21] This philosophical inquiry was performed by the darsanas, the various philosophical schools.[277][note 22] Bādarāyana's Brahma
Brahma
Sutras[edit] The Brahma
Brahma
Sutras of Bādarāyana, also called the Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutra,[279] were compiled in its present form around 400–450 CE,[280] but "the great part of the Sutra
Sutra
must have been in existence much earlier than that".[280] Estimates of the date of Bādarāyana's lifetime differ between 200 BCE and 200 CE.[281] The Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
is a critical study of the teachings of the Upanishads. It was and is a guide-book for the great teachers of the Vedantic systems.[279] Bādarāyana was not the first person to systematise the teachings of the Upanishads.[282] He refers to seven Vedantic teachers before him:[282]

From the way in which Bādarāyana cites the views of others it is obvious that the teachings of the Upanishads
Upanishads
must have been analyzed and interpreted by quite a few before him and that his systematization of them in 555 sutras arranged in four chapters must have been the last attempt, most probably the best.[282]

Between Brahma
Brahma
Sutras and Shankara[edit] According to Nakamura, "there must have been an enormous number of other writings turned out in this period, but unfortunately all of them have been scattered or lost and have not come down to us today".[267] In his commentaries, Shankara mentions 99 different predecessors of his Sampradaya.[283] In the beginning of his commentary on the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
Shankara salutes the teachers of the Brahmavidya Sampradaya.[web 7] Pre-Shankara doctrines and sayings can be traced in the works of the later schools, which does give insight into the development of early Vedanta philosophy.[267] The names of various important early Vedanta
Vedanta
thinkers have been listed in the Siddhitraya by Yamunācārya (c.1050), the Vedārthasamgraha by Rāmānuja (c.1050–1157), and the Yatīndramatadīpikā by Śrīnivāsa-dāsa.[267] Combined together,[267] at least fourteen thinkers are known to have existed between the composition of the Brahman
Brahman
Sutras and Shankara's lifetime.[267][note 23] Although Shankara is often considered to be the founder of the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
school, according to Nakamura, comparison of the known teachings of these early Vedantins and Shankara's thought shows that most of the characteristics of Shankara's thought "were advocated by someone before Śankara".[284] Shankara "was the person who synthesized the Advaita-vāda which had previously existed before him".[284] In this synthesis, he was the rejuvenator and defender of ancient learning.[285] He was an unequalled commentator,[285] due to whose efforts and contributions the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
assumed a dominant position within Indian philosophy.[285] Gaudapada
Gaudapada
and Māṇḍukya Kārikā[edit] Main article: Gaudapada

Statue of Gaudapada.

Gaudapada
Gaudapada
(6th century)[286] was the teacher of Govinda Bhagavatpada and the grandteacher of Shankara. Gaudapada
Gaudapada
uses the concepts of Ajativada
Ajativada
and Maya[287] to establish "that from the level of ultimate truth the world is a cosmic illusion,"[288] and "suggests that the whole of our waking experience is exactly the same as an illusory and insubstantial dream."[289] In contrast, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
insists upon a distinction between waking experience and dreams.[289] Mandukya Karika[edit] Gaudapada
Gaudapada
wrote or compiled[290] the Māṇḍukya Kārikā, also known as the Gauḍapāda Kārikā or the Āgama Śāstra.[291] The Māṇḍukya Kārikā is a commentary in verse form on the Mandukya Upanishad, one of the shortest Upanishads
Upanishads
consisting of just 13 prose sentences. Of the ancient literature related to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, the oldest surviving complete text is the Māṇḍukya Kārikā.[292] Many other texts with same type of teachings and which were older than Māṇḍukya Kārikā existed and this is unquestionable because other scholars and their views are cited by Gaudapada, Shankara and Anandagiri, according to Hajime Nakamura.[293] Gaudapada
Gaudapada
relied particularly on Mandukya Upanishad, as well as Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads.[292] The Mandukya Upanishad
Upanishad
was considered to be a Śruti
Śruti
before the era of Adi Shankara, but not treated as particularly important.[291] In later post-Shankara period its value became far more important, and regarded as expressing the essence of the Upanishad
Upanishad
philosophy. The entire Karika became a key text for the Advaita
Advaita
school in this later era.[294][note 24] Shri Gaudapadacharya Math[edit] Main article: Shri Gaudapadacharya Math Around 740 AD Gaudapada
Gaudapada
founded Shri Gaudapadacharya Math[note 25], also known as Kavaḷē maṭha. It is located in Kavale, Ponda, Goa,[web 8] and is the oldest matha of the South Indian Saraswat Brahmins.[297][web 9] Adi Shankara[edit] Main article: Adi Shankara Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
(788–820), also known as Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya and Ādi Śaṅkarācārya, represents a turning point in the development of Vedanta.[298] After the growing influence of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Vedanta, culminating in the works of Gaudapada, Adi Shankara gave a Vedantic character to the Buddhistic elements in these works,[298] synthesising and rejuvenating the doctrine of Advaita.[285] Using ideas in ancient Indian texts, Shankara systematized the foundation for Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
in the 8th century CE, though the school was founded many centuries earlier by Badarayana.[299] His thematic focus extended beyond metaphysics and soteriology, and he laid a strong emphasis on Pramanas, that is epistemology or "means to gain knowledge, reasoning methods that empower one to gain reliable knowledge".[citation needed] Rambachan, for example, summarizes the widely held view on one aspect of Shankara's epistemology before critiquing it as follows,

According to these [widely represented contemporary] studies, Shankara only accorded a provisional validity to the knowledge gained by inquiry into the words of the Śruti
Śruti
(Vedas) and did not see the latter as the unique source (pramana) of Brahmajnana. The affirmations of the Śruti, it is argued, need to be verified and confirmed by the knowledge gained through direct experience (anubhava) and the authority of the Śruti, therefore, is only secondary.[265]

Sengaku Mayeda concurs, adding Shankara maintained the need for objectivity in the process of gaining knowledge (vastutantra), and considered subjective opinions (purushatantra) and injunctions in Śruti
Śruti
(codanatantra) as secondary.[300] Mayeda cites Shankara's explicit statements emphasizing epistemology (pramana-janya) in section 1.18.133 of Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
and section 1.1.4 of Brahmasutra-bhasya.[300][301] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
cautioned against cherrypicking a phrase or verse out of context from Vedic literature, and remarked that the Anvaya (theme or purport) of any treatise can only be correctly understood if one attends to the Samanvayat Tatparya Linga, that is six characteristics of the text under consideration:

The common in Upakrama (introductory statement) and Upasamhara (conclusions) Abhyasa (message repeated) Apurvata (unique proposition or novelty) Phala (fruit or result derived) Arthavada (explained meaning, praised point) Yukti (verifiable reasoning).[302][303]

While this methodology has roots in the theoretical works of Nyaya school of Hinduism, Shankara consolidated and applied it with his unique exegetical method called Anvaya-Vyatireka, which states that for proper understanding one must "accept only meanings that are compatible with all characteristics" and "exclude meanings that are incompatible with any".[304][305] Hacker and Phillips note that this insight into rules of reasoning and hierarchical emphasis on epistemic steps is "doubtlessly the suggestion" of Shankara in Brahma-sutra, an insight that flowers in the works of his companion and disciple Padmapada.[306] Merrell-Wolff states that Shankara accepts Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads
Upanishads
as a source of knowledge as he develops his philosophical theses, yet he never rests his case on the ancient texts, rather proves each thesis, point by point using pranamas (epistemology), reason and experience.[307][308] Historical context[edit] See also: Late-Classical Age and Hinduism
Hinduism
Middle Ages Shankara lived in the time of the so-called "Late classical Hinduism",[309] which lasted from 650 to 1100 CE.[309] This era was one of political instability that followed Gupta dynasty
Gupta dynasty
and King Harsha of the 7th century CE.[310] It was a time of social and cultural change as the ideas of Buddhism, Jainism, and various traditions within Hinduism
Hinduism
were competing for members.[311][312] Buddhism
Buddhism
in particular influenced India's spiritual traditions in the first 700 years of the 1st millennium CE.[310][313] Shankara and his contemporaries made a significant contribution in understanding Buddhism
Buddhism
and the ancient Vedic traditions; they then transformed the extant ideas, particularly reforming the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of Hinduism, making it India's most important tradition for more than a thousand years.[310] Writings[edit] Main article: Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
bibliography Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is best known for his systematic reviews and commentaries (Bhasyas) on ancient Indian texts. Shankara's masterpiece of commentary is the Brahmasutrabhasya (literally, commentary on Brahma Sutra), a fundamental text of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism.[314] His commentaries on ten Mukhya (principal) Upanishads
Upanishads
are also considered authentic by scholars.[314][315] Other authentic works of Shankara include commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
(part of his Prasthana Trayi Bhasya).[265] Shankara's Vivarana (tertiary notes) on the commentary by Vedavyasa on Yogasutras as well as those on Apastamba Dharma-sũtras (Adhyatama-patala-bhasya) are accepted by scholars as authentic works of Adi Shankara.[316][317] Among the Stotra
Stotra
(poetic works), the Daksinamurti Stotra, Bhajagovinda Stotra, Sivanandalahari, Carpata-panjarika, Visnu-satpadi, Harimide, Dasa-shloki, and Krishna-staka are likely to be authentic.[316][318] He also authored Upadesasahasri, his most important original philosophical work.[299][317] Of other original Prakaranas (प्रकरण, monographs, treatise), 76 works are attributed to Adi Shankara. Modern era Indian scholars Belvalkar and Upadhyaya accept five and thirty nine works, respectively, as authentic.[319] Several commentaries on Nrisimha-Purvatatapaniya and Shveshvatara Upanishads
Upanishads
have been attributed to Adi Shankara, but their authenticity is highly doubtful.[315][320] Similarly, commentaries on several early and later Upanishads
Upanishads
attributed to Shankara are rejected by scholars[321] as his works, and are likely works of later Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars; these include the Kaushitaki Upanishad, Maitri Upanishad, Kaivalya Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Sakatayana Upanishad, Mandala Brahmana
Brahmana
Upanishad, Maha Narayana Upanishad, and Gopalatapaniya Upanishad.[320] The authenticity of Shankara being the author of Vivekacūḍāmaṇi[322] has been questioned, but scholars generally credit it to him.[323] The authorship of Shankara of his Mandukya Upanishad
Upanishad
Bhasya and his supplementary commentary on Gaudapada's Māṇḍukya Kārikā has been disputed by Nakamura.[324] However, other scholars state that the commentary on Mandukya, which is actually a commentary on Madukya-Karikas by Gaudapada, may be authentic.[316][320] Influence of Shankara[edit] Shankara's status in the tradition of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is unparallelled. He travelled all over India to help restore the study of the Vedas.[325] His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism
Smartism
and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[326] He introduced the Pañcāyatana form of worship, the simultaneous worship of five deities – Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu, Shiva, and Devi. Shankara explained that all deities were but different forms of the one Brahman, the invisible Supreme Being.[327] Benedict Ashley credits Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
for unifying two seemingly disparate philosophical doctrines in Hinduism, namely Atman and Brahman.[328] Isaeva states that Shankara's influence extended to reforming Hinduism, founding monasteries, edifying disciples, disputing opponents, and engaging in philosophic activity that, in the eyes of Indian tradition, helped revive "the orthodox idea of the unity of all beings" and Vedanta
Vedanta
thought.[329] Some scholars doubt Shankara's early influence in India.[330] According to King and Roodurmun, until the 10th century Shankara was overshadowed by his older contemporary Mandana-Misra, who was considered to be the major representative of Advaita.[331][332] Other scholars state that the historical records for this period are unclear, and little reliable information is known about the various contemporaries and disciples of Shankara.[333] Several scholars suggest that the historical fame and cultural influence of Shankara grew centuries later, particularly during the era of the Muslim invasions and consequent devastation of India.[330][334] Many of Shankara's biographies were created and published in and after the 14th century, such as the widely cited Vidyaranya's Śankara-vijaya. Vidyaranya, also known as Madhava, who was the 12th Jagadguru of the Śringeri Śarada Pītham from 1380 to 1386,[335] inspired the re-creation of the Hindu
Hindu
Vijayanagara Empire of South India
South India
in response to the devastation caused by the Islamic Delhi Sultanate.[334][336] He and his brothers, suggest Paul Hacker and other scholars,[330][334] wrote about Śankara as well as extensive Advaitic commentaries on the Vedas
Vedas
and Dharma. Vidyaranya was a minister in the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
and enjoyed royal support,[336] and his sponsorship and methodical efforts helped establish Shankara as a rallying symbol of values, spread historical and cultural influence of Shankara's Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophies, and establish monasteries (mathas) to expand the cultural influence of Shankara and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta.[330] Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra[edit] Main articles: Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra Sureśvara (fl. 800-900 CE)[337] and Maṇḍana Miśra were contemporaries of Shankara, Sureśvara often (incorrectly) being identified with Maṇḍana Miśra.[338] Both explained Sankara "on the basis of their personal convictions".[338] Sureśvara has also been credited as the founder of a pre-Shankara branch of Advaita Vedanta.[337] Maṇḍana Miśra was a Mimamsa
Mimamsa
scholar and a follower of Kumarila, but also wrote a seminal text on Advaita
Advaita
that has survived into the modern era, the Brahma-siddhi.[339][340] According to tradition, Maṇḍana Miśra and his wife were defeated by Shankara in a debate, after which he became a follower of Shankara.[339] Yet, his attitude toward Shankara was that of a "self-confident rival teacher of Advaita",[341] and his influence was such that some regard the Brahma-siddhi to have "set forth a non-Shankaran brand of Advaita""[339] The "theory of error" set forth in this work became the normative Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
theory of error.[342] It was Vachaspati Misra's commentary on this work that linked it to Shankara's teaching.[343] His influential thesis in the Advaita
Advaita
tradition has been that errors are opportunities because they "lead to truth", and full correct knowledge requires that not only should one understand the truth but also examine and understand errors as well as what is not truth.[344] Hiriyanna and Kuppuswami Sastra have pointed out that Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra had different views on various doctrinal points:[345]

The locus of avidya:[345] according to Maṇḍana Miśra, the individual jiva is the locus of avidya, whereas Suresvara contends that the avidya regarding Brahman
Brahman
is located in Brahman.[345] These two different stances are also reflected in the opposing positions of the Bhamati
Bhamati
school and the Vivarana school.[345] Liberation: according to Maṇḍana Miśra, the knowledge that arises from the Mahavakya is insufficient for liberation. Only the direct realization of Brahma
Brahma
is liberating, which can only be attained by meditation.[346] According to Suresvara, this knowledge is directly liberating, while meditation is at best a useful aid.[341][note 26]

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
sub-schools[edit] After Shankara's death, several sub-schools developed. Two of them still exist today, the Bhāmatī
Bhāmatī
and the Vivarana.[web 10][283] Two defunct schools are the Pancapadika and Istasiddhi, which were replaced by Prakasatman's Vivarana school.[348] These schools worked out the logical implications of various Advaita doctrines. Two of the problems they encountered were the further interpretations of the concepts of māyā and avidya.[web 10] Padmapada
Padmapada
- Pancapadika school[edit] Padmapada
Padmapada
(c. 800 CE)[349] was a direct disciple of Shankara who wrote the Pancapadika, a commentary on the Sankara-bhaya.[349] Padmapada diverged from Shankara in his description of avidya, designating prakrti as avidya or ajnana.[350] Vachaspati Misra – Bhamati
Bhamati
school[edit] Main articles: Bhamati
Bhamati
and Vācaspati Miśra Vachaspati Misra (800–900 CE)[351] wrote the Brahmatattva-samiksa, a commentary on Maṇḍana Miśra's Brahma-siddhi, which provides the link between Mandana Misra and Shankara[343] and attempts to harmonise Shankara's thought with that of Mandana Misra.[web 10] According to Advaita
Advaita
tradition, Shankara reincarnated as Vachaspati Misra "to popularise the Advaita
Advaita
System through his Bhamati".[351] Only two works are known of Vachaspati Misra, the Brahmatattva-samiksa on Maṇḍana Miśra's Brahma-siddhi, and his Bhamati
Bhamati
on the Sankara-bhasya, Shankara's commentary on the Brahma-sutras.[343] The name of the Bhamati
Bhamati
sub-school is derived from this Bhamati.[web 10] The Bhamati
Bhamati
school takes an ontological approach. It sees the Jiva
Jiva
as the source of avidya.[web 10] It sees meditation as the main factor in the acquirement of liberation, while the study of the Vedas
Vedas
and reflection are additional factors.[352] Prakasatman - Vivarana school[edit] Main article: Vivarana Prakasatman (c. 1200–1300)[348] wrote the Pancapadika-Vivarana, a commentary on the Pancapadika by Padmapadacharya.[348] The Vivarana lends its name to the subsequent school. According to Roodurmum, "[H]is line of thought [...] became the leitmotif of all subsequent developments in the evolution of the Advaita
Advaita
tradition."[348] The Vivarana school takes an epistemological approach. Prakasatman was the first to propound the theory of mulavidya or maya as being of "positive beginningless nature",[353] and sees Brahman
Brahman
as the source of avidya. Critics object that Brahman
Brahman
is pure consciousness, so it cannot be the source of avidya. Another problem is that contradictory qualities, namely knowledge and ignorance, are attributed to Brahman.[web 10] Vimuktatman - Ista-Siddhi[edit] Vimuktatman (c. 1200 CE)[354] wrote the Ista-siddhi.[354] It is one of the four traditional siddhi, together with Mandana's Brahma-siddhi, Suresvara's Naiskarmya-siddhi, and Madusudana's Advaita-siddhi.[355] According to Vimuktatman, absolute Reality
Reality
is "pure intuitive consciousness".[356] His school of thought was eventually replaced by Prakasatman's Vivarana school.[348] Later Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition[edit] See also: Dashanami Sampradaya
Sampradaya
and List of teachers of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta According to Sangeetha Menon, prominent names in the later Advaita tradition are:[web 11]

Prakāsātman, Vimuktātman, Sarvajñātman (10th century), Śrī Harṣa, Citsukha (12th century), ānandagiri, Amalānandā (13th century), Vidyāraņya, Śaṅkarānandā (14th century), Sadānandā (15th century), Prakāṣānanda, Nṛsiṁhāśrama (16th century), Madhusūdhana Sarasvati, Dharmarāja Advarindra, Appaya Dīkśita (17th century), Sadaśiva Brahmendra (18th century), Candraśekhara Bhārati, Chandrasekharendra Saraswati
Saraswati
Swamigal, Sacchidānandendra Saraswati
Saraswati
(20th century).

Contemporary teachers are the orthodox Jagadguru of Sringeri
Sringeri
Sharada Peetham; the more traditional teachers Sivananda Saraswati (1887–1963), Chinmayananda
Chinmayananda
Saraswati,[web 12] and Dayananda Saraswati
Saraswati
(Arsha Vidya);[web 12] and less traditional teachers such as Narayana Guru.[web 12] Sampradaya[edit] Monastic order: Advaita
Advaita
Mathas[edit] See also: Dashanami Sampradaya

(Vidyashankara temple) at Sringeri
Sringeri
Sharada Peetham, Shringeri

Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is not just a philosophical system, but also a tradition of renunciation. Philosophy and renunciation are closely related:[web 13]

Most of the notable authors in the advaita tradition were members of the sannyasa tradition, and both sides of the tradition share the same values, attitudes and metaphysics.[web 13]

Shankara organized monks under 10 names and established mathas for them. These mathas contributed to the influence of Shankara, which was "due to institutional factors". The mathas which he built exist until today, and preserve the teachings and influence of Shankara, "while the writings of other scholars before him came to be forgotten with the passage of time".[357] Shri Gaudapadacharya Math[edit] Main article: Shri Gaudapadacharya Math Around 740 CE, Gaudapada
Gaudapada
founded Shri Gaudapadacharya Math[note 27], also known as Kavaḷē maṭha. It is located in Kavale, Ponda, Goa,[web 14] and is the oldest matha of the South Indian Saraswat Brahmins.[297][web 15] Shankara's monastic tradition[edit] Shankara, himself considered to be an incarnation of Shiva,[web 13] established the Dashanami Sampradaya, organizing a section of the Ekadandi monks under an umbrella grouping of ten names.[web 13] Several Hindu
Hindu
monastic and Ekadandi traditions, however, remained outside the organisation of the Dasanāmis.[358][359][360] Sankara organised the Hindu
Hindu
monks of these ten sects or names under four Maṭhas (Sanskrit: मठ) (monasteries), called the Amnaya Mathas, with the headquarters at Dvārakā
Dvārakā
in the West, Jagannatha Puri in the East, Sringeri
Sringeri
in the South and Badrikashrama
Badrikashrama
in the North.[web 13] Each math was first headed by one of his four main disciples, and the tradition continues since then.[note 28] According to another tradition in Kerala, after Sankara's samadhi at Vadakkunnathan Temple, his disciples founded four mathas in Thrissur, namely Naduvil Madhom, Thekke Madhom, Idayil Madhom and Vadakke Madhom. The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Adi Shankara, and their details.[web 16]

Shishya (lineage) Direction Maṭha Mahāvākya Veda Sampradaya

Padmapāda East Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) Rig Veda Bhogavala

Sureśvara South Sringeri
Sringeri
Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda Bhūrivala

Hastāmalakācārya West Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ Tattvamasi
Tattvamasi
(That thou art) Sama Veda Kitavala

Toṭakācārya North Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda Nandavala

Monks of these ten orders differ in part in their beliefs and practices, and a section of them is not considered to be restricted to specific changes made by Shankara. While the dasanāmis associated with the Sankara maths follow the procedures enumerated by Adi Śankara, some of these orders remained partly or fully independent in their belief and practices; and outside the official control of the Sankara maths. The advaita sampradaya is not a Saiva
Saiva
sect,[web 13][363] despite the historical links with Shaivism.[note 29] Nevertheless, contemporary Sankaracaryas have more influence among Saiva
Saiva
communities than among Vaisnava communities.[web 13] Relationship with other forms of Vedanta[edit] The Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
ideas, particularly of 8th century Adi Shankara, were challenged by theistic Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophies that emerged centuries later, such as the 11th-century Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
(qualified nondualism) of Ramanuja, and the 14th-century Dvaita
Dvaita
(theistic dualism) of Madhvacharya.[364] Vishishtadvaita[edit] Main article: Vishishtadvaita Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school and Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
school are both nondualism Vedanta
Vedanta
schools,[365][366] both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
and his Dvaita subschool of Vedanta
Vedanta
believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.[367][368] Shankara's theory posits that only Brahman
Brahman
and causes are metaphysical unchanging reality, while the empirical world (Maya) and observed effects are changing, illusive and of relative existence.[369][370] Spiritual liberation to Shankara is the full comprehension and realization of oneness of one's unchanging Atman (soul) as the same as Atman in everyone else as well as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.[366][371][372] In contrast, Ramanuja's theory posits both Brahman
Brahman
and the world of matter are two different absolutes, both metaphysically real, neither should be called false or illusive, and saguna Brahman
Brahman
with attributes is also real.[370] God, like man, states Ramanuja, has both soul and body, and all of the world of matter is the glory of God's body.[365] The path to Brahman
Brahman
(Vishnu), asserted Ramanuja, is devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of personal god (saguna Brahman, Vishnu), one which ultimately leads one to the oneness with nirguna Brahman.[365][369][370] Shuddhadvaita[edit] Main article: Shuddhadvaita Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
(1479–1531 CE), the proponent of the philosophy of Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
Brahmvad enunciates that Ishvara
Ishvara
has created the world without connection with any external agency such as Maya (which itself is his power) and manifests Himself through the world.[373] That is why shuddhadvaita is known as ‘Unmodified transformation’ or ‘Avikṛta Pariṇāmavāda’. Brahman
Brahman
or Ishvara
Ishvara
desired to become many, and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world. Vallabha
Vallabha
recognises Brahman
Brahman
as the whole and the individual as a ‘part’ (but devoid of bliss).[374] Dvaita[edit] Main article: Dvaita Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was also a critic of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. Advaita's nondualism asserted that Atman (soul) and Brahman
Brahman
are identical, there is interconnected oneness of all souls and Brahman, and there are no pluralities.[375][376] Madhva in contrast asserted that Atman (soul) and Brahman
Brahman
are different, only Vishnu
Vishnu
is the Lord (Brahman), individual souls are also different and depend on Vishnu, and there are pluralities.[375][376] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
stated that both Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
and Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
were a nihilistic school of thought.[377] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
wrote four major texts, including Upadhikhandana and Tattvadyota, primarily dedicated to criticizing Advaita.[377] Historical influence[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
stated "I am an advaitist".[378][379]

Scholars are divided on the historical influence of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. Some Indologists state that it is one of the most studied Hindu philosophy and the most influential schools of classical Indian thought.[380][21][381] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, states Eliot Deutsch, "has been and continues to be the most widely accepted system of thought among philosophers in India, and it is, we believe, one of the greatest philosophical achievements to be found in the East or the West".[382] Smarta Tradition[edit] Main article: Smarta Tradition The Smarta tradition
Smarta tradition
of Hinduism
Hinduism
is an ancient tradition,[note 30] particularly found in south and west India, that revers all Hindu divinities as a step in their spiritual pursuit.[384][385][386] Their worship practice is called Panchayatana puja.[387][384] The worship symbolically consists of five deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Devi
Devi
or Durga, Surya
Surya
and an Ishta Devata
Ishta Devata
or any personal god of devotee's preference.[385][388] In the Smarta tradition, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
ideas combined with bhakti are its foundation. Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is regarded as the greatest teacher[386] and reformer of the Smarta.[389] According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and practices became the doctrinal unifier of previously conflicting practices with the smarta tradition.[note 31] Philosophically, the Smarta tradition
Smarta tradition
emphasizes that all images and statues (murti), or just five marks or any anicons on the ground, are visibly convenient icons of spirituality saguna Brahman.[391][387] The multiple icons are seen as multiple representations of the same idea, rather than as distinct beings. These serve as a step and means to realizing the abstract Ultimate Reality
Reality
called nirguna Brahman. The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, then follow a philosophical and meditative path to understanding the oneness of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman
Brahman
– as "That art Thou".[391][392] Other Hindu
Hindu
traditions[edit] Within the ancient and medieval texts of Hindu
Hindu
traditions, such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism, the ideas of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
have had a major influence. Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
influenced Krishna
Krishna
Vaishnavism in the different parts of India.[393] One of its most popular text, the Bhagavata Purana, adopts and integrates in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta philosophy.[394][395][396] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
is generally accepted by scholars to have been composed in the second half of 1st millennium CE.[397][398] In the ancient and medieval literature of Shaivism, called the Āgamas, the influence of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is once again prominent.[399][400][401] Of the 92 Āgamas, ten are Dvaita
Dvaita
texts, eighteen are Bhedabheda, and sixty-four are Advaita
Advaita
texts.[402][403] According to Natalia Isaeva, there is an evident and natural link between 6th-century Gaudapada's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
ideas and Kashmir Shaivism.[404] Shaktism, the Hindu
Hindu
tradition where a goddess is considered identical to Brahman, has similarly flowered from a syncretism of the monist premises of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and dualism premises of Samkhya–Yoga school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, sometimes referred to as Shaktadavaitavada (literally, the path of nondualistic Shakti).[405][406][407] Other influential ancient and medieval classical texts of Hinduism such as the Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya, Yoga
Yoga
Vashishta, Avadhuta Gita, Markandeya Purana
Markandeya Purana
and Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads
Upanishads
predominantly incorporate premises and ideas of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta.[408][409][410] Development of central position[edit] Main article: Neo-Vedanta Already in medieval times, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
came to be regarded as the highest of the Indian religious philosophies,[411] a development which was reinforced in modern times due to western interest in Advaita Vedanta, and the subsequent influence on western perceptions on Indian perceptions of Hinduism.[33] In contrast, King states that its present position was a response of Hindu
Hindu
intellectuals to centuries of Christian polemic aimed at establishing " Hindu
Hindu
inferiority complex" during the colonial rule of the Indian subcontinent.[412] The "humanistic, inclusivist" formulation, now called Neo-Vedanta, attempted to respond to this colonial stereotyping of "Indian culture was backward, superstitious and inferior to the West", states King. Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
was projected as the central philosophy of Hinduism, and Neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
subsumed and incorporated Buddhist ideas thereby making the Buddha
Buddha
a part of the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition, all in an attempt to reposition the history of Indian culture. Thus, states King, neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
developed as a reaction to western Orientalism
Orientalism
and Perennialism.[413] With the efforts of Vivekananda, modern formulation of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
has "become a dominant force in Indian intellectual thought", though Hindu
Hindu
beliefs and practices are diverse.[414] Unifying Hinduism[edit] Main article: Unifying Hinduism Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
came to occupy a central position in the classification of various Hindu
Hindu
traditions. To some scholars, it is with the arrival of Islamic rule, first in the form of Delhi Sultanate thereafter the Mughal Empire, and the subsequent persecution of Indian religions, Hindu
Hindu
scholars began a self-conscious attempts to define an identity and unity.[415][416] Between the twelfth and the fourteen century, according to Andrew Nicholson, this effort emerged with a classification of astika and nastika systems of Indian philosophies.[415] Certain thinkers, according to Nicholson thesis, began to retrospectively classify ancient thought into "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[417] Other scholars, acknowledges Nicholson, present an alternate thesis. The scriptures such as the Vedas, Upanishads
Upanishads
and Bhagavad Gita, texts such as Dharmasutras
Dharmasutras
and Puranas, and various ideas that are considered to be paradigmatic Hinduism
Hinduism
are traceable to being thousands of years old. Unlike Christianity and Islam, Hinduism
Hinduism
as a religion does not have a single founder, rather it is a fusion of diverse scholarship where a galaxy of thinkers openly challenged each other's teachings and offered their own ideas.[417] The term "Hindu" too, states Arvind Sharma, appears in much older texts such as those in Arabic that record the Islamic invasion or regional rule of Indian subcontinent. Some of these texts have been dated to between the 8th and the 11th century.[418] Within these doxologies and records, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
was given the highest position, since it was regarded to be most inclusive system.[419] Hindu
Hindu
nationalism[edit] Main article: Hindu
Hindu
nationalism According to King, along with the consolidation of the British imperialist rule came orientalism wherein the new rulers viewed Indians through "colonially crafted lenses". In response, emerged Hindu
Hindu
nationalism for collective action against the colonial rule, against the caricature by Christian and Muslim communities, and for socio-political independence.[420] In this colonial era search of identity, Vedanta
Vedanta
came to be regarded as the essence of Hinduism, and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
came to be regarded as "then paradigmatic example of the mystical nature of the Hindu
Hindu
religion" and umbrella of "inclusivism".[421] This umbrella of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, according to King, "provided an opportunity for the construction of a nationalist ideology that could unite Hindus in their struggle against colonial oppression".[422] Among the colonial era intelligentsia, according to Anshuman Mondal, a professor of Literature specializing in post-colonial studies, the monistic Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
has been a major ideological force for Hindu nationalism. Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
professed monism of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, though at times he also spoke with terms from mind-body dualism schools of Hinduism.[423] Other colonial era Indian thinkers, such as Vivekananda, presented Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
as an inclusive universal religion, a spirituality that in part helped organize a religiously infused identity, and the rise of Hindu
Hindu
nationalism as a counter weight to Islam-infused Muslim communitarian organizations such as the Muslim League, to Christianity-infused colonial orientalism and to religious persecution of those belonging to Indian religions.[424][416][425] Swami Vivekananda[edit] Main articles: Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
and Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission A major proponent in the popularisation of this Universalist and Perennialist interpretation of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
was Vivekananda,[426] who played a major role in the revival of Hinduism,[427] and the spread of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
to the west via the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission. His interpretation of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
has been called "Neo-Vedanta". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
discerned a universal religion, regarding all the apparent differences between various traditions as various manifestations of one truth.[428] He presented karma, bhakti, jnana and raja yoga as equal means to attain moksha,[429] to present Vedanta
Vedanta
as a liberal and universal religion, in contrast to the exclusivism of other religions.[429] Vivekananda
Vivekananda
emphasised nirvikalpa samadhi as the spiritual goal of Vedanta, he equated it to the liberation in Yoga
Yoga
and encouraged Yoga practice he called Raja yoga.[430] This approach, however, is missing in historic Advaita
Advaita
texts.[431] In 1896, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
claimed that Advaita
Advaita
appeals to modern scientists:

I may make bold to say that the only religion which agrees with, and even goes a little further than modern researchers, both on physical and moral lines is the Advaita, and that is why it appeals to modern scientists so much. They find that the old dualistic theories are not enough for them, do not satisfy their necessities. A man must have not only faith, but intellectual faith too".[web 17]

According to Rambachan, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
interprets anubhava as to mean "personal experience", akin to religious experience, whereas Shankara used the term to denote liberating understanding of the sruti.[122][432][433] Vivekananda's claims about spirituality as "science" and modern, according to David Miller, may be questioned by well informed scientists, but it drew attention for being very different than how Christianity and Islam were being viewed by scientists and sociologists of his era.[434] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan[edit] Main article: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, first a professor at Oxford University and later a President of India, further popularized Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, presenting it as the essence of Hinduism.[web 18] According to Michael Hawley, a professor of Religious Studies, Radhakrishnan saw other religions, as well as "what Radhakrishnan understands as lower forms of Hinduism," as interpretations of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, thereby "in a sense Hindusizing all religions".[web 18] To him, the world faces a religious problem, where there is unreflective dogmatism and exclusivism, creating a need for "experiential religion" and "inclusivism". Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, claimed Radhakrishnan, best exemplifies a Hindu
Hindu
philosophical, theological, and literary tradition that fulfills this need.[web 18][435][436] Radhakrishnan did not emphasize the differences between Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism versus Hinduism
Hinduism
that he defined in terms of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, rather he tended to minimize their differences. This is apparent, for example, in his discussions of Buddhist "Madhyamika and Yogacara" traditions versus the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition.[436] Radhakrishnan metaphysics was grounded in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, but he reinterpreted Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
for contemporary needs and context.[web 18] He acknowledged the reality and diversity of the world of experience, which he saw as grounded in and supported by the transcendent metaphysical absolute concept (nirguna Brahman).[web 18][note 32] Radhakrishnan also reinterpreted Shankara's notion of maya. According to Radhakrishnan, maya is not a strict absolute idealism, but "a subjective misperception of the world as ultimately real."[web 18][438] Mahatama Gandhi[edit] Gandhi declared his allegiance to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, and was another popularizing force for its ideas.[439] According to Nicholas Gier, this to Gandhi meant the unity of God and humans, that all beings have the same one soul and therefore equality, that atman exists and is same as everything in the universe, ahimsa (non-violence) is the very nature of this atman.[439] Gandhi called himself advaitist many times, including his letters, but he believed that others have a right to a viewpoint different than his own because they come from a different background and perspective.[378][379] According to Gier, Gandhi did not interpret maya as illusion, but accepted that "personal theism" leading to "impersonal monism" as two tiers of religiosity.[439] New religious movements[edit] Neo-Advaita[edit] Main article: Neo-Advaita Neo- Advaita
Advaita
is a New Religious Movement based on a popularised, western interpretation of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and the teachings of Ramana Maharshi.[440] Neo- Advaita
Advaita
is being criticised[441][note 33][443][note 34][note 35] for discarding the traditional prerequisites of knowledge of the scriptures[445] and "renunciation as necessary preparation for the path of jnana-yoga".[445][446] Notable neo-advaita teachers are H. W. L. Poonja,[447][440] his students Gangaji[448] Andrew Cohen[note 36], and Eckhart Tolle.[440] Non-dualism[edit] Main article: Nondualism Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
has gained attention in western spirituality and New Age, where various traditions are seen as driven by the same non-dual experience.[450] Nonduality points to "a primordial, natural awareness without subject or object".[web 23] It is also used to refer to interconnectedness, "the sense that all things are interconnected and not separate, while at the same time all things retain their individuality".[web 24] Relationship with Buddhism[edit] See also: Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
share similarities and have differences,[451][452] their relationship a subject of dispute among scholars.[453] The similarities between Advaita
Advaita
and Buddhism
Buddhism
have attracted Indian and Western scholars attention,[454] and have also been criticised by concurring schools. The similarities have been interpreted as Buddhist influences on Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, while others deny such influences, or see them as variant expressions.[455] According to Daniel Ingalls, the Japanese Buddhist scholarship has argued that Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
did not understand Buddhism.[453] Some Hindu
Hindu
scholars criticized Advaita
Advaita
for its Maya and non-theistic doctrinal similarities with Buddhism.[456][457] Ramanuja, the founder of Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta, accused Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
of being a Prachanna Bauddha, that is, a "crypto-Buddhist",[454] and someone who was undermining theistic Bhakti
Bhakti
devotionalism.[457] The non-Advaita scholar Bhaskara of the Bhedabheda Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition, similarly around 800 CE, accused Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
as "this despicable broken down Mayavada that has been chanted by the Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhists", and a school that is undermining the ritual duties set in Vedic orthodoxy.[457] A few Buddhist scholars made the opposite criticism in the medieval era toward their Buddhist opponents. In the sixth century CE, for example, the Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist scholar Bhaviveka
Bhaviveka
redefined Vedantic concepts to show how they fit into Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
concepts,[458] and "equate[d] the Buddha's Dharma
Dharma
body with Brahman, the ultimate reality of the Upanishads."[459] In his Madhyamakahṛdayakārikaḥ, Bhaviveka
Bhaviveka
stages a Hinayana (Theravada) interlocutor, who accuses Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhists of being "crypto-Vedantins".[460][461][note 37] Medieval era Tibetan Gelugpa scholars accused the Jonang school
Jonang school
of being "crypto-Vedantist."[462][463][note 38] Contemporary scholar David Kalupahana called the seventh century Buddhist scholar Chandrakirti
Chandrakirti
a "crypto-Vedantist", a view rejected by scholars of Madhayamika Buddhism.[464] The Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition has historically rejected accusations of crypto- Buddhism
Buddhism
highlighting their respective views on Atman, Anatta and Brahman.[452] Similarities with Buddhism[edit] According to scholars, the influence of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
on Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
has been significant.[457][465] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and various other schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy share numerous terminology, doctrines and dialectical techniques with Buddhism.[466][467] According to a 1918 paper by the Buddhism
Buddhism
scholar O. Rozenberg, "a precise differentiation between Brahmanism and Buddhism
Buddhism
is impossible to draw."[466] Both traditions hold that "the empirical world is transitory, a show of appearances",[468][469] and both admit "degrees of truth or existence".[470] Both traditions emphasize the human need for spiritual liberation (moksha, nirvana, kaivalya), however with different assumptions.[471][note 39] Adi Shankara, states Natalia Isaeva, incorporated "into his own system a Buddhist notion of maya which had not been minutely elaborated in the Upanishads".[466] Similarly, there are many points of contact between Buddhism's Vijnanavada
Vijnanavada
and Shankara's Advaita.[473] According to Frank Whaling, the similarities between Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta and Buddhism
Buddhism
are not limited to the terminology and some doctrines, but also includes practice. The monastic practices and monk tradition in Advaita
Advaita
are similar to those found in Buddhism.[457] Dasgupta and Mohanta suggest that Buddhism
Buddhism
and Shankara's Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
represent "different phases of development of the same non-dualistic metaphysics from the Upanishadic period to the time of Sankara."[474][note 40] The influence of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
on other religions and philosophies was not limited to Vedanta. Kalupahana notes that the Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
of Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
tradition contains "some metaphysical speculations, such as those of the Sarvastivadins, the Sautrantikas, and even the Yogacarins".[477] According to John Plott,

We must emphasize again that generally throughout the Gupta Dynasty, and even more so after its decline, there developed such a high degree of syncretism and such toleration of all points of view that Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
had been Hinduized almost as much as Hinduism
Hinduism
had been Buddhaized.[478]

Gaudapada[edit] The influence of Buddhist doctrines on Gaudapada
Gaudapada
has been a vexed question.[479][480] One school of scholars, such as Bhattacharya and Raju, state that Gaudapada
Gaudapada
took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra)[481][note 41] and "that the nature of the world is the four-cornered negation, which is the structure of Māyā".[481][484] Of particular interest is Chapter Four of Gaudapada's text Karika, in which according to Bhattacharya, two karikas refer to the Buddha
Buddha
and the term Asparsayoga is borrowed from Buddhism.[479] According to Murti, "the conclusion is irresistible that Gaudapada, a Vedanta philosopher, is attempting an Advaitic interpretation of Vedanta
Vedanta
in the light of the Madhyamika and Yogcara doctrines. He even freely quotes and appeals to them."[295] However, adds Murti, the doctrines are unlike Buddhism. Chapter One, Two and Three are entirely Vedantin and founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor.[295] Further, state both Murti
Murti
and King, no Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars who followed Gaudapada
Gaudapada
ever quoted from Chapter Four, they only quote from the first three.[295][296] According to Sarma, "to mistake him [Gaudapada] to be a hidden or open Buddhist is absurd".[485] The doctrines of Gaudapada
Gaudapada
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are totally opposed, states Murti:[295]

We have been talking of borrowing, influence and relationship in rather general terms. It is necessary to define the possible nature of the borrowing, granting that it did take place. (...) The Vedantins stake everything on the Atman (Brahman) and accept the authority of the Upanishads. We have pointed out at length the Nairatmya standpoint of Buddhism
Buddhism
and its total opposition to the Atman (soul, substance, the permanent and universal) in any form. — TRV Murti, The Central Philosophy of Buddhism[486]

Advaitins have traditionally challenged the Buddhist influence thesis.[479] Modern scholarship generally accepts that Gaudapada
Gaudapada
was influenced by Buddhism, at least in terms of using Buddhist terminology to explain his ideas, but adds that Gaudapada
Gaudapada
was a Vedantin and not a Buddhist.[479] Gaudapada
Gaudapada
adopted some Buddhist terminology and borrowed its doctrines to his Vedantic goals, much like early Buddhism
Buddhism
adopted Upanishadic terminology and borrowed its doctrines to Buddhist goals; both used pre-existing concepts and ideas to convey new meanings.[478][451] While there is shared terminology, the Advaita
Advaita
doctrines of Gaudapada
Gaudapada
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are fundamentally different.[295][487] Differences from Buddhism[edit] Atman and anatta[edit] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
holds the premise, " Soul
Soul
exists, and Soul
Soul
(or self, Atman) is a self evident truth". Buddhism, in contrast, holds the premise, "Atman does not exist, and An-atman (or Anatta, non-self)[488] is self evident".[47][489] In Buddhism, Anatta
Anatta
(Pali, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
cognate An-atman) is the concept that in human beings and living creatures, there is no "eternal, essential and absolute something called a soul, self or atman".[48] Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
rejects the concept and all doctrines associated with atman, call atman as illusion (maya), asserting instead the theory of "no-self" and "no-soul".[47][490] Most schools of Buddhism, from its earliest days, have denied the existence of the "self, soul" in its core philosophical and ontological texts. In contrast to Advaita, which describes knowing one's own soul as identical with Brahman
Brahman
as the path to nirvana, in its soteriological themes Buddhism has defined nirvana as that blissful state when a person realizes that he or she has "no self, no soul".[48][491] Some Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
chronologically placed in the 1st millennium of common era, such as the Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition's Tathāgatagarbha sūtras suggest self-like concepts, variously called Tathagatagarbha or Buddha nature.[492][493] These have been controversial idea in Buddhism, and "eternal self" concepts have been generally rejected. In modern era studies, scholars such as Wayman and Wayman state that these "self-like" concepts are neither self nor sentient being, nor soul, nor personality.[494][495] Some scholars posit that the Tathagatagarbha Sutras were written to promote Buddhism
Buddhism
to non-Buddhists.[496][497][498] Epistemology[edit] The epistemological foundations of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
are different. Buddhism
Buddhism
accepts two valid means to reliable and correct knowledge – perception and inference, while Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
accepts six (described elsewhere in this article).[209][226][499] However, some Buddhists in history, have argued that Buddhist scriptures are a reliable source of spiritual knowledge, corresponding to Advaita's Śabda pramana, however Buddhists have treated their scriptures as a form of inference method.[500] Ontology[edit] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
posits a substance ontology, an ontology which holds that underlying the change and impermanence of empirical reality is an unchanging and permanent absolute reality, like an eternal substance it calls Atman-Brahman.[501] In its substance ontology, as like other philosophies, there exist a universal, particulars and specific properties and it is the interaction of particulars that create events and processes.[502] In contrast, Buddhism
Buddhism
posits a process ontology, also called as "event ontology".[503][502] According to the Buddhist thought, particularly after the rise of ancient Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
scholarship, there is neither empirical nor absolute permanent reality and ontology can be explained as a process.[503][504][note 42] There is a system of relations and interdependent phenomena (pratitya samutpada) in Buddhist ontology, but no stable persistent identities, no eternal universals nor particulars. Thought and memories are mental constructions and fluid processes without a real observer, personal agency or cognizer in Buddhism. In contrast, in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, like other schools of Hinduism, the concept of self (atman) is the real on-looker, personal agent and cognizer.[506] The Pali Abdhidhamma and Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
considered all existence as dhamma, and left the ontological questions about reality and the nature of dhamma unexplained.[503] According to Renard, Advaita's theory of three levels of reality is built on the two levels of reality found in the Madhyamika.[507] Shankara on Buddhism[edit] A central concern for Shankara, in his objections against Buddhism, is what he perceives as nihilism of the Buddhists.[508] Shankara states that there "must be something beyond cognition, namely a cognizer,"[509] which he asserts is the self-evident Atman or witness.[510] Buddhism, according to Shankara, denies the cognizer. He also considers the notion of Brahman
Brahman
as pure knowledge and "the quintessence of positive reality."[508] The teachings in Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, states Shankara, differ from both the Buddhist realists and the Buddhist idealists. Shankara elaborates on these arguments against various schools of Buddhism, partly presenting refutations which were already standard in his time, and partly offering his own objections.[511] Shankara's original contribution in explaining the difference between Advaita
Advaita
and Buddhism
Buddhism
was his "argument for identity" and the "argument for the witness".[512] In Shankara's view, the Buddhist are internally inconsistent in their theories, because "the reservoir-consciousness that [they] set up, being momentary, is no better than ordinary consciousness. Or, if [they] allow the reservoir-consciousness to be lasting, [they] destroy [their] theory of momentariness."[513] In response to the idealists, he notes that their alaya-vijnana, or store-house consciousness, runs counter to the Buddhist theory of momentariness.[508] With regard to the Sunyavada (Madhyamaka), Shankara states that "being contradictory to all valid means of knowledge, we have not thought worth while to refute" and "common sense (loka-vyavahara) cannot be denied without the discovery of some other truth".[514] Reception[edit] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is most often regarded as an idealist monism.[23][25] According to King, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
developed "to its ultimate extreme" the monistic ideas already present in the Upanishads.[515] In contrast, states Milne, it is misleading to call Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta "monistic," since this confuses the "negation of difference" with "conflation into one."[516] Advaita
Advaita
is a negative term (a-dvaita), states Milne, which denotes the "negation of a difference," between subject and object, or between perceiver and perceived. [516] According to Deutsch, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
teaches monistic oneness, however without the multiplicity premise of alternate monism theories.[517] According to Jacqueline Hirst, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
positively emphasizes "oneness" premise in his Brahma-sutra Bhasya 2.1.20, attributing it to all the Upanishads.[518] Nicholson states Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
contains realistic strands of thought, both in its oldest origins and in Shankara's writings.[32] See also[edit]

Cause and effect in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta Kashmir Shaivism Pandeism Pantheism

Notes[edit]

^ pg. 941 "Puruṣavāda appears a preferred terminology in the early periods, before the time of Sankara." ^ Literally: end or the goal of the Vedas. ^ For an alternate English translation: Robert Hume, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, BU 4.3.32, Oxford University Press, page 138. ^ It is not a philosophy in the western meaning of the word, according to Milne.[42] ^ Bill Clinton: "The buck stops here." ^ Brahman
Brahman
is also defined as:

The unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe; that is the one supreme, universal spirit without a second.[87][88] The one supreme, all pervading Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe.[89] The supreme self. Puligandla states it as "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world",[90] The Self-existent, the Absolute and the Imperishable. Brahman
Brahman
is indescribable.[91] The "principle of the world",[92] the "absolute",[93] the "general, universal",[94] the "cosmic principle",[95] the "ultimate that is the cause of everything including all gods",[96] the "knowledge",[97] the "soul, sense of self of each human being that is fearless, luminuous, exalted and blissful",[98] the "essence of liberation, of spiritual freedom",[99] the "universe within each living being and the universe outside",[98] the "essence and everything innate in all that exists inside, outside and everywhere".[100]

^ It provides the "stuff" from which everything is made ^ It sets everything into working, into existence ^ Svarupalakshana, qualities, definition based on essence ^ Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
emphasises that "every acceptable philosophy should aid man in realising the Purusarthas, the chief aims of human life:[112]

Dharma: the right way to life, the "duties and obligations of the individual toward himself and the society as well as those of the society toward the individual";[113] Artha: the means to support and sustain one's life; Kāma: pleasure and enjoyment; Mokṣa: liberation, release.

^ The true Self is itself just that pure consciousness, without which nothing can be known in any way.(...) And that same true Self, pure consciousness, is not different from the ultimate world Principle, Brahman  (...) Brahman
Brahman
(=the true Self, pure consciousness) is the only Reality
Reality
(sat), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublimatable.[82] ^ "Consciousness",[136][web 2] "intelligence",[137][138] "wisdom" ^ "the Absolute",[136][web 2] "infinite",[web 2] "the Highest truth"[web 2] ^ Puligandla: "Any philosophy worthy of its title should not be a mere intellectual exercise but should have practical application in enabling man to live an enlightened life. A philosophy which makes no difference to the quality and style of our life is no philosophy, but an empty intellectual construction."[139] ^ These characteristics and steps are described in various Advaita texts, such as by Shankara in Chapter 1.1 of Brahmasutrabhasya,[146] and in the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
Chapter 10 ^ Example self-restraints mentioned in Hindu
Hindu
texts: one must refrain from any violence that causes injury to others, refrain from starting or propagating deceit and falsehood, refrain from theft of other's property, refrain from sexually cheating on one's partner, and refrain from avarice.[148][149][150] ^ According to Hugh Nicholson, "the definitive study on the development of the concept of vivarta in Indian philosophy, and in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
in particular, remains Hacker's Vivarta.[190] To Shankara, the word maya has hardly any terminological weight.[191] ^ and other sub-schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
with the concept of Maya.[194] ^ Many in number, the Upanishads
Upanishads
developed in different schools at various times and places, some in the Vedic period and others in the medieval or modern era (the names of up to 112 Upanishads
Upanishads
have been recorded).[245] All major commentators have considered the twelve to thirteen oldest of these texts as the principal Upanishads
Upanishads
and as the foundation of Vedanta. ^ The Śruti
Śruti
includes the four Vedas
Vedas
including its four layers of embedded texts – the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the early Upanishads.[246] ^ Nevertheless, Balasubramanian argues that since the basic ideas of the Vedanta
Vedanta
systems are derived from the Vedas, the Vedantic philosophy is as old as the Vedas.[276] ^ Deutsch and Dalvi point out that, in the Indian context, texts "are only part of a tradition which is preserved in its purest form in the oral transmission as it has been going on".[278] ^ Bhartŗhari (c.450–500), Upavarsa (c.450–500), Bodhāyana (c.500), Tanka (Brahmānandin) (c.500–550), Dravida (c.550), Bhartŗprapañca (c.550), Śabarasvāmin (c.550), Bhartŗmitra (c.550–600), Śrivatsānka (c.600), Sundarapāndya (c.600), Brahmadatta (c.600–700), Gaudapada
Gaudapada
(c.640–690), Govinda (c.670–720), Mandanamiśra (c.670–750).[267] ^ Nakamura notes that there are contradictions in doctrine between the four chapters.[290] According to Murti, the conclusion from Mandukya Karika is irresistible that Gaudapada
Gaudapada
is attempting an advaitic interpretation of Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the light of the Madhyamika and Yogcara doctrines of Buddhism.[295] However, adds Murti, the doctrines are unlike Buddhism. The first three chapters of the Karika are founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor.[295] Chapter Four is unlike the first three, and shows Buddhist terms and influence.[296] Further, according to Murti, and Richard King, no Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars who followed Gaudapada
Gaudapada
ever quoted from Chapter Four of Karika, they only quote from the first three.[295][296] ^ Sanskrit: श्री संस्थान गौडपदाचार्य मठ, Śrī Sansthāna Gauḍapadācārya Maṭha ^ According to both Roodurum and Isaeva, Sureśvara stated that mere knowledge of the identity of Jiva
Jiva
and Brahman
Brahman
is not enough for liberation, which requires prolonged meditation on this identity.[337][347] ^ Sanskrit: श्री संस्थान गौडपदाचार्य मठ, Śrī Sansthāna Gauḍapadācārya Maṭha ^ According to Pandey, these Mathas were not established by Shankara himself, but were originally ashrams established by Vibhāņdaka and his son Ŗșyaśŗnga.[361] Shankara inherited the ashrams at Dvārakā
Dvārakā
and Sringeri, and shifted the ashram at Śŗngaverapura to Badarikāśrama, and the ashram at Angadeśa to Jagannātha Purī.[362] ^ Sanskrit.org: "Advaitins are non-sectarian, and they advocate worship of Siva and Visnu equally with that of the other deities of Hinduism, like Sakti, Ganapati and others."[web 13] ^ Archeological evidence suggest that the Smarta tradition
Smarta tradition
in India dates back to at least 3rd-century CE.[383][384] ^ Practically, Shankara fostered a rapprochement between Advaita
Advaita
and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").[390] ^ Neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
seems to be closer to Bhedabheda- Vedanta
Vedanta
than to Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, with the acknowledgement of the reality of the world. Nicholas F. Gier: "Ramakrsna, Svami Vivekananda, and Aurobindo (I also include M.K. Gandhi) have been labeled "neo-Vedantists," a philosophy that rejects the Advaitins' claim that the world is illusory. Aurobindo, in his The Life Divine, declares that he has moved from Sankara's "universal illusionism" to his own "universal realism" (2005: 432), defined as metaphysical realism in the European philosophical sense of the term."[437] ^ Marek: "Wobei der Begriff Neo- Advaita
Advaita
darauf hinweist, dass sich die traditionelle Advaita
Advaita
von dieser Strömung zunehmend distanziert, da sie die Bedeutung der übenden Vorbereitung nach wie vor als unumgänglich ansieht. (The term Neo- Advaita
Advaita
indicating that the traditional Advaita
Advaita
increasingly distances itself from this movement, as they regard preparational practicing still as inevitable)[442] ^ Alan Jacobs: Many firm devotees of Sri Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
now rightly term this western phenomenon as 'Neo-Advaita'. The term is carefully selected because 'neo' means 'a new or revived form'. And this new form is not the Classical Advaita
Advaita
which we understand to have been taught by both of the Great Self Realised Sages, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and Ramana Maharshi. It can even be termed 'pseudo' because, by presenting the teaching in a highly attenuated form, it might be described as purporting to be Advaita, but not in effect actually being so, in the fullest sense of the word. In this watering down of the essential truths in a palatable style made acceptable and attractive to the contemporary western mind, their teaching is misleading.[443] ^ See for other examples Conway [web 19] and Swartz[444] ^ Presently Cohen has distanced himself from Poonja, and calls his teachings "Evolutionary Enlightenment".[449] What Is Enlightenment, the magazine published by Choen's organisation, has been critical of neo- Advaita
Advaita
several times, as early as 2001. See.[web 20][web 21][web 22] ^ Nicholson: "a Hīnayāna interlocutor accuses the Mahāyāna Buddhist of being a crypto-Vedāntin, paralleling later Vedāntins who accuse the Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta of crypto-Buddhism."[460] ^ The Jonang school
Jonang school
was influenced by Yogachara and taught Shentong Buddhism, which sees the highest Truth as self-existent.[462][463] ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp writes: "The Buddhist Nirvana
Nirvana
is, therefore, not the primordial ground, the eternal essence, which is at the basis of everything and form which the whole world has arisen (the Brahman of the Upanishads) but the reverse of all that we know, something altogether different which must be characterized as a nothing in relation to the world, but which is experienced as highest bliss by those who have attained to it (Anguttara Nikaya, Navaka-nipata 34). Vedantists and Buddhists have been fully aware of the gulf between their doctrines, a gulf that cannot be bridged over. According to Majjhima Nikaya, Sutta 22, a doctrine that proclaims "The same is the world and the self. This I shall be after death; imperishable, permanent, eternal!" (see Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
4, 4, 13), was styled by the Buddha
Buddha
a perfectly foolish doctrine. On the other side, the Katha Upanishad
Upanishad
(2, 1, 14) does not see a way to deliverance in the Buddhist theory of dharmas (impersonal processes): He who supposes a profusion of particulars gets lost like rain water on a mountain slope; the truly wise man, however, must realize that his Atman is at one with the Universal Atman, and that the former, if purified from dross, is being absorbed by the latter, "just as clear water poured into clear water becomes one with it, indistinguishably."[472] ^ This development did not end with Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, but continued in Tantrism and various schools of Shaivism. Non-dual Kashmir Shaivism, for example, was influenced by, and took over doctrines from, several orthodox and heterodox Indian religious and philosophical traditions.[475] These include Vedanta, Samkhya, Patanjali
Patanjali
Yoga
Yoga
and Nyayas, and various Buddhist schools, including Yogacara
Yogacara
and Madhyamika,[475] but also Tantra
Tantra
and the Nath-tradition.[476] ^ It is often used interchangeably with the term citta-mātra, but they have different meanings. The standard translation of both terms is "consciousness-only" or "mind-only." Several modern researchers object this translation, and the accompanying label of "absolute idealism" or "idealistic monism".[482] A better translation for vijñapti-mātra is representation-only.[483] ^ Kalupahana describes how in Buddhism
Buddhism
there is also a current which favours substance ontology. Kalupahanan sees Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
and Yogacara as reactions against developments toward substance ontology in Buddhism.[505]

References[edit]

^ Timalsina, Sthaneshwar(स्थानेश्वर) (November 2017). "Puruṣavāda: A Pre-Śaṅkara Monistic Philosophy as Critiqued by Mallavādin" (PDF). Journal of Indian Philosophy. 45 (5): 939–959.  ^ Deutsch 1988, p. 4, Quote: " Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is more than a philosophical system, as we understand these terms in the West today; it is also a practical guide to spiritual experience and is intimately bound up with spiritual experience.". ^ Sthaneshwar Timalsina (2008). Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita
Advaita
Doctrine of ‘Awareness Only’. Routledge. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-1-135-97092-5.  ^ Kanamura 2004. ^ a b c d e f Comans 2000, p. 183. ^ a b Deutsch 1973, pp. 48-52. ^ Mayeda 2006, pp. 78-79. ^ Nakamura 1950a, p. 112. ^ a b Grimes 1990, pp. 6–7. ^ a b c d e f g h Sangeetha Menon (2012), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, IEP ^ Olivelle 1992, pp. x-xi, 8-10, 17-18. ^ Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, page 332 note 68 ^ a b Nakamura 1950, pp. 221, 680. ^ Sharma 2007, p. 4. ^ Fort 1998, p. 114-120. ^ Jacqueline G. Suthren Hirst (2005). Samkara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Way of Teaching. Routledge. pp. 6, 38–39, 38–39, 60–63, 83–84. ISBN 978-1-134-25441-5.  ^ Bina Gupta (1995). Perceiving in Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: Epistemological Analysis and Interpretation. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 54–55, 66–68, 74–76, 246–247. ISBN 978-81-208-1296-3.  ^ Sharma 1995, p. 8-14, 31-34, 44-45, 176-178. ^ Fost 1998, p. 387-405. ^ Indich 2000, p. vii. ^ a b Fowler 2002, pp. 240-243. ^ Brannigan 2009, p. 19, Quote: " Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is the most influential philosophical system in Hindu
Hindu
thought.". ^ a b Sangeetha Menon (2012), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, IEP; Quote: "The essential philosophy of Advaita
Advaita
is an idealist monism, and is considered to be presented first in the Upaniṣads and consolidated in the Brahma
Brahma
Sūtra
Sūtra
by this tradition." ^ King 1995, p. 65; Quote: "The prevailing monism of the Upanishads
Upanishads
was developed by the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
to its ultimate extreme".. ^ a b JN Mohanty (1980), "Understanding some Ontological Differences in Indian Philosophy", Journal of Indian Philosophy, Volume 8, Issue 3, page 205, Quote: "Nyaya-Vaiseshika is realistic; Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is idealistic. The former is pluralistic, the latter monistic." ^ Deutsch 1988, p. 3. ^ Joseph Milne (1997), " Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and typologies of multiplicity and unity: An interpretation of nondual knowledge", International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 165–188 ^ Novetzke 2007, pp. 255-272. ^ Goodall 1996, p. xli. ^ Davis 2014, pp. 13, 167 with note 21. ^ Nakamura 1950, p. 691. ^ a b Nicholson 2010, p. 68. ^ a b King 2002, p. 119-133. ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2006). A Guide to Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality. World Wisdom. pp. 38–43, 68–75. ISBN 978-1-933316-17-8.  ^ Richard King (2013). Orientalism
Orientalism
and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East". Routledge. pp. 128–132. ISBN 978-1-134-63234-3.  ^ a b King 1995, p. 268 with note 2. ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A comparative history of world philosophy: from the Upanishads
Upanishads
to Kant, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 9-11 ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998). Upaniṣads. Oxford University Press. p. xxxvi with footnote 20. ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5.  ^ Frits Staal (2008). Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights. Penguin Books. pp. 365 note 159. ISBN 978-0-14-309986-4.  ^ Sanskrit: Wikisource, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
4.3.32 ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Columbia University Press. pp. 295 note 24. ISBN 978-0-231-14484-1.  ^ Milne 1997, p. 166. ^ Mayeda 1992, p. 73. ^ Klostermaier 2007, p. 26. ^ Isaeva 1993, pp. 34-37, 211. ^ Dalal 2009, p. 16, 26-27. ^ a b c John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism". ^ a b c [a] Anatta, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013), Quote: " Anatta
Anatta
in Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying soul. The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu
Hindu
belief in atman (“the self”)."; [b] Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; [c] Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka
Aranyaka
Upanishad, pages 2-4; [d] Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist ‘No-Self’ Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now; [e] David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: Are Nirvana
Nirvana
and Moksha
Moksha
the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 65-74; [f] KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards; [g] Bruno Nagel (2000), Roy Perrett (editor), Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, page 33, Quote: "The dispute with Buddhists, who do not accept an imperishable Self, gives the Atman schools [Vedanta, Kashmir Shaivism] a chance to articulate the intellectual aspects of their way to meditative liberation". ^ Koller 2006. ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(1993). The Experiential Dimension of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 27. ISBN 978-81-208-1058-7. , quote: "According to Advaita, the pure subject is our true self whose knowledge is liberative, (...) If the subject could be realised in its purity then all misery would cease: this is called self-knowledge" ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(1993). The Experiential Dimension of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 27, 72–83. ISBN 978-81-208-1058-7.  ^ Koller 2013, pp. 100-102. ^ Leesa S. Davis (2010). Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-8264-2068-8.  ^ a b Śaṅkarācārya; Sengaku Mayeda (2006). A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara. SUNY Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-8120827714.  ^ a b c d e f Mayeda 1992, p. xvii. ^ Mayeda 1992, p. 19. ^ Mayeda 1992, pp. 18-20. ^ a b Mayeda 1992, pp. 20-22. ^ Koller 2006, p. xi-xii. ^ Koller 2006, p. xii. ^ Koller 2013, p. 101. ^ a b [a] Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012), Quote: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul"; [b] John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947, See entry for Atman; [c] WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198610250, See entry for Atman (self). ^ R Dalal (2011), The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143415176, page 38 ^ [a] David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu
Hindu
World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415215277, pages 208-209, Quote: " Advaita
Advaita
and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself".; [b] Richard King (1995), Early Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Buddhism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791425138, page 64, Quote: "Atman as the innermost essence or soul of man, and Brahman
Brahman
as the innermost essence and support of the universe. (...) Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of atman with Brahman". [c] Chad Meister (2010), The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195340136, page 63; Quote: "Even though Buddhism
Buddhism
explicitly rejected the Hindu
Hindu
ideas of Atman (soul) and Brahman, Hinduism
Hinduism
treats Sakyamuni Buddha
Buddha
as one of the ten avatars of Vishnu." ^ Deussen, Paul and Geden, A. S. (2010), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Cosimo Classics, pp. 86-87. ISBN 1-61640-240-7. ^ Deussen, Paul and Geden, A. S. (2010), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Cosimo Classics, p. 151, ISBN 1-61640-240-7. ^ Richard Payne (2005). K. Bulkeley, ed. Soul, Psyche, Brain. Palgrave Macmillan/Springer. pp. 199–200 with p. 215 notes 5, 6. ISBN 978-1-4039-7923-0. , Quote: "A fourth metaphor is the monistic equation of the true or absolute self (atman) with absolute being (Brahman). In general, then, the conception of the self that emerges is one in which the self is in some way permanent, eternal, absolute or unchanging. It is also simultaneously universal and individual. The view is that there is an essence and that it can be known." ^ Sthaneshwar Timalsina (2014), Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita
Advaita
Doctrine of ‘Awareness Only’, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415762236, pages 3-23 ^ Deutsch 1973, pp. 48-51. ^ a b A Rambachan (2006), The Advaita
Advaita
Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791468524, pages 47, 99-103 ^ a b Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 9-13, 29-30, 45-47, 79-86 ^ Deutsch 1973, pp. 10-14, 18-19, 47-48. ^ Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 30-32 ^ a b c d Anantanand Rambachan
Anantanand Rambachan
(2006). The Advaita
Advaita
Worldview: God, World, and Humanity. State University of New York Press. pp. 109–111. ISBN 978-0-7914-6851-7.  ^ Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 44-45, 90 ^ Deutsch 1973, pp. 50-51, 101-107. ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 256–258, 261–263. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.  ^ P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 448–449. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4.  ^ A Rambachan (2006), The Advaita
Advaita
Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791468524, pages 114-122 ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 247–248, 252–254. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.  ^ a b Adi Sankara, A Bouquet of Nondual Texts: Advaita
Advaita
Prakarana Manjari, Translators: Ramamoorthy & Nome, ISBN 978-0970366726, pages 173-214 ^ a b c d e Potter 2008, p. 6-7. ^ a b James Lochtefeld, Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 122 ^ a b PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII ^ a b Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0884899976, pages 43-47 ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 231. ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.  ^ Sakkapohl Vachatimanont (2005), On why the traditional Advaic resolution of jivanmukti is superior to the neo-Vedantic resolution, Macalester Journal of Philosophy, Volume 14, Issue 1, pages 47-48 ^ John Bowker (ed.)(2012), The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press.[1] ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 222. ^ Merv Fowler (2005), Zen Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, p. 30: "Upanisadic thought is anything but consistent; nevertheless, there is a common focus on the acceptance of a totally transcendent Absolute, a trend which arose in the Vedic period. This indescribable Absolute is called Brahman
Brahman
[...] ^ a b Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 243, 325-344, 363, 581 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 358, 371 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 305, 476 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 110, 315-316, 495, 838-851 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 211, 741-742 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 181, 237, 444, 506-544, 570-571, 707, 847-850 ^ a b Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 52, 110, 425, 454, 585-586, 838-851 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 173-174, 188-198, 308-317, 322-324, 367, 447, 496, 629-637, 658, 707-708 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 600, 619-620, 647, 777 ^ a b Venkatramaiah 2000, p. xxxii. ^ Lochtefeld 2002a, p. 122. ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives, Rodopi Press, ISBN 978-9042015104, pages 43-44 ^ B Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis - Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18-35 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 91 ^ Raju 1992, p. 228. ^ Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
(1980), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta : A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, Chapter 1, page 9 ^ a b c John Arapura (1986), Hermeneutical Essays on Vedāntic Topics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801837, pages 12, 13-18 ^ Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
(1980), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta : A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, pages 9-10 with footnote 2 ^ Werner 1994. ^ Anantanand Rambachan
Anantanand Rambachan
(1994), The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas. University of Hawaii Press, pages 125, 124 ^ a b Puligandla 1997, p. 8-9. ^ a b Puligandla 1997, p. 8. ^ KN Tiwari (1998), Dimensions Of Renunciation In Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120808256, pages 1-5 with footnote 3 ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107, pages 121-125, 128, 144-145 ^ a b Lochtefeld 2002, p. 320. ^ a b Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 30–31, 260–264. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3. , Quote: (p. 30) – "As a philosophical and metaphysical term it [monism] refers to the acceptance of one single, ultimate, principle as the basis of the cosmos, the unity and oneness of all reality (...) [monism] has a model par excellence in that put forward by the eighth-century Indian philosopher Shankara, who is associated with the school of thought of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta. (p. 263) – "In Shankara's words: 'the notions oneself and one's own are indeed falsely constructed (upon Atman) through nescience. When there is (the knowledge of) the oneness of Atman, these notions certainly do not exist. If the seed does not exist, whence shall the fruit arise?". ^ Comans 2000, pp. 183-184. ^ Paul Deussen, The philosophy of the Upanishads, Translated by A.S. Geden (1906), T&T Clark, Edinburgh ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Vol 1 & 2, ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7 ^ [a] K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 140-147; [b] S. Nikhilananda (1958), Hinduism : Its meaning for the liberation of the spirit, Harper, ISBN 978-0911206265, pp 53-79; [c] Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti
Jivanmukti
in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita
Advaita
and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-3904-6 ^ a b Rambachan 1984. ^ a b Dalal 2009, p. 22. ^ Sivananda 1977, p. viii. ^ a b c d e f g h K. Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Rao; Anand C. Paranjpe (2015). Psychology in the Indian Tradition. Springer. pp. 6–7, 177–178, 215. ISBN 978-81-322-2440-2.  ^ a b John A. Grimes (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5.  ^ a b c d e Deutsch 1973, pp. 106-110. ^ Robert P. Waxler; Maureen P. Hall (2011). Transforming Literacy: Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing. Emerald. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-85724-628-8.  ^ a b Dalal 2009, p. 16. ^ P.P. Bilimoria (2012). Śabdapramāṇa: Word and Knowledge. Springer. pp. 299–301. ISBN 978-94-009-2911-1.  ^ Hirst 2005, p. 68. ^ Rambachan 1991, p. 1-14. ^ Nikhalananda 1931, p. viii. ^ Nikhalananda 1931, p. viii-ix. ^ Braue 1984, p. 81. ^ a b Grimes 1996, p. 234. ^ Sivaraman 1973, p. 146. ^ a b Braue 1984, p. 80. ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 11. ^ Mayeda 2006. ^ Deutsch 1988, pp. 104-105. ^ Comans 2000, pp. 125-142. ^ a b Maharaj, A (2014). "Śrī Harṣa contra Hegel: Monism, Skeptical Method, and the Limits of Reason". Philosophy East and West. Johns Hopkins University Press. 64 (1): 88, context: pp. 82–108. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0010.  ^ a b c Puligandla 1997, p. 251-254. ^ a b Leesa S. Davis (2010). Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-8264-2068-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
(1980), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta : A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, pages 105-108 ^ a b c d e f George Thibaut, The Sacred Books of the East: The Vedanta-Sutras, Part 1, p. 12, at Google Books, Oxford University Press, Editor: Max Muller, page 12 with footnote 1 ^ Heim, M. (2005), Differentiations in Hindu
Hindu
ethics, in William Schweiker (Editor), The Blackwell companion to religious ethics, ISBN 0-631-21634-0, Chapter 35, pp 341-354 ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 777 ^ Rao, G. H. (1926), The Basis of Hindu
Hindu
Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, 37(1), pp 19-35 ^ a b Comans 2000, p. 182. ^ Comans 2000, pp. 182-183. ^ a b Joel Mlecko (1982), The Guru
Guru
in Hindu
Hindu
Tradition Numen, Volume 29, Fasc. 1, pages 33-61 ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2008). The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedanta: A Comparative Study in Religion and Reason. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 5–14. ISBN 978-0-271-03946-6.  ^ a b Sharma 1995, pp. 174-178. ^ a b Hugh Nicholson 2011, pp. 171–172, 191. ^ Allen Wright Thrasher (1993). The Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta of Brahma-siddhi. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-81-208-0982-6.  ^ a b Puligandla 1997, p. 232. ^ a b Fowler 2002, pp. 246-247. ^ a b c Sharma 1995, pp. 176-178. ^ Renard 2010, p. 131. ^ Bradley J. Malkovsky (2001). The Role of Divine Grace in the Soteriology
Soteriology
of Śaṃkarācārya. BRILL Academic. pp. 42–44. ISBN 90-04-12044-0.  ^ M. Hiriyanna (1993). Outlines of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 359–363. ISBN 978-81-208-1086-0.  ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(1997). The Rope and the Snake: A Metaphorical Exploration of Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta. Manohar Publishers. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-81-7304-179-2.  ^ a b c d John Grimes (2004). The Vivekacūḍāmaṇi of Śaṅkarācārya Bhagavatpāda: An Introduction and Translation. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-81-208-2039-5.  ^ T.R.V. Murti
Murti
(1996). Studies in Indian Thought: Collected Papers of Prof. T. R. V. Murti. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 294–296, 194–195. ISBN 978-81-208-1310-6.  ^ John Grimes (1994). Problems and Perspectives in Religious Discourse: Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
Implications. State University of New York Press. pp. 35–38. ISBN 978-0-7914-1791-1.  ^ Jadunath Sinha (2013). Indian Psychology Perception. Routledge. pp. 306–314. ISBN 978-1-136-34605-7.  ^ Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad (2013). Advaita
Advaita
Epistemology
Epistemology
and Metaphysics: An Outline of Indian Non-Realism. Taylor & Francis. pp. 190–194. ISBN 978-1-136-86897-9.  ^ Sthaneshwar Timalsina (2008). Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita
Advaita
Doctrine of ‘Awareness Only’. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1-135-97092-5. , Quote: " Advaita
Advaita
can be approached from various angles. Not only are there multiple interpretations of Advaita, there are different starting points from which one can arrive at the conclusion of non-duality". ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2004), Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita Vedånta, State University of New York Press, page 3 ^ William Indich (2000), Consciousness in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512, pages 57-60 ^ Wilber 2000, p. 132. ^ a b c Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2004), Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita
Advaita
Vedånta, State University of New York Press, pages 15-40, 49-72 ^ King 1995, p. 300 note 140. ^ Sarma 1996, pp. 122, 137. ^ Sarma 1996, pp. 126, 146. ^ Comans 2000, pp. 128-131, 5-8, 30-37. ^ Indich 2000, pp. 106–108; Bruce M. Sullivan (1997). Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Scarecrow. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-8108-3327-2. ; Bina Gupta (1998). The Disinterested Witness: A Fragment of Advaita Vedānta Phenomenology. Northwestern University Press. pp. 26–30. ISBN 978-0-8101-1565-1.  ^ a b PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University New York Press, ISBN 978-0887061394, pages 32-33 ^ Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
- Eighth Prathapaka, Seventh through Twelfth Khanda, Oxford University Press, pages 268-273 ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998). Upaniṣads. Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5. ; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(Wikisource): प्राणोऽपानो व्यान इत्यष्टावक्षराणि अष्टाक्षर ह वा एकं गायत्र्यै पदम् एतदु हैवास्या एतत् स यावदिदं प्राणि तावद्ध जयति योऽस्या एतदेवं पदं वेद अथास्या एतदेव तुरीयं दर्शतं पदं परोरजा य एष तपति यद्वै चतुर्थं तत्तुरीयम् दर्शतं पदमिति ददृश इव ह्येष परोरजा इति सर्वमु ह्येवैष रज उपर्युपरि तपत्य् एव हैव श्रिया यशसा तपति योऽस्या एतदेवं पदं वेद ॥ ३ ॥ ^ Indich 2000, pp. 58-67, 106-108. ^ Mayeda 1992, p. 12. ^ a b Deutsch 1973, p. 49. ^ Potter 2008a, p. 510-512. ^ Mayeda 1992, p. 14. ^ a b c d Nicholson 2010, p. 27. ^ a b Mayeda 2006, pp. 25-27. ^ Hugh Nicholson 2011, p. 266 note 20, 167-170. ^ Hugh Nicholson 2011, p. 266 note 21. ^ Deutsch 1973, pp. 40-43. ^ S. Radhakrishnan, The Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy and the Doctrine of Maya, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Jul., 1914), pages 431-451 ^ PD Shastri, The Doctrine of Maya Luzac & Co, London, page 3 ^ HM Vroom (1989), Religions and the Truth: Philosophical Reflections and Perspectives, Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802805027, pages 122-123 ^ Frederic F Fost (1998), Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 48, No. 3, pages 388, 397 and note 11 ^ PD Shastri, The Doctrine of Maya Luzac & Co, London, page 58-73 ^ a b Frederic F. Fost (1998), Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Jul., 1998), pages 387-405 ^ Surendranath Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy. Cambridge University Press Archive, 1955, page 1-2 ^ Pratima Bowes, "Mysticism in the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Shankara's Vedanta" in Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi
Yogi
and the Mystic." Routledge, 1995, page 67. ^ Esther Abraham Solomon (1969), Avidyā: A Problem of Truth and Reality, OCLC 658823, pages 269-270 ^ Sharma 2007, pp. 19-40, 53-58, 79-86. ^ Kaplan, Stephen (April 2007). " Vidyā
Vidyā
and Avidyā: Simultaneous and Coterminous?: A Holographic Model to Illuminate the Advaita
Advaita
Debate". Philosophy East and west. 2. 57: 178–203. doi:10.1353/pew.2007.0019. JSTOR 4488090.  ^ Mayeda, Sengaku (1992). A Thousand Teachings: The Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
of Sankara. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 82.  ^ A. Rambachan (2006), The Advaita
Advaita
Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791468524, pages 114-122 ^ Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0779-0, pages 25-26 ^ a b c d e f g DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality
Spirituality
and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, page 172 ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 228. ^ a b Grimes 1996, p. 238. ^ a b c Datta 1932, pp. 221-253. ^ a b c Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, page 225 ^ a b c d e

Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248; John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238

^ B Matilal (1992), Perception: An Essay in Indian Theories of Knowledge, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198239765 ^ Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 160-168 ^ Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 168-169 ^ W Halbfass (1991), Tradition and Reflection, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-0362-9, page 26-27 ^ a b James Lochtefeld, "Anumana" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 46-47 ^ Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0779-0 ^ Monier Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom - Religious, Philosophical and Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus, Luzac & Co, London, page 61 ^ VN Jha (1986), "The upamana-pramana in Purvamimamsa", SILLE, pages 77-91 ^ a b James Lochtefeld, "Upamana" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 721 ^ Monier Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom - Religious, Philosophical and Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus, Luzac & Co, London, pages 457-458 ^ Arthapatti Encyclopædia Britannica (2012) ^ James Lochtefeld, "Arthapatti" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 55 ^ James Lochtefeld, "Abhava" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 1 ^ a b c D Sharma (1966), Epistemological negative dialectics of Indian logic — Abhāva versus Anupalabdhi, Indo-Iranian Journal, 9(4): 291-300 ^ Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 155-174, 227-255 ^ a b Chris Bartley (2013), Padartha, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415862530, pages 415-416 ^ Mohan Lal (Editor), The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Vol. 5, Sahitya Akademy, ISBN 81-260-1221-8, page 3958 ^ a b c M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813304, page 43 ^ P. Billimoria (1988), Śabdapramāṇa: Word and Knowledge, Studies of Classical India Volume 10, Springer, ISBN 978-94-010-7810-8, pages 1-30 ^ a b Deutsch 1973, p. 99. ^ Bauer, Nancy F. (1987). " Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Contemporary Western Ethics". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawaii Press. 37 (1): 36–50. doi:10.2307/1399082.  ^ Deutsch 1973, p. 100. ^ Deutsch 1973, p. 101-102 with footnotes. ^ Anantanand Rambachan
Anantanand Rambachan
(2006). The Advaita
Advaita
Worldview: God, World, and Humanity. State University of New York Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-7914-6851-7.  ^ Mayeda 2006, p. 88–89. ^ Mayeda 2006, p. 92. ^ Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta
Vedanta
Press, ISBN 978-8171200597, page 16-17; OCLC 218363449 ^ a b Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta
Vedanta
Press, ISBN 978-8171200597, page 17-19; OCLC 218363449 ^ Sankara 2006, p. 226-227. ^ English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta
Vedanta
Press, ISBN 978-8171200597, page 32; OCLC 218363449; Sanskrit: तच् चैतत् परमार्थदर्शनं प्रतिपत्तुमिच्छता वर्णाश्रमाद्यभिमान-कृतपाञ्क्तरूपपुत्रवित्तलोकैषणादिभ्यो व्युत्थानं कर्तव्यम् । सम्यक्प्रत्ययविरोधात् तदभिमानस्य भेददर्शनप्रतिषेधार्थोपपत्तिश्चोपपद्यते । न ह्येकस्मिन्नात्मन्यसंसारित्वबुद्धौ शास्त्रन्यायोत्पादितायां तद्विपरीता बुद्धिर्भवति । न ह्य् अग्नौ शितत्वबुद्धिः, शरीरे वाजरामरणबुद्धिः । तस्मादविद्याकार्यत्वात् सर्वकर्मणां तत्साधनानां च यज्ञोपवीतादीनां परमार्थदर्शनिष्टेन त्यागः कर्तव्यः ॥ ४४॥ Upadesha sahasri ^ a b c d e Koller 2013, p. 100-101. ^ a b Isaeva 1993, p. 35. ^ Dasgupta 1955, pp. 28. ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2–3 ^ Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439 ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26 ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245–248 ^ Deutsch 1988, pp. 4-6 with footnote 4. ^ Sharma 2007, pp. 18-19. ^ Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, page 332 note 68 ^ Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, page 332 note 69 ^ a b c Isaeva 1993, p. 35-36. ^ Rambachan 1991, pp. xii–xiii. ^ Isaeva 1993, pp. 35-36, 77, 210–212. ^ Koller 2013, p. 100. ^ Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439 ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26 ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248 ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2-3 ^ a b c Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2007), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 17-19, 22-34 ^ a b Isaeva 1993, pp. 35-36, 77, 210-212. ^ Mayeda, Sengaku (2006). A thousand teachings : the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-81-208-2771-4.  ^ a b c A Rambachan (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: Vedas
Vedas
as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1, pages xii–xiii ^ Grimes 1990, p. 7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nakamura 1950, p. 3. ^ Nakamura 1950, p. 426. ^ a b Olivelle 1992, pp. 17-18. ^ Stephen H Phillips (1995), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0812692983, page 332 with note 68 ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998), Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791436967, pages 62-63 ^ Olivelle 1992, pp. x-xi, 8-18. ^ Sprockhoff, Joachim F (1976). Samnyasa: Quellenstudien zur Askese im Hinduismus (in German). Wiesbaden: Kommissionsverlag Franz Steiner. pp. 277–294, 319–377. ISBN 978-3515019057.  ^ Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 95-96. ^ Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxx. ^ Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxix. ^ Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxx–xxxi. ^ Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 95. ^ a b Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxxii. ^ a b Nakamura 1950a, p. 436. ^ Pandey 2000, p. 4. ^ a b c Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxxiii. ^ a b Roodurmum 2002. ^ a b Nakamura 1950, p. 678. ^ a b c d Nakamura 1950, p. 679. ^ Raju 1992, p. 177. ^ Comans 2000, pp. 27-33. ^ Comans 2000, pp. 94. ^ a b Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 157. ^ a b Nakamura 1950, p. 308. ^ a b Nakamura 1950, p. 280. ^ a b Sharma 1997, p. 239. ^ Nakamura 1950, pp. 211-213. ^ Nakamura 1950, pp. 280-281. ^ a b c d e f g h TRV Murti
Murti
(1955), The central philosophy of Buddhism, Routledge (2008 Reprint), ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4, pages 114-115 ^ a b c Gaudapada, Devanathan Jagannathan, University of Toronto, IEP ^ a b Shri Gowdapadacharya & Shri Kavale
Kavale
Math (A Commemoration volume). p. 10.  ^ a b Mayeda 2006, p. 13. ^ a b John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan (Editors): The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-18001-1, pages 98–106 ^ a b Mayeda 2006, pp. 46–47. ^ Karl H Potter (2014), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 3, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-61486-1, page 249 ^ George Thibaut (Translator), Brahma
Brahma
Sutras: With Commentary of Shankara, Reprinted as ISBN 978-1-60506-634-9, pages 31–33 verse 1.1.4 ^ Mayeda 2006, pp. 46–53. ^ Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in Japan, 1963–1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 529–535 ^ Michael Comans (1996), Śankara and the Prasankhyanavada, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pages 49–71 ^ Stephen Phillips (2000) in Roy W. Perrett (Editor), Epistemology: Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-8153-3609-9, pages 224–228 with notes 8, 13 and 63 ^ Franklin Merrell-Wolff (1995), Transformations in Consciousness: The Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and Epistemology, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2675-3, pages 242–260 ^ Will Durant (1976), Our Oriental Heritage: The Story of Civilization, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-54800-1, Chapter XIX, Section VI ^ a b Michaels 2004, p. 41–43. ^ a b c John Koller (2012), Shankara in Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-78294-4, pages 99–108 ^ TMP Mahadevan (1968), Shankaracharya, National Book Trust, pages 283–285, OCLC 254278306 ^ Frank Whaling (1979), Sankara and Buddhism, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 7, No. 1, pages 1–42 ^ Karl Potter (1998), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7, pages 1–21, 103–119 ^ a b Mayeda 2006, pp. 6–7. ^ a b Paul Hacker, Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta
Vedanta
(Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2582-4, pages 30–31 ^ a b c Isaeva 1993, pp. 93–97. ^ a b Wilhelm Halbfass (1990), Tradition and Reflection: Explorations in Indian Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-0362-4, pages 205–208 ^ Pande 1994, pp. 351–352. ^ Pande 1994, pp. 113–115. ^ a b c Pande 1994, pp. 105–113. ^ Paul Hacker, 'Sankaracarya and Sankarabhagavatpada: Preliminary Remarks Concerning the Authorship Problem', in Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta
Vedanta
(Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2582-4, pp. 41–56 ^ Adi Shankaracharya, Vivekacūḍāmaṇi S Madhavananda (Translator), Advaita
Advaita
Ashrama (1921) ^ John Grimes (2004), The Vivekacudamani of Sankaracarya Bhagavatpada: An Introduction and Translation, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-3395-2, see Introduction; Klaus Klostermaier (1985), ' Mokṣa
Mokṣa
and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West', Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan. 1985), pp. 61–71; Dhiman, S. (2011), 'Self-Discovery and the Power of Self-Knowledge', Business Renaissance Quarterly, 6(4) ^ Nakamura 1950, p. 262-265. ^ Per Durst-Andersen and Elsebeth F. Lange (2010), Mentality and Thought: North, South, East and West, CBS Press, ISBN 978-87-630-0231-8, page 68 ^ Ron Geaves (March 2002). "From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara)". 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford.  ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, page 40 ^ Benedict Ashley, O.P. The Way toward Wisdom. p. 395. ISBN 0-268-02028-0. OCLC 609421317.  ^ N. V. Isaeva (1992). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7. OCLC 24953669.  ^ a b c d Paul Hacker, Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta
Vedanta
(Editor: Wilhelm Halbfass), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2582-4, pages 29–30 ^ King 2002, p. 128. ^ Roodurmun 2002, p. 33–34. ^ Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Vol 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0310-7, pages 346–347, 420–423, Quote: "There is little firm historical information about Suresvara; tradition holds Suresvara is same as Mandanamisra." ^ a b c R. Blake Michael (1992), The Origins of Vīraśaiva Sects, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0776-1, pages 60–62 with notes 6, 7 and 8 ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mādhava Āchārya". Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ a b Cynthia Talbot (2001), Precolonial India in Practice: Society, Region, and Identity in Medieval Andhra, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513661-6, pages 185–187, 199–201 ^ a b c Roodurmum 2002, p. 30. ^ a b Roodurmum 2002, p. 29. ^ a b c Roodurmum 2002, p. 31. ^ Allen Wright Thrasher (1993). The Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta of Brahma-siddhi. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. vii–x. ISBN 978-81-208-0982-6.  ^ a b Sharma 1997, p. 291. ^ Roodurmum 2002, p. 32. ^ a b c Roodurmum 2002, p. 35. ^ Allen Wright Thrasher (1993). The Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta of Brahma-siddhi. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 101–109, 51–75. ISBN 978-81-208-0982-6.  ^ a b c d Sharma 1997, p. 290. ^ Sharma 1997, p. 290-291. ^ Isaeva 1993, p. 241. ^ a b c d e Roodurmum 2002, p. 40. ^ a b Roodurmum 2002, p. 38. ^ Roodurmum 2002, p. 39. ^ a b Roodurmum 2002, p. 34. ^ Roodurmum 2002, p. 37. ^ Roodurmum 2002, p. 41. ^ a b Dasgupta 1955, p. 198. ^ Dasgupta 1955, p. 198-199. ^ Dasgupta 1955, p. 199. ^ Nakamura 1950, p. 680-681. ^ Karigoudar Ishwaran, Ascetic Culture ^ Wendy Sinclair-Brull, Female Ascetics ^ H.A. Rose, Ibbetson, Denzil Ibbetson Sir, and Maclagan, Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, page 857 ^ Pandey 2000, p. 4-5. ^ Pandey 2000, p. 5. ^ Nakamura 1950, p. 782-783. ^ Fowler 2002, pp. 238–243, 288–294, 340–342. ^ a b c J.A.B. van Buitenen (2008), Ramanuja
Ramanuja
- Hindu
Hindu
theologian and Philosopher, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ a b Christopher Etter (2006). A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism. iUniverse. pp. 57–60, 63–65. ISBN 978-0-595-39312-1.  ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 374–375. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.  ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. pp. 361–362. ISBN 978-0195148923.  ^ a b Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 84–87. ISBN 978-0227680247.  ^ a b c Joseph P. Schultz (1981). Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 978-0-8386-1707-6.  ^ Indich 2000, p. 1–2, 97–102. ^ Roy W. Perrett (2013). Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 247–248. ISBN 978-1-135-70322-6.  ^ Devarshi Ramanath Shastri, " Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
Darshan (Vol.2)", Published by Mota Mandir, Bhoiwada, Mumbai, India, 1917. ^ "Brahmavād Saṅgraha", Pub. Vaishnava Mitra Mandal Sarvajanik Nyasa, Indore, India, 2014. ^ a b Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  ^ a b Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215-224 ^ a b SMS Chari (1999), Advaita
Advaita
and Visistadvaita, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815353, pages 5-7 ^ a b J. Jordens (1998). Gandhi's Religion: A Homespun Shawl. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-230-37389-1.  ^ a b Jeffrey D. Long (2008). Rita Sherma and Arvind Sharma, ed. Hermeneutics and Hindu
Hindu
Thought: Toward a Fusion of Horizons. Springer. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-4020-8192-7.  ^ Indich 2000, p. 57–60. ^ Brannigan 2009, p. 19. ^ Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
(1996), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, page 3 ^ Frederick Asher (1981). Joanna Gottfried Williams, ed. Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL Academic. pp. 1–4. ISBN 90-04-06498-2.  ^ a b c James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. pp. 140–142, 191, 201–203. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5.  ^ a b Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.  ^ a b Doniger 1999, p. 1017. ^ a b Gudrun Bühnemann (2003). Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions. BRILL Academic. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-9004129023.  ^ Diana L. Eck (1998). Darśan: Seeing the Divine Image in India. Columbia University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-231-11265-9.  ^ Rosen 2006, p. 166. ^ Hiltebeitel 2013. ^ a b The Four Denominations of Hinduism, Basics of Hinduism, Kauai Hindu
Hindu
Monastery ^ Falk Reitz (1997), Pancayatana-Komplexe in Nordindien: Entstehung, Entwicklung und regionale Besonderheiten einer indischen Architekturform, PhD Thesis (in German), Awarded by Freie Universität Berlin ^ Neog 1980, pp. 243–244. ^ Kumar Das 2006, pp. 172–173. ^ Brown 1983, pp. 553–557. ^ Sheridan 1986, pp. 1–2, 17–25. ^ Sheridan 1986, p. 6. ^ van Buitenen, J. A. B (1966). "The Archaism of the Bhagavata Purana". In Milton Singer. Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes. pp. 23–40.  ^ Smith 2003, pp. 126–128. ^ Flood 1996, pp. 162–167. ^ Klostermaier 1984, pp. 177–178. ^ Davis 2014, p. 167 note 21. ^ Dyczkowski 1989, pp. 43–44. ^ Isaeva 1995, pp. 134–135. ^ McDaniel 2004, pp. 89–91. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. 35–39. ^ Mahony 1997, p. 274 with note 73. ^ Chapple 1984, pp. ix-x with footnote 3; Richard Rosen (2001), Review of Yogayajnavalkya Samhita by TKV Desikachar, Yoga
Yoga
Journal at Google Books, Issue March/April, page 149 ^ White, David Gordon (2014). The " Yoga
Yoga
Sutra
Sutra
of Patanjali": A Biography. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi–xvii, 50–52. ISBN 978-0691143774.  ^ Rigopoulos 1998, pp. 37, 57, 62–63, 195–207; M. T. Sahasrabudhe (1968). A Survey of the Pre-Śaṅkara Advaita Vedānta. University of Poona Press. pp. 113–114. ; Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0195070453.  ^ Nicholson 2010. ^ King 2002, pp. 136-138. ^ King 2002, pp. 136-138, 141-142. ^ King 2002, p. 135. ^ a b Nicholson 2010, pp. 190-194, 200-201. ^ a b Gaborieau, Marc (June 1985). "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia". Anthropology Today. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1 (3): 7–14. doi:10.2307/3033123. JSTOR 3033123.  ^ a b Nicholson 2010, pp. 1-3. ^ Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2002), On Hindu, Hindustān, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Hindutva Numen, Vol. 49, Fasc. 1, pages 5-9 ^ Nicholson 2010, pp. 178-183. ^ King 2002, pp. 107-109. ^ King 2002, pp. 107-109, 128. ^ King 2002, pp. 132-133, 172. ^ Anshuman A Mondal (2004). Nationalism and Post-Colonial Identity: Culture and Ideology in India and Egypt. Routledge. pp. 85, 256. ISBN 978-1-134-49417-0.  ^ Brian Morris (2006). Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 112, 141–144. ISBN 978-0-521-85241-8.  ^ Thomas Blom Hansen (1999). The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India. Princeton University Press. pp. 76–77, 91–92, 179–181, 44–47, 69–70. ISBN 978-0691006710.  ^ King 2002, p. 135-142. ^ Dense 1999, p. 191. ^ Rambachan 1994, p. 91-92. ^ a b Rambachan 1994, p. 91. ^ Rabindra Kumar Dasgupta (1996). Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
on Indian philosophy and literature. Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Institute of Culture. pp. 145–146, 284–285. ISBN 978-81-85843-81-0.  ^ Comans, Michael (1993). "The Question of the Importance of Samadhi in Modern and Classical Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 43 (1): 19–38. doi:10.2307/1399467.  ^ Rambachan 1991. ^ Rambachan 1994. ^ David Miller (1999). Karigoudar Ishwaran, ed. Ascetic Culture: Renunciation and Worldly Engagement. BRILL Academic. pp. 115–117. ISBN 90-04-11412-2.  ^ Michael Hawley (2005). Steven Engler and Gregory Price Grieve, ed. Historicizing "Tradition" in the Study of Religion. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 300–312. ISBN 978-3-11-090140-5.  ^ a b Robert Neil Minor (1987). Radhakrishnan: A Religious Biography. State University of New York Press. pp. 18, 25–26, 39–42, 132–134. ISBN 978-0-88706-554-5.  ^ Gier 2012. ^ Donald Braue (1984), Maya in Radhakrishnan's Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 0-8364-1129-3, pages 101-136 ^ a b c Nicholas F. Gier (2004). The Virtue of Nonviolence: From Gautama to Gandhi. State University of New York Press. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-0-7914-5949-2.  ^ a b c Lucas 2011. ^ Marek 2008, p. 10, note 6. ^ Marek 2008, p. 10 note 6. ^ a b Jacobs 2004, p. 82. ^ Swartz, James (10 July 2012). "What is Neo-Advaita?". advaita.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ a b Davis 2010, p. 48. ^ Yogani 2011, p. 805. ^ Caplan 2009, p. 16-17. ^ Lucas 2011, p. 102-105. ^ Gleig 2011, p. 10. ^ Katz 2007. ^ a b Comans 2000, p. 88–93. ^ a b Isaeva 1993, pp. 60, 145–154. ^ a b Ingalls, Daniel H. H. (1954). "Samkara's Arguments against the Buddhists". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawaii Press. 3 (4): 291–306. doi:10.2307/1397287. Retrieved 2017-02-01.  ^ a b Biderman 1978, pp. 405-413. ^ N.V. Isaeva (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press, pages 12-14, 145–154 ^ Julius Lipner (1986), The Face of Truth: A Study of Meaning and Metaphysics
Metaphysics
in the Vedantic Theology of Rāmānuja, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887060397, pages 120-123 ^ a b c d e Whaling 1979, pp. 1-42. ^ Nicholson 2010, p. 152. ^ Bhāvaviveka; Malcolm David Eckel (Translator) (2008). Bhāviveka and his Buddhist opponents: chapters 4 and 5 of Bhāviveka's Madhyamakahṛdayakārikaḥ with Tarkajvāla commentary. Harvard University Press. pp. 7–8.  ^ a b Nicholson 2010, pp. 152-153. ^ King 1995, p. 183. ^ a b Guy Newland (1992). The Two Truths: In the Madhyamika Philosophy of the Gelukba Order of Tibetan Buddhism. Shambhala. p. 260 note 62. ISBN 978-1-55939-778-0.  ^ a b Daniel Cozort (1990). Unique Tenets of The Middle Way Consequence School: The Systematization of the Philosophy of the Indian Buddhist Prāsaṅgika-Mādhyamika School. Shambhala. pp. 74–75 with footnote 4. ISBN 978-1-55939-997-5.  ^ Peter Paul Kakol (2009). Emptiness and Becoming: Integrating Mādhyamika Buddhism
Buddhism
and Process Philosophy. Shambala. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-81-246-0519-6. , Quote: "He also charges that Candrakirti was a crypto-Vedantist, (...)" ^ Grimes 1998, pp. 684–686. ^ a b c Isaeva 1993, p. 172. ^ Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 126, 157. ^ Dasgupta & Mohanta 1998, pp. 351-352. ^ Helmuth Von Glasenapp (1995), Vedanta
Vedanta
& Buddhism: A comparative study, Buddhist Publication Society, pages 2-3 ^ Dasgupta & Mohanta 1998, p. 354. ^ David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, International Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 22, Issue 1, pages 65-74 ^ Helmuth Von Glasenapp (1995), Vedanta
Vedanta
& Buddhism: A comparative study, Buddhist Publication Society, pages 1-2 ^ Isaeva 1993, p. 174. ^ Dasgupta & Mohanta 1998, p. 362. ^ a b Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 25. ^ Muller-Ortega 2010, p. 26. ^ Kalupahana 1994, p. 206. ^ a b Plott 2000, pp. 285–288. ^ a b c d Potter 1981, p. 105. ^ Comans 2000, p. 2. ^ a b Raju 1971, p. 177. ^ Kochumuttom 1999, p. 1. ^ Kochumuttom 1999, p. 5. ^ Sarma 2007, pp. 126, 143-144. ^ Sarma 2007, pp. 145-147. ^ TRV Murti
Murti
(1955), The central philosophy of Buddhism, Routledge (2008 Reprint), ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4, page 116 ^ Potter 1981, p. 81. ^ Anatta, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013), Quote: " Anatta
Anatta
in Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying soul. The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman ("the self")." ^ Dae-Sook Suh (1994), Korean Studies: New Pacific Currents, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824815981, page 171 ^ Helen J Baroni (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823922406, page 14 ^ David Loy (1982), Enlightenment in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: Are Nirvana
Nirvana
and Moksha
Moksha
the Same?, International Philosophical Quarterly, Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 65-74 ^ Paul Williams (2008). Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Routledge. pp. 104, 125–127. ISBN 978-1-134-25056-1.  ^ S. K. Hookham (1991). The Buddha
Buddha
Within: Tathagatagarbha Doctrine According to the Shentong
Shentong
Interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. State University of New York Press. pp. 100–104. ISBN 978-0-7914-0357-0.  ^ Paul Williams (2008). Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Routledge. pp. 107, 112. ISBN 978-1-134-25056-1.  ^ S. K. Hookham (1991). The Buddha
Buddha
Within: Tathagatagarbha Doctrine According to the Shentong
Shentong
Interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. State University of New York Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7914-0357-0.  ^ Paul Williams (2008). Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Routledge. pp. 104–105, 108–109. ISBN 978-1-134-25056-1.  Quote: "(...) it refers to the Buddha
Buddha
using the term "Self" in order to win over non-Buddhist ascetics." ^ Merv Fowler (1999). Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-1-898723-66-0.  ^ John W. Pettit (1999). Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Simon and Schuster. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-86171-157-4.  ^ John Clayton (2010), Religions, Reasons and Gods: Essays in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Religion, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521126274, page 54 ^ Alex Wayman (1999), A Millennium of Buddhist Logic, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816466, page xix-xx ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 49-50, 60-62. ^ a b Christopher Bartley (2011). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-1-84706-449-3.  ^ a b c Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe; Alexander Wynne (2000). Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 0-415-20701-0.  ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 40-50, 60-62, 97. ^ Kalupahanan 1994. ^ Christopher Bartley (2011). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 90–91, 96, 204–208. ISBN 978-1-84706-449-3.  ^ Renard 2010, p. 130. ^ a b c Ingalls 1954, p. 302. ^ Ingalls 1954, p. 304. ^ Ingalls 1954, p. 301-305. ^ Ingalls 1954. ^ Ingalls 1954, p. 299-301, 303-304. ^ Ingalls 1954, pp. 302-303. ^ Ingalls 1954, p. 303. ^ King 1995, p. 65; Quote: "The prevailing monism of the Upanishads
Upanishads
was developed by the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
to its ultimate extreme". ^ a b Milne 1997, p. 168. ^ Deutsch 1988, pp. 3, 10, 13-14 with footnotes. ^ Jacqueline Hirst (2005), Samkara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Way of Teaching, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415406017, page 79

Sources[edit] Printed sources[edit]

Balasubramanian, R. (2000). "Introduction. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), "History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta"". Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations.  Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1943). Gauḍapādakārikā. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.  Biderman, Shlomo (1978). "Śankara and the Buddhists". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 6 (4).  Brannigan, Michael (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0739138465  Braue, Donald A. (1984), Māyā in Radhakrishnanʾs Thought: Six Meanings Other Than Illusion, Motilall Banarsidass  Brooks, Douglas Renfrew (1990). The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu
Hindu
Shakta Tantrism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07569-3.  Brown, C. Mackenzie (1983). "The Origin and Transmission of the Two "Bhāgavata Purāṇas": A Canonical and Theological Dilemma". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 51 (4): 551–567. doi:10.1093/jaarel/li.4.551. JSTOR 1462581.  Caplan, Mariana (2009), Eyes Wide Open: Cultivating Discernment on the Spiritual Path, Sounds True  Chapple, Christopher (1984). "Introduction". The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha. Translated by S Venkatesananda. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-955-8. OCLC 11044869.  Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Dalal, Neil (2009). "Contemplative Practice and Textual Agency in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta". Method and Theory in the Study of Religion. 21: 15–27.  Dalal, Neil (2014). Contemplative Grammars: Śaṅkara's Distinction of Upāsana and Nididhyāsana. Journal of Indian Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s10781-014-9258-z.  Dandekar, R.N. (2005), "Vedanta", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan  Dasgupta, Surendranath (1955), A history of Indian philosophy. 5. Southern schools of ́Saivism, Volume 5, CUP Archive  Dasgupta, Sanghamitra; Mohanta, Dilip Kumar (1998). "Indian Philosophical Quarterly". XXV (3, July 1998).  Davis, Leesa S. (2010), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry, Continuum International Publishing Group  Davis, Richard (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691603087  Dense, Christian D. Von (1999), Philosophers and Religious Leaders, Greenwood Publishing Group  Deussen, Paul (1980). Sixty Upaniṣads of the Veda, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass.  Deutsch, Eliot (1973), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-0271-4  Deutsch, Eliot (1988), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-88706-662-3  Deutsch, Eliot; Dalvi, Rohit (2004), The Essential Vedanta: A New Source Book of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, World Wisdom, Inc.  Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster  Dyczkowski, Mark (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal Banarsidass Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 978-8120805958  Fort, Andrew (1998), Jivanmukti
Jivanmukti
in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita
Advaita
and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791439043  Fost, Frederic F. (1998). "Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 48 (3): 387–405. doi:10.2307/1400333.  Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780  Flood, Gavin; Olivelle, Patrick (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Blackwell.  Fort, Andrew O. (1998), Jivanmukti
Jivanmukti
in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita
Advaita
and Neo-Vedanta, SUNY Press  Fowler, Jeaneane D (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723936  Gleig, Ann Louise (2011), Enlightenment After the Enlightenment: American Transformations of Asian Contemplative Traditions, RICE UNIVERSITY/ProQuest (PhD Thesis)  Goodall, Dominic (1996), Hindu
Hindu
Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783  Grimes, John (1998), "Book reviews: Early Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Buddhism: The Mahayana
Mahayana
Context of the Gaudapadiya-karika, by Richard King. SUNY Press (1995)", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 66 (3), doi:10.1093/jaarel/66.3.684, retrieved 2011-11-29  Grimes, John A. (1990), The seven great untenables: Sapta-vidhā anupapatti, Motilal Banarsidass  Grimes, John A. (1996), A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English, SUNY Press  Hirst, J. G. Suthren (2005), Śaṃkara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: A Way of Teaching, Routledge  Indich, William (2000), Consciousness in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512  Ingalls, Daniel H. (1954), "Śaṁkara's arguments against the buddhists", Philosophy East and West 3 (4):291-306 (1954)  Isaeva, N.V. (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press  Jacobs, Alan (2004), Advaita
Advaita
and Western Neo-Advaita. In: The Mountain Path Journal, autumn 2004, pp 81–88, Ramanasramam, archived from the original on 18 May 2015  Jones, Constance; Ryan, JamesD. (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing.  Jones, Richard H. (2004). Shankara's Advaita. In Mysticism and Morality: A New Look at Old Questions, pp 95-114. Lanham: Lexington Books.  Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press  King, Richard (1999). " Orientalism
Orientalism
and the Modern Myth of "Hinduism"". NUMEN. BRILL. 46: 146–185.  King, Richard (2002), Orientalism
Orientalism
and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge  Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0-88920-158-3  Klostermaier, Klaus k. (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1851685387  Kochumuttom, Thomas A. (1999), A buddhist Doctrine of Experience. A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
the Yogacarin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Koller, John M. (2006), "Foreword", A thousand teachings: the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilall Banarsidass  Koller, John M. (2013), "Shankara", in Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge  Kumar Das, Sisir (2006). A history of Indian literature, 500–1399. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-2171-0.  Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Volume One: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group  Lochtefeld, James (2002a), "Brahman", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798  Lorenzen, David N. (2006). Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History. Yoda Press.  Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement. Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
and Neo- Advaita
Advaita
in North America", Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. Vol. 15, No. 2 (November 2011) (pp. 93–114)  Mahony, William (1997). The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791435809.  Marek, David (2008), Dualität – Nondualität. Konzeptuelles und nichtkonzeptuelles Erkennen in Psychologie und buddhistischer Praxis (PDF)  Mayeda, Sengaku (1992), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku, A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, State University of New York City Press, ISBN 0-7914-0944-9  Mayeda, Sengaku (2006), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku, A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120827714  Sankara (2006), "A Thousand teachings", in Mayeda, Sengaku, A Thousand Teachings: The Upadesasahasri
Upadesasahasri
of Sankara, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-2771-4  McDaniel, June (2004), Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Milne, Joseph (April 1997), " Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and typologies of multiplicity and unity: An interpretation of nindual knowledge", International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies, 1 (1): 165–188, doi:10.1007/s11407-997-0017-6  Morris, Brian (2006), Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press  Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
in the Non-Dual Shaivism
Shaivism
of Kashmir, SUNY press  Murti, TRV (1955). The central philosophy of Buddhism. Routledge (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4.  Nakamura, Hajime (1950a), A History of Early Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy. Part One (1990 Reprint), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Nakamura, Hajime (1950), A History of Early Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy. Part Two (2004 Reprint), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Neog, Maheswar (1980), Early History of the Vaiṣṇava Faith and Movement in Assam: Śaṅkaradeva and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0007-6  Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press  Hugh Nicholson (2011). Comparative Theology and the Problem of Religious Rivalry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-977286-5.  Nikhalananda, Swami (1931), Drg-Drsya-Viveka. An inquiry inti the nature of the 'seer' and the 'seen.', Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Asrama  Novetzke, Christian (2007). " Bhakti
Bhakti
and Its Public, International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies". 11 (3).  Olivelle, Patrick (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453  Pande, Govind Chandra (1994), Life and Thought of Śaṅkarācārya, Motilal Banarsidass Publ, ISBN 978-81-208-1104-1  Pandey, S.L. (2000), Pre-Sankara Advaita. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), "History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta", Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations  Plott, John (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Patristic-Sutra period (325 - 800 AD), Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805507  Potter, Karl H. (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Potter, Karl (2008a), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107  Potter, Karl. H. (1981), Gaudapada, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0310-8  Puligandla, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
(1997), Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy, New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Ltd.  Raju, P.T. (1971), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (1992 Reprint)  Raju, P.T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Rambachan, Anantanand (1984), The attainment of moksha according to Shankara and Vivekananda
Vivekananda
with special reference to the significance of scripture (sruti) and experience (anubhabva) (PDF), University of Leeds  Rambachan, Anantanand (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: Vedas
Vedas
as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1  Rambachan, Anatanand (1994), The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas, University of Hawaii Press  Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip  Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  Rosen, Steven (2006), Essential Hinduism, Greenwood Publishing Group  Roodurmum, Pulasth Soobah (2002), Bhāmatī
Bhāmatī
and Vivaraṇa Schools of Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: A Critical Approach, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Sarma, Candradhara (1996). The Advaita
Advaita
Tradition in Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1312-0.  Sharma, Arvind (1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Penn State University Press, ISBN 978-0271028323  Sharma, Arvind (2007), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272  Sharma, Chandradhar (1996). The Advaita
Advaita
Tradition in Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.  Sharma, Chandradhar (1997), A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5  Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. Columbia: South Asia Books. ISBN 81-208-0179-2.  Sheridan, Daniel (1991). Texts in Context: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia (Editor: Jeffrey Timm). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791407967.  Sivananda (1977), Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, Motilal Banarsidass  Sivaraman, K. (1973), Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective: A Study of the Formative Concepts, Problems, and Methods of Śaiva Siddhānta, Motilall Banarsidass  Smith, David (2003), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8  Venkatramaiah, Munagala (2000), Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi: On Realizing Abiding Peace and Happiness, Inner Directions, ISBN 1-878019-00-7  Werner, Karel (1994), The Yogi
Yogi
and the Mystic, Routledge  Whaling, Frank (1979). "Shankara and Buddhism". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 7 (1).  Wilber, Ken (2000), Integral Psychology, Shambhala Publications  Yogani (2011), Advanced Yoga
Yoga
Practices Support Forum Posts of Yogani, 2005–2010, AYP Publishing 

Web-sources[edit]

^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary, Atman ^ a b c d Jiddu Krishnamurti, Saanen 2nd Conversation with Swami Venkatesananda 26 July 1969 ^ Oxford Index, nididhyāsana ^ Ramana Maharshi. States of Consciousness.  ^ Sri Chinmoy. Summits of God-Life.  ^ a b c d e f Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Bhedābheda Vedānta ^ advaita-deanta.org, Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
before Sankaracarya ^ Asram Vidya Order, Biographical Notes About Sankara And Gaudapada ^ Shri Kavale
Kavale
Math ^ a b c d e f THE BHAMATI AND VIVARANA SCHOOLS ^ Sangeetha Menon (2007), Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ a b c Advaita
Advaita
Vision, teachers ^ a b c d e f g h Sankara Acarya Biography – Monastic Tradition Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Asram Vidya Order, Biographical Notes About Sankara And Gaudapada ^ Shri Kavale
Kavale
Math ^ "Adi Shankara's four Amnaya Peethams". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-20.  ^ s:The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 2/Jnana-Yoga/The Absolute and Manifestation ^ a b c d e f Michael Hawley, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(1888—1975), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ Timothy Conway, Neo- Advaita
Advaita
or Pseudo- Advaita
Advaita
and Real Advaita-Nonduality ^ What is Enlightenment? 1 September 2006[permanent dead link] ^ What is Enlightenment? 31 December 2001 Archived 10 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ What is Enlightenment? 1 December 2005[permanent dead link] ^ Undivided Journal, About the Journal ^ Jerry Katz on Nonduality, What is Nonduality?

Further reading[edit]

Primary texts

Robert Hume, Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press Shankara, "A thousand teachings: the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara", Translator Sengaku Mayeda Shankara, Brahma
Brahma
Sutras with Shankara's commentary, translator George Thibaut Maṇḍana Miśra, translated by Allen W. Thrasher (1993), The Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
of Brahmasiddhi, Delhi: Motilal Barnasidass Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
and J. A. B. van Buitenen (1971), A Source Book of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, ISBN 978-0870221897

Introductions

Deutsch, Eliot (1969). Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.  Mayeda, Sengaku (1992), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku, A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, State University of New York City Press, ISBN 0-7914-0944-9  Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Rambachan, A. (2006). The Advaita
Advaita
Worldview: God, World, and Humanity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791468524.  Sarma, Chandradhar (2007), The Advaita
Advaita
Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813120 

History

T. M. P. Mahadevan, Preceptors of Advaita, 1968 Potter, Karl H. (1981), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, vol. 3: Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
up to Sankara and his Pupils, Princeton: Princeton University Press  Potter, Karl H. (2006), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies vol. 11: Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta from 800 to 1200, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Isaeva, N.V. (1995), From Early Vedanta
Vedanta
to Kashmir Shaivism: Gaudapada, Bhartrhari, and Abhinavagupta, SUNY Press 

Topical studies

Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Comparative Study in Religion and Reason, Pennsylvania State University Press Satyapal Verma (1992), Role of Reason in Sankara Vedanta, Parimal Publication, Delhi Sangam Lal Pandey (1989), The Advaita
Advaita
view of God, Darshana Peeth, Allahabad Kapil N. Tiwari (1977), Dimensions of renunciation in Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi Jacqueline G Suthren Hirst (2005), Samkara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta: A Way of Teaching, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415406017 Leesa Davis (2010), Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry, Bloomsbury Academic

Gaudapada

King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta and Buddhism: the Mahāyāna context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, State University of New York Press, ISBN 9780791425138 

Shankara

Natalia V. Isayeva (1993), Shankara and Indian philosophy, SUNY, New York Elayath. K. N. Neelakantan (1990), The Ethics of Sankara, University of Calicut Raghunath D. Karmarkar (1966), Sankara's Advaita, Karnatak University, Dharwar Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
(Translated by Charles Johnston), The System of the Vedanta
Vedanta
with Shankara commentaries at Google Books, Open Court Charles Johnston, The Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy of Sankaracharya at Google Books, Theosophical Society

Neo-Vedanta

King, Richard (2002), Orientalism
Orientalism
and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge  Rambachan, Anantanand (1994). The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas. [Honolulu]: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1542-4. 

Neo-Advaita

Jacobs, Alan (2004), " Advaita
Advaita
and Western Neo-Advaita.", The Mountain Path Journal, Ramanasramam: 81–88, archived from the original on 18 May 2015  Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement. Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
and Neo- Advaita
Advaita
in North America", Nova Religio, 15 (2): 93–114, doi:10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93, JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93  Sharf, Robert H. (2000), "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion" (PDF), Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7 (11–12): 267–87 

Indian languages

Mishra, M., Bhāratīya Darshan (भारतीय दर्शन), Kalā Prakāshan. Sinha, H. P., Bharatiya Darshan ki ruparekha (Features of Indian Philosophy), 1993, Motilal Benarasidas, Delhi–Varanasi. Swāmi Paramānanda Bhārati, Vedānta Prabodha (in Kannada), Jnānasamvardhini Granthakusuma, 2004

External links[edit]

Bibliography of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
Ancient to 9th-century literature Bibliography of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
9th-century to 20th-century literature Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Vedanta
Vedanta
Hub - Resources to help with the Study and Practice of Advaita Vedanta

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Category Portal

v t e

Indian philosophy

Topics

Atheism Atomism Idealism Logic Monotheism Vedic philosophy

Āstika

Hindu: Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Shaiva

Pratyabhijña Pashupata Shaivism Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta

Nāstika

Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhist schools

Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

Texts

Abhinavabharati Arthashastra Bhagavad Gita Bhagavata Purana Brahma
Brahma
Sutra Buddhist texts Dharmashastra Hindu
Hindu
texts Jain Agamas Kamasutra Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras

All 108 texts Principal

Nyāya Sūtras Nyayakusumanjali Panchadasi Samkhyapravachana Sutra Shiva
Shiva
Sutras Tarka-Sangraha Tattvacintāmaṇi Upanishads

Minor

Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Vedangas Vedas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha More...

Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Raikva Sadananda Sakayanya Satyakama Jabala Madhvacharya Mahavira Guru
Guru
Nanak Vidyaranya More...

Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj

.