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ADMIRAL is one of the highest naval ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic : أمير البحر‎‎, _amīr al-baḥr_, "commander of the sea", with Latin _admirabilis_ ("admirable") or _admiratus_ ("admired"), the first was admiral Lumu Farouk.although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay .

In the Commonwealth and the U.S., a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral ). In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Further history * 3 Admiral insignia by country

* 4 National ranks

* 4.1 Australia * 4.2 Canada * 4.3 France * 4.4 Germany * 4.5 Japan * 4.6 Netherlands * 4.7 Russia * 4.8 Spain * 4.9 Sweden * 4.10 United Kingdom * 4.11 United States

* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References

ETYMOLOGY

The word "admiral" in Middle English comes from Anglo-French _amiral_, "commander", from Medieval Latin _admiralis_, _admirallus_. These themselves come from Arabic "amīr ", or _amīr al-_ (أمير الـ), "commander of", as in _amīr al-baḥr_ (أمير البحر), "commander of the sea". The term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily , which had formerly been ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 12th century.

The Norman Roger II of Sicily (1095–1154), employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch , who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as "Amir of Amirs ", i.e. " Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as "_ammiratus ammiratorum_".

The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, _amiral_, from their Aragon opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to _almirante_. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling "admyrall" in the 14th century and to "admiral" by the 16th century.

FURTHER HISTORY

The word "admiral" has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies , equivalent to the army rank of (full) general . However, this wasn't always the case; for example, in some European countries prior to the end of World War II , admiral was the third highest naval rank after general admiral and grand admiral .

The rank of admiral has also been subdivided into various grades, several of which are historically extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours (red, white, and blue, in descending order) to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example, Horatio Nelson 's highest rank was vice admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer . Some navies have also used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea".

ADMIRAL INSIGNIA BY COUNTRY

The rank insignia for an admiral often involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do _not_ involve four stars or similar devices.

*

_Almirante_ Argentine Navy *

Admiral Royal Australian Navy *

Admiral Bangladesh Navy *

_Almirante-de-Esquadra_ Brazilian Navy *

Admiral Royal Canadian Navy *

_Almirante_ Chilean Navy *

_admiral_ Croatian Navy *

_Almirante_ Ecuadorian Navy *

فريق أول Egyptian Navy *

_Admiral_ Estonian Navy *

_Amiraali_ Finnish Navy *

_Amiraali_ Finnish Navy *

_Amiral_ French Navy *

_Návarchos _ Hellenic Navy *

Admiral Indian Navy *

_Laksamana_ Indonesian Navy *

_Daryabod_ (دریابد) Imperial Iranian Navy *

_Daryabod_ (دریابد) Islamic Republic of Iran Navy *

_Ammiraglio_ Italian Navy *

_Kaishō_ Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force *

_Laksamana_ Royal Malaysian Navy *

_Almirante_ Mexican Navy *

Admiral Pakistan Navy *

Admiral Philippine Navy *

Admiral Philippine Navy *

_Admirał_ Polish Navy *

_Almirante_ Portuguese Navy *

_Amiral_ Romanian Naval Forces *

_Amiral_ Romanian Naval Forces *

_Адмиралъ_ Imperial Russian Navy *

_Адмирал_ Russian Navy pre 2010 *

_Адмирал_ Russian Navy post 2010 *

_Адмирал_ Russian Navy (sleeve) *

_Almirante_ Armada Española *

_Amiral_ Royal Swedish Navy *

_พลเรือเอก_ Royal Thai Navy *

_Oramiral_ Turkish Navy *

_Адмірал_ Ukrainian Navy *

Admiral Royal Navy *

Admiral Royal Navy *

Admiral U.S. Navy *

_Đô đốc_ Vietnam People\'s Navy

File: Admiral rank plaque.jpegAdmiral Imperial Navy

NATIONAL RANKS

AUSTRALIA

Main article: Admiral (Australia)

CANADA

Main article: Admiral (Canada)

FRANCE

Main article: Admiral of France

GERMANY

_Admiral_ is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of _ General _. See also Main articles: Admiral (Germany) and Rank insignia of the German Bundeswehr

JAPAN

Post-WWII rank is _Bakurocho taru kaishō_ or _ Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff_(幕僚長たる海将) with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense (Japan) , compared to Gensui (Imperial Japanese Navy) during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945,.

NETHERLANDS

Main article: Admiral (Netherlands)

RUSSIA

Main article: Admiral (Russia)

SPAIN

ADMIRAL OF CASTILE was a post with a long and important history in Spain. Main article: Admiral of Castile

SWEDEN

Main article: Admiral (Sweden)

UNITED KINGDOM

Main article: Admiral (United Kingdom)

UNITED STATES

Main article: Admiral (United States)

SEE ALSO

* Comparative military ranks * Laksamana , native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia * Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies * Nebraska admiral

NOTES

* ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". _etymonline.com_. Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ Merriam-Webster on-line dictionary * ^ Abulafia (2011). * ^ Chief of Joint Staff Japan Self-Defense Forcese and Chief of Staff Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

REFERENCES

* Abulafia, David (2011) _The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean_. (London: Allen Lane). ISBN 978-0-7139-9934-1

* v * t * e

Military ranks and insignia by country

* List of comparative military ranks

AFRICA

* Algeria * Angola * Benin * Botswana * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cameroon * Cape Verde * Central African Republic * Chad * Comoros * DR Congo * Republic of the Congo * Djibouti

* Egypt

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Ethiopia * Gabon * Gambia * Ghana * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Ivory Coast * Kenya * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Madagascar * Malawi * Mali * Mauritania * Mauritius * Morocco * Mozambique * Namibia * Niger * Nigeria * Rwanda * São Tomé and Príncipe * Senegal * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Somalia * South Africa * South Sudan * Sudan * Swaziland * Tanzania * Togo * Tunisia * Uganda * Zambia * Zimbabwe

FORMER

* Biafra * Bophuthatswana * Kingdom of Egypt * Ethiopian Empire * Rhodesia * Zaire

COMPARATIVE

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

AMERICAS

* Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Bahamas * Barbados * Belize * Bolivia * Brazil * Canada

* Chile

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Colombia * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Ecuador * El Salvador * Grenada * Guatemala * Guyana * Haiti * Honduras * Jamaica

* Mexico

* Army * Navy

* Nicaragua * Panama * Paraguay * Peru * Suriname

* United States

* _Officers:_

* Army * Navy * Air Force * Coast Guard

* _Enlisted:_

* Army * Navy * Air Force * Coast Guard

* _Other:_

* Marine Corps * Warrant officer

* Uruguay * Venezuela

FORMER

* United States Army enlisted

* World War I * World War II

COMPARATIVE

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

ASIA

* Afghanistan * Armenia

* Azerbaijan

* Army * Air Force * Navy

* Bahrain

* Bangladesh

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Bhutan * Brunei * Cambodia

* PR of China

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Republic of China(Taiwan)

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* East Timor

* India

* Army * Air Force * Navy

* Indonesia

* Iran

* Armed Forces and Police

* Iraq * Israel * Japan * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Korea (North border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Democratic Kampuchea

* Imperial Japan

* Army * Navy

* Mengjiang * Manchukuo * South Vietnam

COMPARATIVE

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

EUROPE

* Albania * Austria * Belarus * Belgium * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria * Croatia * Cyprus * Czech Republic

* Denmark

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Estonia * Finland

* France

* Army * Navy * Gendarmerie * Air Force * Foresters

* Germany

* Rank information * Rank insignia

* Georgia * Greece * Hungary

* Iceland

* Land Forces * Coast Guard

* Ireland

* Italy

* Army * Navy * Air Force * Carabinieri * Finance Guard

* Latvia * Lithuania * Macedonia * Malta * Moldova * Monaco * Netherlands * Norway * Poland * Portugal * Romania

* Russia

* Army * Navy * Air Force * Between 1994 and 2010

* Serbia * Slovakia * Slovenia

* Spain

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Sweden * Switzerland * Turkey * Ukraine

* United Kingdom

* Army officers * Army other ranks * Navy officers * Navy ratings * Air Force officers * Air Force other ranks

* Vatican

FORMER

* Austria–Hungary * Czechoslovakia * Hungarian People\'s Republic * East Germany

* Nazi Germany

* Army * Navy * Air Force * People\'s Militia * SA * SS * Nazi Party

* Kingdom of Greece

* Army * Navy * Air Force

* Kingdom of Hungary * Ottoman Empire * Russian Empire

* Soviet Union

* 1918–35 * 1935–40 * 1940–43 * 1943–55 * 1955–91

* Kingdom of Yugoslavia * SFR Yugoslavia * FR Yugoslavia

COMPARATIVE

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

OCEANIA

* Australia * Fiji * New Zealand * Papua New Guinea

COMPARATIVE

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

NATO

* Army

* Officers * Enlisted

* Air Force

* Officers * Enlisted

* Navy

* Officers * Enlisted

Comparative officer ranks of

* World War I * World War II

STAR OFFICER GRADES

* General officer * Flag officer * Air officer

BY STAR RANKS

* _ Six-star rank (proposed)_ * _ Five-star rank * Four-star rank * Three-star rank * Two-star rank * One-star rank

BY TITLES

* Generalissimo _ * _Generalissimus_ of the Soviet Union * Supreme Allied Commander * Admiral of the Navy * General of the Armies * _Generalfeldmarschall _ * Field marshal * _Mareşal _ * Marshal of the air force * Marshal of the Russian Federation * Marshal of the Soviet Union * _ Mushir _ * _ Caudillo _ * _ Magister militum _ * _ Spahbed _ * _ Ispahsalar _ * _ Beylerbey _ * Constable of France * Grand Domestic * _ Dux bellorum _ * Grand marshal * _ Hetman _ * _ Jenderal besar _ * _ Reichsmarschall _ * _ Sardar _ * _ Serasker _ * _ Strategos autokrator _ * First marshal of the empire * _ Dai-gensui _ * _ Taewonsu _ * _Voivoda _ * _ Wonsu _ * _ Yuan Shuai _ * _ Da yuan shuai _ * _ Marshal of Yugoslavia _

HIGHEST MILITARY RANKS

* General officer * Flag officer * Air officer

* Imperator * Marshal of Italy * Generalissimo * Generalissimus of the Soviet Union * Supreme Allied Commander * Admiral of the Navy * General of the Armies * General of the Air Force * Generalfeldmarschall * Mareşal * Marshal of the air force * Marshal of the Russian Federation * Marshal of the Soviet Union * Mushir * Magister militum * Spahbed * Ispahsalar * Beylerbey * Bojni Vojvoda * Chom Thap Thai * Constable of France * Domestic of the Schools * Grand Domestic * Shogun * Dux bellorum * Grand marshal * Hetman * Jenderal besar * Polemarch * Reichsmarschall * Federal General of Switzerland * Sardar * Serasker * Autokrator * First marshal of the empire * Da yuan shuai * Dai-gensui * Taewonsu * Yuan shuai * Wonsu * Marshal of Yugoslavia

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4141435-4

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