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Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity. In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor", a legal adult is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient, and responsible. The typical age of attaining adulthood is 18, although definition may vary by legal rights and country. Human
Human
adulthood encompasses psychological adult development. Definitions of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory; a person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavior but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely, one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age. This often encompasses the passing a series of tests to demonstrate that a person is prepared for adulthood, or reaching a specified age, sometimes in conjunction with demonstrating preparation. Most modern societies determine legal adulthood based on reaching a legally specified age without requiring a demonstration of physical maturity or preparation for adulthood.

Contents

1 Biological adulthood 2 Legal
Legal
adulthood 3 Social
Social
construction of adulthood 4 Religion 5 See also 6 References

Biological adulthood[edit]

A group of adult people

Historically and cross-culturally, adulthood has been determined primarily by the start of puberty (the appearance of secondary sex characteristics such as menstruation in women, ejaculation in men, and pubic hair in both sexes). In the past, a person usually moved from the status of child directly to the status of adult, often with this shift being marked by some type of coming-of-age test or ceremony.[1] After the social construct of adolescence was created, adulthood split into two forms: biological adulthood and social adulthood. Thus, there are now two primary forms of adults: biological adults (people who have attained reproductive ability, are fertile, or who evidence secondary sex characteristics) and social adults (people who are recognized by their culture or law as being adults). Depending on the context, adult can indicate either definition. Although few or no established dictionaries provide a definition for the two word term biological adult, the first definition of adult in multiple dictionaries includes "the stage of the life cycle of an animal after reproductive capacity has been attained".[2][3] Thus, the base definition of the word adult is the period beginning at physical sexual maturity, which occurs sometime after the onset of puberty. Although this is the primary definition of the base word "adult", the term is also frequently used to refer to social adults. The two-word term biological adult stresses or clarifies that the original definition, based on physical maturity, is being used. The time of puberty varies, but usually begins around 10 or 11 years old. Girls typically begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11, and boys at age 11 or 12.[4][5][6] Girls generally complete puberty by 15–17, and boys by age 16 or 17.[6][7] Nutrition, genetics and environment also play a part. Legal
Legal
adulthood[edit] Main article: Age of majority Legally, adulthood typically means that one has reached the age of majority - when parents lose parenting rights and responsibilities regarding the person concerned. Depending on one's jurisdiction, the age of majority may or may not be set independently of and should not be confused with the minimum ages applicable to other activities, such as engaging in a contract, marriage, voting, having a job, serving in the military, buying/possessing firearms, driving, traveling abroad, involvement with alcoholic beverages, smoking, sexual activity, gambling, being a model or actor in pornography, running for President, etc. Admission of a young person to a place may be restricted because of danger for that person, concern that the place may lead the person to immoral behavior or because of the risk that the young person causes damage (for example, at an exhibition of fragile items). One can distinguish the legality of acts of a young person, or of enabling a young person to carry out that act, by selling, renting out, showing, permitting entrance, allowing participation, etc. There may be distinction between commercially and socially enabling. Sometimes there is the requirement of supervision by a legal guardian, or just by an adult. Sometimes there is no requirement, but rather a recommendation. Using the example of pornography, one can distinguish between:

being allowed inside an adult establishment being allowed to purchase pornography being allowed to possess pornography another person being allowed to sell, rent out, or show the young person pornography, see disseminating pornography to a minor being a pornographic actor: rules for the young person, and for other people, regarding production, possession, etc. (see child pornography)

With regard to films with violence, etc.:

another person being allowed to sell, rent out, or show the young person a film; a cinema being allowed to let a young person enter

The age of majority ranges internationally from ages 15 to 21, with 18 being the most common age. Niger, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon
Cameroon
define adulthood at age 15, but marriage of girls at an earlier age is common.[8] In most of the world, including most of the United States, parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(England, Northern Ireland, Wales), India
India
and China, the legal adult age is 18 (historically 21) for most purposes, with some notable exceptions:

Scotland
Scotland
(United Kingdom) (16) British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Yukon Territory
Yukon Territory
in Canada
Canada
(though there are some exceptions in which Canadians may be considered legal adults in certain situations[citation needed]); Nebraska
Nebraska
and Alabama in The United States, and South Korea
South Korea
(19) Indonesia
Indonesia
(20) United States
United States
purchasing alcohol and entering bars has a minimum age of 21.

Since June 17, 2017, the legal adult age in Japan
Japan
was changed from 20 to 18. Social
Social
construction of adulthood[edit] In contrast to biological perspectives of aging and adulthood, social scientists conceptualize adulthood as socially constructed.[9][10] While aging is an established biological process, the attainment of adulthood is social in its criteria. In contrast to other perspectives that conceptualize aging and the attainment of adulthood as a largely universal development, regardless of context, nation, generation, gender, race, or social class, social scientists regard these aspects as paramount in cultural definitions of adulthood.[11] Further evidence of adulthood as a social construction is illustrated by the changing criteria of adulthood over time. Historically, adulthood in the U.S. has rested on completing one’s education, moving away from the family of origin, and beginning one’s career.[12][13][14] Other key historical criteria include entering a marriage and becoming a parent. These criteria are social and subjective; they are organized by gender, race, ethnicity, social class, among other key identity markers. As a result, particular populations feel adult earlier in the life course than do others.[15][16][17][18] Contemporary experiences of and research on young adults today substitute more seemingly subjective criteria for adulthood which resonate more soundly with young adults' experiences of aging.[16][19] The criteria are marked by a growing "importance of individualistic criteria and the irrelevance of the demographic markers" of normative conceptions of adulthood."[20]:230 In particular, younger cohorts' attainment of adulthood centers on three criteria: gaining a sense of responsibility, independent decision-making, and financial independence.[21][22] Religion[edit] According to Jewish
Jewish
tradition, adulthood is reached at age 13 (the minimal age of the Bar
Bar
Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah) for Jewish
Jewish
boys and girls; they are expected to demonstrate preparation for adulthood by learning the Torah
Torah
and other Jewish
Jewish
practices. The Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
and Jewish
Jewish
scripture contain no age requirement for adulthood or marrying, which includes engaging in sexual activity. The 1983 Code of Canon Law states, "A man before he has completed his sixteenth year of age, and likewise a woman before she has completed her fourteenth year of age, cannot enter a valid marriage".[23] According to The Disappearance of Childhood
Childhood
by Neil Postman, the Christian
Christian
Church of the Middle Ages considered the age of accountability, when a person could be tried and even executed as an adult, to be age 7. See also[edit]

Adolescence Adult
Adult
contemporary music Adult-to-adult narcissistic abuse Adultism Age of candidacy Age of consent Child Child
Child
labor Developmental psychology Legal
Legal
drinking age Manhood Marriageable age Motion picture rating system Voting
Voting
age Watershed (television) Womanhood Youth

References[edit]

^ Maranz Henig, Robin (2010-08-18). "What Is It About 20-Somethings?". New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved 2010-09-24. THE DISCOVERY OF adolescence is generally dated to 1904, with the publication of the massive study "Adolescence," by G. Stanley Hall, a prominent psychologist and first president of the American Psychological Association.  ^ International Dictionary of Medicine and Biology
Biology
(1986) ^ Churchill's Medical Dictionary (1989) ^ Kail, RV; Cavanaugh JC (2010). Human
Human
Development: A Lifespan View (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 296. ISBN 0495600377.  ^ Schuiling (2016). Women’s Gynecologic Health. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 22. ISBN 1284125017. Retrieved March 20, 2018. The changes that occur during puberty usually happen in an ordered sequence, beginning with thelarche (breast development) at around age 10 or 11, followed by adrenarche (growth of pubic hair due to androgen stimulation), peak height velocity, and finally menarche (the onset of menses), which usually occurs around age 12 or 13.  ^ a b D. C. Phillips (2014). Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy. Sage Publications. pp. 18–19. ISBN 1483364755. Retrieved March 20, 2018. On average, the onset of puberty is about 18 months earlier for girls (usually starting around the age of 10 or 11 and lasting until they are 15 to 17) than for boys (who usually begin puberty at about the age of 11 to 12 and complete it by the age of 16 to 17, on average).  ^ Jean W. Solomon, Jane Clifford O'Brien (2014). Pediatric Skills for Occupational Therapy Assistants - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 103. ISBN 0323291635. Retrieved March 20, 2018. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Spooner, Samatha (July 14, 2014). " Legal
Legal
ages of marriage across Africa: Even when it's 18, they are married off at 12!". Mail & Guardian Africa.  ^ Elder, Glen H., Jr. 1985. “Perspectives on the life course.” Pp. 23-49 in Life Course Dynamics: Trajectories and Transitions, 1968 – 1980, ed. Glen H. Elder, Jr. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ^ Settersten, Richard A. 1999. Lives in Time and Place: The Problems and Promises of Developmental Science. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company. ^ Ryff, Carol D. 1985. “The Subjective Experience of Life-Span Transitions.” In Gender and the life course, by Alice S. Rossi, 97-113. New York: Adine. ^ Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 1998. “Learning to Stand Alone: The Contemporary American Transition to Adulthood in Cultural and Historical Context.” Human
Human
Development 41:295-315. ^ Levinson, Daniel J. 1978. The Seasons of a Man’s Life. New York: Knopf. ^ Shanahan, Michael J. 2000. “Pathways to Adulthood in Changing Societies: Variability and Mechanisms in Life Course Perspective.” Annual Review of Sociology 26:667-692. ^ Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2001. “Conceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Emerging Adults in American Ethnic Groups.” Journal of Adult
Adult
Development, 8:133-143. ^ a b Aronson, Pamela. 2008. “The Markers and Meanings of Growing Up: Contemporary Young Women’s Transition from Adolescence
Adolescence
to Adulthood.” Gender & Society 22:56–82. ^ Barrett, Anne. 2003. “Socioeconomic Status and Age Identity: The Role of Dimensions of Health in the Subjective Construction of Age Identity.” Journal of Gerontology 58: 101-110. ^ Barrett, Anne. 2005. “Gendered Experiences in Midlife: Implications for Age Identity.” Journal of Aging Studies 19:163-183. ^ Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Rubén G. Rumbaut, and Richard A. Settersten, Jr. 2005. “On the Frontier of Adulthood: Emerging Themes and New Directions.” In On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, by Richard A. Settersten, Jr., Frank F. Furstenburg Jr., and Rubén G. Rumbaut, 3-25. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ^ Shanahan, Michael J., Erik J. Porfeli, Jeylan T. Mortimer, and Lance D. Erickson. 2005. “Subjective Age Identity and the Transition to Adulthood: When do Adolescents Become Adults?” In On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, by Richard A. Settersten, Jr., Frank F. Furstenburg Jr., and Rubén G. Rumbaut, 225-255. Chicago: University of Chicago. ^ Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2004. Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from Late Teens through the Twenties. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ^ Settersten, Richard A. 2011. “Becoming Adult: Meanings and Markers for Young Americans.” In Coming of Age in America: The Transition to Adulthood in the Twenty-First Century, by Mary C. Waters, Patrick J. Carr, Maria J. Kefalas, and Jennifer Holdaway, 169-190. Berkeley: University of California Press. ^ canon 1083, §1

v t e

Human
Human
biological and psychological development

Before birth

Embryo Fetus

After birth

Infant Toddler Early childhood Childhood

Child

Preadolescence Adolescence Adulthood Middle age Old age

Definitions

Minor Age of majority

Events and phases

Gestational age Prenatal development Birth Child
Child
development

stages

Cognitive development of infants Human
Human
development Adult
Adult
development Puberty Ageing Senescence Death

Developmental psychology

Antenatal Positive youth development Young adult Positive adult development Maturity

Theorists and theories

Freud (1856–1939) (Psychosexual development) Piaget (1896–1980) (Theory of cognitive development) Vygotsky (1896–1934) (Cultural-historical psychology) Erikson (1902–1994) (Psychosocial development) Bowlby (1907–1990) (Attachment theory) Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005) (Ecological systems theory) Kohlberg (1927–1987) (Stages of moral development) Commons (b. 1939), Fischer (b. 1943), Kegan (b. 1946), Demetriou (b. 1950), and others (Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development) Evolutionary developmental psychology

v t e

Psychology

History Philosophy Portal Psychologist

Basic psychology

Abnormal Affective science Affective neuroscience Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Behaviorism Cognitive/Cognitivism Cognitive neuroscience Comparative Cross-cultural Cultural Developmental Differential Ecological Evolutionary Experimental Gestalt Intelligence Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psycholinguistics Psychophysics Psychophysiology Quantitative Social Theoretical

Applied psychology

Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Ergonomics Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Psychotherapy Religion School Sport and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic

Methodologies

Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human
Human
subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys

Psychologists

William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)

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