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The ADMIRALTY formerly known as the OFFICE OF THE ADMIRALTY AND MARINE AFFAIRS, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy first in the Kingdom of England , second in the Kingdom of Great Britain , and from 1801-1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire . Originally exercised by a single person, the Lord High Admiral , the Admiralty was, from the early 18th century onwards, almost invariably put "in commission" and exercised by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty , who sat on the Board of Admiralty.

In 1964, the functions of the Admiralty were transferred to a new Admiralty Board , which is a committee of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom and part of the Navy Department of the Ministry of Defence . The new Admiralty Board meets only twice a year, and the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy is controlled by a Navy Board (not to be confused with the historic Navy Board described later in this article). It is common for the various authorities now in charge of the Royal Navy to be referred to as simply _The Admiralty_.

The title of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom was vested in the monarch from 1964 to 2011. The title was awarded to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh by Queen Elizabeth II on his 90th birthday. There also continues to be a Vice- Admiral of the United Kingdom and a Rear- Admiral of the United Kingdom , both of which are honorary offices.

CONTENTS

* 1 Function and organization

* 1.1 History * 1.2 Board of Admiralty * 1.3 Organization * 1.4 Senior military and civil command

* 2 Admiralty buildings

* 2.1 The Admiralty * 2.2 Admiralty House * 2.3 Admiralty Extension * 2.4 Admiralty Arch * 2.5 The Admiralty Citadel

* 3 "Admiralty" as a metonym for "sea power" * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

FUNCTION AND ORGANIZATION

HISTORY

Flag of the Lord High Admiral

The office of _ Admiral of England_ (or _Lord Admiral_ and later _Lord High Admiral_) was created around 1400 although there had already been Admirals of the Northern and Western Seas. In 1546, King Henry VIII established the Council of the Marine, later to become the Navy Board , to oversee administrative affairs of the naval service. Operational control of the Royal Navy remained the responsibility of the Lord High Admiral, who was one of the nine Great Officers of State .

In 1628, Charles I put the office of Lord High Admiral into commission and control of the Royal Navy passed to a committee in the form of the Board of Admiralty. The office of Lord High Admiral passed a number of times in and out of commission until 1709 after which the office was almost permanently in commission (the last Lord High Admiral being the future King William IV in the early 19th century).

In 1831, the first Navy Board was abolished as a separate entity, and its duties and responsibilities were given over to the Admiralty.

In 1964, the Admiralty along with the War Office and the Air Ministry as separate departments of state were abolished, and re-emerged under one single new Ministry of Defence . Within the expanded Ministry of Defence are the new _ Admiralty Board _ which has a separate (second) Navy Board responsible for the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy., the _ Army Board _ and the _ Air Force Board _, each headed by the Secretary of State for Defence .

BOARD OF ADMIRALTY

Board of admiralty about 1810.

When the office of Lord High Admiral was in commission, as it was for most of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, until it reverted to the Crown , it was exercised by a Board of Admiralty , officially known as the _Commissioners for Exercising the Office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, "> The Admiralty complex in 1794. The colours indicate departments or residences for the several Lords of the Admiralty. The pale coloured extension behind the small courtyard, on the left is Admiralty House.

The Admiralty complex lies between Whitehall , Horse Guards Parade and The Mall and includes five inter-connected buildings. Since the Admiralty no longer exists as a department, these buildings are now used by separate government departments:

THE ADMIRALTY

The oldest building was long known simply as _The Admiralty_; it is now known officially as the Ripley Building, a three storey U-shaped brick building designed by Thomas Ripley and completed in 1726. Alexander Pope implied the architecture is rather dull, lacking either the vigour of the baroque style, fading from fashion at the time, or the austere grandeur of the Palladian style just coming into vogue. It is mainly notable for being perhaps the first purpose-built office building in Great Britain. It contained the Admiralty board room, which is still used by the Admiralty, other state rooms, offices and apartments for the Lords of the Admiralty. Robert Adam designed the screen, which was added to the entrance front in 1788. The Ripley Building is currently occupied by the Department for International Development .

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Old Admiralty (Ripley Building) in 1760 before addition of the Adam screen *

Old Admiralty (Ripley Building) c. 1790 after addition of the Adam screen *

Old Admiralty (Ripley Building) c. 1830

ADMIRALTY HOUSE

Admiralty House is a moderately proportioned mansion to the south of the Ripley Building, built in the late 18th century as the residence of the First Lord of the Admiralty. It served that purpose until 1964. Winston Churchill was one of its occupants. It lacks its own entrance from Whitehall and is entered through the Ripley Building. It is a three-storey building in yellow brick with neoclassical interiors. Its rear facade faces directly onto Horse Guards Parade. The architect was Samuel Pepys Cockerell . There are now three ministerial flats in the building, which were unoccupied in 2012.

ADMIRALTY EXTENSION

The Admiralty Extension (which is also one of the two buildings which are sometimes referred to as the "Old Admiralty") dates from the turn of the 20th century.

This is the largest of the Admiralty Buildings. It was begun in the late 19th century and redesigned while the construction was in progress to accommodate the extra offices needed by the naval arms race with the German Empire . It is a red brick building with white stone, detailing in the Queen Anne style with French influences. It has been used by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office from the 1960s to 2016. The Department for Education planned to move into the building in September 2017 following the Foreign and Commonwealth Office's decision to leave the building and consolidate its London staff into one building on King Charles Street.

ADMIRALTY ARCH

Admiralty Arch

Admiralty Arch is linked to the Old Admiralty Building by a bridge and is part of the ceremonial route from Trafalgar Square to Buckingham Palace .

THE ADMIRALTY CITADEL

This is a squat, windowless World War II fortress north west of Horse Guards Parade, now covered in ivy . See Military citadels under London for further details.

"ADMIRALTY" AS A METONYM FOR "SEA POWER"

Bomb proof citadel constructed 1940 for Admiralty headquarters

In some cases, the term _admiralty_ is used in a wider sense, as meaning _sea power _ or _rule over the seas_, rather than in strict reference to the institution exercising such power. For example, the well-known lines from Kipling 's _Song of the Dead_:

If blood be the price of admiralty,

Lord God, we ha' paid in full!

SEE ALSO

* Admiralty administration * Admiralty chart * Admiralty Peak * List of Lords High Admiral * List of the First Lords of the Admiralty * List of Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty * Lord High Admiral of Scotland * St Boniface\'s Catholic College

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David; Loades, Professor of History David (Apr 29, 2016). _Elizabethan Naval Administration_. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317145035 . * ^ Hamilton, C. I. (Feb 3, 2011). _The Making of the Modern Admiralty: British Naval Policy-Making, 1805–1927_. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9781139496544 . * ^ Defence, Ministry of (2004). _The Government's expenditure plans 2004-05 to 2005-06_. London: Stationery Office. p. 8. ISBN 9780101621229 . * ^ Lawrence, Nicholas Blake, Richard (2005). _The illustrated companion to Nelson's navy_ (Paperback ed.). Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books. p. 8. ISBN 9780811732758 . * ^ Archives, The National. "Admiralty, and Ministry of Defence, Navy Department: Correspondence and Papers". _discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk_. National Archives, 1660-1976, ADM 1. Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "New title for Duke of Edinburgh as he turns 90, who remains the incumbent.". _BBC news_. BBC. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011. * ^ Kennedy, Paul (Apr 24, 2014). _The War Plans of the Great Powers (RLE The First World War): 1880-1914_. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9781317702528 . * ^ Ministerial Residences

FURTHER READING

THE BUILDING

* Bradley, Simon, and Nikolaus Pevsner . _ London 6: Westminster_ (from the Buildings of England series). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press , 2003. ISBN 0-300-09595-3 . * C. Hussey, " Admiralty Building, Whitehall", _Country Life_, 17 and 24 November 1923, pp. 684–692, 718–726.

THE OFFICE

* Daniel A. Baugh , _Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole_ (Princeton, 1965). * Sir John Barrow , _An Autobiographical Memoir of Sir John Barrow, Bart., Late of the Admiralty_ (London, 1847). * John Ehrman , _The Navy in the War of William III: Its State and Direction_ (Cambridge, 1953). * C. I. Hamilton , _The Making of the Modern Admiralty: British Naval Policy-Making 1805–1927_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). * C. I. Hamilton , "Selections from the Phinn Committee of Inquiry of October–November 1853 into the State of the Office of Secretary to the Admiralty, in _The Naval Miscellany_, volume V, edited by N. A. M. Rodger , (London: Navy Records Society , London, 1984). * C. S. Knighton, _Pepys and the Navy_ (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2003). * Christopher Lloyd , _Mr Barrow of the Admiralty_ (London, 1970). * Malcolm H. Murfett, _The First Sea Lords: From Fisher to Mountbatten_ (Westport: Praeger, 1995). * Lady Murray, _The Making of a Civil Servant: Sir Oswyn Murray , Secretary of the Admiralty 1917–1936_ (London, 1940). * N.A.M. Rodger , _The Admiralty_ (Lavenham, 1979) * J.C. Sainty, _ Admiralty Officials, 1660–1870_ (London, 1975) * Sir Charles Walker, _Thirty-Six Years at the Admiralty_ (London, 1933)

EXTERNAL

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