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Pope
Pope
Adrian VI (Latin: Hadrianus VI), born Adriaan Florensz Boeyens[1] (2 March 1459 – 14 September 1523), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States
Papal States
from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 September 1523. The only Dutchman so far to become pope, he was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II, 455 years later. Born in the Episcopal principality of Utrecht, Adrian studied at the University of Leuven in the Low Countries, where he rose to the position of professor of theology, also serving as rector (the equivalent of vice-chancellor). In 1507, he became the tutor of the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who later trusted him as both his emissary and his regent. In 1516, Adrian became bishop of Tortosa, Spain, and was soon appointed Grand Inquisitor
Grand Inquisitor
of the kingdoms of Aragon
Aragon
and Castile. He was appointed cardinal by Pope
Pope
Leo X
Leo X
in 1517 and elected pope in 1522 as a compromise candidate after Leo's death. Adrian came to the papacy in the midst of one of its greatest crises, threatened not only by Lutheranism
Lutheranism
to the north but also by the advance of the Ottoman Turks to the east. He refused to compromise with Lutheranism
Lutheranism
theologically, demanding Luther's condemnation as a heretic. However, he is noted for having attempted to reform the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
administratively in response to the Protestant Reformation. His efforts at reform, however, proved fruitless, as they were resisted by most of his Renaissance
Renaissance
ecclesiastical contemporaries, and he did not live long enough to see his efforts through to their conclusion. He was succeeded by the Italian Medici pope, Clement VII. Adrian VI and his eventual successor Marcellus II
Marcellus II
are the only popes of the modern era to retain their baptismal names after their election.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Leuven 3 Spain 4 Papal election

4.1 Reformer

5 Papacy 6 Death 7 Pope
Pope
Adrian VI in popular culture 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 Notes 11 External links

Early life[edit]

Pope
Pope
Adrian VI's birthplace in Utrecht

Adriaan Florensz was born on 2 March 1459 in the city of Utrecht, which was then the capital of the Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht,[2] a part of the Burgundian Netherlands
Burgundian Netherlands
in the Holy Roman Empire. He was born into modest circumstances as the son of Florens Boeyensz, also born in Utrecht, and his wife Geertruid. He had three older brothers, Jan, Cornelius, and Claes.[3] Adrian consistently signed with Adrianus Florentii or Adrianus de Traiecto ("Adrian of Utrecht") in later life, suggesting that his family did not yet have a surname but used patronymics only.[4] Adrian was probably raised in a house on the corner of the Brandsteeg and Oude Gracht that was owned by his grandfather Boudewijn (Boeyen, for short). His father, a carpenter and likely shipwright, died when Adrian was 10 years or younger.[5] Adrian studied from a very young age under the Brethren of the Common Life, either at Zwolle
Zwolle
or Deventer
Deventer
and was also a student of the Latin school (now Gymnasium Celeanum) in Zwolle.[6] Leuven[edit] In June 1476, he started his studies at the University of Leuven,[7] where he pursued philosophy, theology and Canon Law, thanks to a scholarship granted by Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. In 1478 he had the title of Primus Philosophiae, as well as that of Magister Artium (that is, he took his undergraduate degree). In 1488 he was chosen by the Faculty of Arts to be their representative on the Council of the University.[8] On 30 June 1490, Adrian was ordained a priest.[9] After the regular 12 years of study, Adrian became a Doctor of Theology
Theology
in 1491. He had been a teacher at the University since 1490, was chosen vice-chancellor of the university in 1493, and Dean of St. Peter's in 1498. In the latter function he was permanent vice-chancellor of the University and de facto in charge of hiring. His lectures were published, as recreated from his students' notes; among those who attended was the young Erasmus. Adrian offered him a professorate in 1502, but Erasmus
Erasmus
refused.[4] In November 1506 Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, became Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands and chose Adrian as her advisor. The next year Emperor Maximilian I
Emperor Maximilian I
appointed him also tutor to his seven-year-old grandson, and Margaret's nephew, who in 1519 became Emperor Charles V. By 1512 Adrian was Charles's advisor and his court obligations were so time consuming that he quit his positions at the university.[4] Spain[edit] In 1515, Charles sent Adrian to Spain
Spain
to convince his maternal grandfather, Ferdinand II of Aragon, that the Spanish lands should come under his rule, and not Charles's Spanish-born younger brother Ferdinand, whom his grandfather had in mind. Adrian succeeded in that just before Ferdinand's death in January 1516.[4] Ferdinand of Aragon,[10] and subsequently Charles V, appointed Adrian Bishop of Tortosa, which was approved by Pope
Pope
Leo X
Leo X
on 18 August 1516.[11] He was consecrated by Bishop Diego Ribera de Toledo. On 14 November 1516 the King commissioned him Inquisitor
Inquisitor
General of Aragon. In his fifth Consistory for the creation of cardinals, on 1 July 1517, Pope
Pope
Leo X
Leo X
(1513–21) named thirty-one cardinals among whom was Adrianus de Traiecto,[2] naming him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica
Basilica
of Saints John and Paul on the Coelian Hill.[12] During the minority of Charles V, Adrian was named to serve with Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros
Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros
as co-regent of Spain. After the death of Jimenez, Adrian was appointed (14 March 1518) General of the Reunited Inquisitions of Castile and Aragon, in which capacity he acted until his departure for Rome.[13] When Charles V left Spain
Spain
for the Netherlands in 1520, he appointed Cardinal Adrian Regent
Regent
of Spain, during which time he had to deal with the Revolt of the Comuneros.

Pope
Pope
Adrian VI, 1598 engraving by Théodore Galle

Papal election[edit]

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In the conclave after the death of the Medici
Medici
Pope
Pope
Leo X, Leo's cousin, Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, was the leading figure. With Spanish and French cardinals in a deadlock, the absent Adrian was proposed as a compromise and on 9 January 1522 he was elected by an almost unanimous vote. Charles V was delighted upon hearing that his tutor had been elected to the papacy but soon realised that Adrian VI was determined to reign impartially. Francis I of France, who feared that Adrian would become a tool of the Emperor, and had uttered threats of a schism, later relented and sent an embassy to present his homage. Fears of a Spanish Avignon based on the strength of his relationship with the Emperor as his former tutor and regent proved baseless, and Adrian, having notified the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
of his acceptance,[14] left for Italy after six months of preparations and trying to decide which route to take, making his solemn entry into Rome
Rome
on 29 August. He had forbidden elaborate decorations, and many people stayed away for fear of the plague that was raging. Pope
Pope
Adrian was crowned at St. Peter's Basilica
Basilica
on 31 August 1522, at the age of 63. Reformer[edit] He immediately entered upon the path of the reformer. The 1908 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
characterised the task that faced him:

"To extirpate inveterate abuses; to reform a court which thrived on corruption, and detested the very name of reform; to hold in leash young and warlike princes, ready to bound at each other's throats; to stem the rising torrent of revolt in Germany; to save Christendom from the Turks, who from Belgrade
Belgrade
now threatened Hungary, and if Rhodes fell would be masters of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
- these were herculean labours for one who was in his sixty-third year, had never seen Italy, and was sure to be despised by the Romans as a 'barbarian'.[2]

His plan was to attack notorious abuses one by one; however, in his attempt to improve the system of indulgences he was hampered by his cardinals. He found reduction of the number of matrimonial dispensations to be impossible, as the income had been farmed out for years in advance by Pope
Pope
Leo X.[13] Papacy[edit]

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Adrian VI was not successful as a peacemaker among Christian princes, whom he hoped to unite in a war against the Turks. In August 1523 he was forced into an alliance with the Empire, England, and Venice against France; meanwhile, in 1522 Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–66) had conquered Rhodes. In his reaction to the early stages of the Lutheran
Lutheran
revolt, Adrian VI did not completely understand the gravity of the situation. At the Diet of Nuremberg, which opened in December 1522, he was represented by Francesco Chiericati, whose private instructions contain the frank admission that the disorder of the Church was perhaps the fault of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
itself, and that it should be reformed.[15][16] However, the former professor and Inquisitor
Inquisitor
General was strongly opposed to any change in doctrine and demanded that Martin Luther
Martin Luther
be punished for teaching heresy.[13] He made only one cardinal in the course of his pontificate, Willem van Enckevoirt, made a cardinal priest in a consistory held on September 10, 1523. Adrian VI held no beatifications in his pontificate but canonized Saints Antoninus of Florence
Antoninus of Florence
and Benno
Benno
of Meissen on 31 May 1523. Charles V's ambassador in Rome, Juan Manuel, lord of Belmonte, wrote that he was worried that Charles's influence over Adrian waned after Adrian's election, writing " The Pope
Pope
is "deadly" afraid of the College of Cardinals. He does whatever two or three cardinals write to him in the name of the college."[17]

The funeral monument for Adrian VI in Santa Maria dell'Anima
Santa Maria dell'Anima
in Rome

Death[edit] Adrian VI died in Rome
Rome
on 14 September 1523, after one year, eight months and six days as pope. Most of his official papers were lost after his death. He published Quaestiones in quartum sententiarum praesertim circa sacramenta (Paris, 1512, 1516, 1518, 1537; Rome, 1522), and Quaestiones quodlibeticae XII. (1st ed., Leuven, 1515). He is buried in the Santa Maria dell'Anima
Santa Maria dell'Anima
church in Rome. He bequeathed property in the Low Countries
Low Countries
for the foundation of a college at the University of Leuven that became known as Pope's College. The pope was mocked by the people of Rome
Rome
on the Pasquino, and the Romans, who had never taken a liking to a man they saw as a "barbarian", rejoiced at his death. Pope
Pope
Adrian VI in popular culture[edit]

The birth house of pope Hadrian and accompanying poem. Detail of an engraving of 'Famous Dutch Men and Women'.

The first series of engravings used to educate Dutch school children at the turn of the 18th century includes Adrian VI in its woodcut on 'Famous Dutch Men and Women' with the following poem:

In Utrecht wijst men nog dit huis den vreemdeling aan, En noemt het om zijn naam 't huis van Paus Adriaan, Nog praalt 's mans borstbeeld in den gevel. Min verheven Was 't het stamhuis van dien Paus, een schuitemakers zoon, Zijn naam blijft nog vol lof op duizend tongen zweeven, Kort droeg hij, maar met roem, de pauselijke kroon.'

In Utrecht they still show the stranger this house, And call it the house of pope Adrian, Still his bust stands in its façade. Less elevated Was the ancestry of this pope, the son of a boat builder, His name is still proudly spoken by thousands of tongues, Short of time, but with honor, he wore the papal crown.

Pope
Pope
Adrian VI was a character in Christopher Marlowe's theatre play The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus (published 1604). Italian writer Luigi Malerba used the confusion among the leaders of the Catholic Church, which was created by Adrian's unexpected election, as a backdrop for his 1995 novel, Le maschere (The Masks), about the struggle between two Roman cardinals for a well-endowed church office. In an episode of the American TV show Law & Order entitled Divorce, a homeless man believes he is Pope
Pope
Adrian VI.[18] Bibliography[edit]

Luther, Martin. Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 vols., tr.and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran
Lutheran
Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.I (1507–1521) and vol.2 (1521–1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol.1, Wipf & Stock Publishers (March 2006). ISBN 1-59752-601-0 Gross, Ernie. This Day In Religion. New York:Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc, 1990. ISBN 1-55570-045-4. Malerba, Luigi. Le maschere, Milan: A. Mondadori, 1995. ISBN 88-04-39366-1 Verweij, Michiel. Adrianus VI (1459-1523): de tragische paus uit de Nederlanden, Antwerpen & Apeldoorn: Garant Publishers, 2011. ISBN 90-44-12664-4 Höfler, Karl Adolf Constantin, Ritter von (1880). Papst Adrian VI. 1522-1523 (in German: Fraktur). Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Domarus, M. v. "Die Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstes Hadrian VI.," Historisches Jahrbuch 16 (München 1895), 70-91. Giovio, Paolo (1551). Vita Leonis Decimi, pontifici maximi: libri IV...Hadriani VI... et Pompeii Columnae... (in Latin). Florence: Lorenzo Torrentini.  Paulus Jovius, "Vita Hadriani VI," in Gaspar Burmann, Analecta historica de Hadriano Sexto (Utrecht 1727) 85-150. Creighton, Mandell. A History of The Papacy during the Period of the Reformation
Reformation
Volume V (London 1894). Creighton, Mandell (1897). A History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome. Volume VI. London: Longmans, Green, and Company.  Gregorovius, Ferdinand. The History of Rome
Rome
in the Middle Ages (translated from the fourth German edition by A. Hamilton) Volume 8 part 2 [ Book
Book
XIV, Chapter 4-5] (London 1902) Pastor, Ludwig. History of the Popes (tr. R.F. Kerr) Volume VIII (St. Louis 1908). Pasolini, Guido. Adriano VI. Saggio Storico (Rome, 1913). Gulik, Guilelmus van; Konrad Eubel (1923). L. Schmitz-Kallenberg, ed. Hierarchia catholica medii aevi (in Latin). Volume III (editio altera ed.). Münster: sumptibus et typis librariae Regensbergianae.  Rodocanachi, E. (1931). "La jeunesse d' Adrien VI". Revue historique. 56: 300–307. JSTOR 40944759. (Registration required (help)).  McNally, Robert E. (1969). " Pope
Pope
Adrian VI (1522-23) and Church Reform". Archivum Historiae Pontificiae. 7: 253–285. JSTOR 23563708. (Registration required (help)).  Peter G. Bietenholz; Thomas Brian Deutscher (6 September 2003). Contemporaries of Erasmus: A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 5–9. ISBN 978-0-8020-8577-1.  Stone, M.W.F (2006). "Adrian of Utrecht and the University of Louvain: Theology
Theology
and the Discussion of Moral Problems in the late Fifteenth Century". Traditio. 61: 247–287. JSTOR 27832061. (Registration required (help)). 

See also[edit]

Coster, Wim (2003), Metamorfoses. Een geschiedenis van het Gymnasium Celeanum, Zwolle: Waanders, ISBN 90-400-8847-0  Creighton, Mandell (1919), A History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome, 6, New York: Longmans, Green  Duke, Alastair (2009), "The Elusive Netherlands: The Question of National Identity in the Early Modern Low Countries
Low Countries
on the Eve of the Revolt", in Duke, Alastair; Pollmann,, Judith; Spicer, Andrew, Dissident identities in the early modern Low Countries, Farnham: Ashgate Publishers, pp. 9–57, ISBN 978-0-7546-5679-1  Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2007), Fundamentalism, New York: Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0-8160-6767-8  Howell, Robert B. (2000), "The Low Countries: A Study in Sharply Contrasting Nationalisms", in Barbour, Stephen; Carmichael, Cathie, Language and nationalism in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 130–50, ISBN 0-19-823671-9  Schlabach, Gerald W. (2010), Unlearning Protestantism: Sustaining Christian Community in an Unstable Age, Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, ISBN 978-1-58743-111-1 

Notes[edit]

^ Dedel, according to Collier's Encyclopedia. ^ a b c  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Pope
Pope
Adrian VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Rodocanachi, p. 301. ^ a b c d Jos Martens, Bio and review of Verweij book at Histoforum Magazine. ^ Gerard Weel Life and times of Adrian of Utrecht (in Dutch) ^ Coster. "De Latijnse School te Zwolle". Metamorfoses. pp. 17, 19.  Rodocanachi, p. 301-302. ^ The date was 1 June 1476 according to the Matriculation Register: Rodocanachi, p. 302 and n. 1. ^ Rodocanachi, p. 302. ^ David Cheney, Catholic-Hierarchy: Adrian Florenszoom Dedel. Retrieved: 2016-05-14. ^ Paolo Giovio, Vita Hadriani VI, p. 119. ^ Gulik and Eubel, p. 186. ^ Gulik and Eubel, pp. 16 and 63. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Adrian". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.  ^ Adrian VI (1522). Copia Brevis S. D. N. Adriani VI. in summum Pontificem electi, ad sacrosanctum Cardinalium Collegium (in Latin). Caesaraugusta (Saragossa).  ^ Pigafetta, Antonio and Theodore J. Cachey, The first voyage around the world, 1519–1522, (University of Toronto Press, 2007), 128. ^ Hans Joachim Hillerbrand, The division of Christendom: Christianity in the sixteenth century, (Westminster John Knox Press, 2007), 141. ^ British History Online. (15 April 1522 entry) ^ Dyess-Nugent, Phil, Law & Order: Slave to formula, or crackling entertainment?, The A. V. Club.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hadrianus VI.

Pope
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Adrian VI to Francesco Chieregati, Nov. 25, 1522 Luther, corruption in the Catholic Church, the need for reform, etc. Writings of Pope
Pope
Adrian VI in Latin Pope
Pope
Hadrian VI at Catholic-Hierarchy.org

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Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France
France
during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 76430137 LCCN: n80020628 ISNI: 0000 0001 1029 782X GND: 118544365 SUDOC: 07715696X BNF: cb12552035g (data) BPN: 19342008 NLA: 35977274 NKC: jo2003168063 BNE: XX1387

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