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Admiral
Admiral
is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر‎, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin
Latin
admirabilis[1] ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version - "Amiral" without the additional "d" - tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U.S., a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral). In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9
OF-9
as a four-star rank.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Further history 3 Admiral
Admiral
insignia by country 4 National ranks

4.1 Australia 4.2 Canada 4.3 Germany 4.4 Japan 4.5 Netherlands 4.6 Russia 4.7 Spain 4.8 Sweden 4.9 United Kingdom 4.10 United States

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Etymology[edit] The word "admiral" in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic "amīr", or amīr al- (أمير الـ), "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr (أمير البحر), "commander of the sea".[2] The term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, which had formerly been ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century. The Norman Roger II of Sicily
Roger II of Sicily
(1095–1154), employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid
Abbasid
fashion as "Amir of Amirs", i.e. " Commander
Commander
of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as "ammiratus ammiratorum".[3] The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, amiral, from their Aragon opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin
Latin
or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling "admyrall" in the 14th century and to "admiral" by the 16th century. Further history[edit] The word "admiral" has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of (full) general. However, this wasn't always the case; for example, in some European countries prior to the end of World War II, admiral was the third highest naval rank after general admiral and grand admiral. The rank of admiral has also been subdivided into various grades, several of which are historically extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy
Navy
used colours (red, white, and blue, in descending order) to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example, Horatio Nelson's highest rank was vice admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have also used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea". Admiral
Admiral
insignia by country[edit] The rank insignia for an admiral often involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices.

Almirante Argentine Navy

Admiral Royal Australian Navy

Admiral Bangladesh Navy

Almirante-de-Esquadra Brazilian Navy

Admiral Royal Canadian Navy

海军上将 People's Liberation Army Navy

Almirante Chilean Navy

admiral Croatian Navy

Almirante Ecuadorian Navy

فريق أول Egyptian Navy

Admiral Estonian Navy

Amiraali Finnish Navy

Amiraali Finnish Navy

Amiral French Navy

Návarchos Hellenic Navy

Admiral Indian Navy

Laksamana Indonesian Navy

Daryabod (دریابد) Imperial Iranian Navy

Daryabod (دریابد) Islamic Republic of Iran Navy

Rav aluf (רב-אלוף) Israel Defense Forces

Ammiraglio Italian Navy

Kaishō[4] Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

Laksamana Royal Malaysian Navy

Almirante Mexican Navy

Admiral Pakistan Navy

Admiral Philippine Navy

Admiral Philippine Navy

Admirał Polish Navy

Almirante Portuguese Navy

Amiral Romanian Naval Forces

Amiral Romanian Naval Forces

Адмиралъ Imperial Russian Navy

Адмирал Russian Navy
Navy
pre 2010

Адмирал Russian Navy
Navy
post 2010

Адмирал Russian Navy
Navy
(sleeve)

Almirante Armada Española

Amiral Royal Swedish Navy

พลเรือเอก Royal Thai Navy

Oramiral Turkish Navy

Адмірал Ukrainian Navy

Admiral Royal Navy

Admiral Royal Navy

Admiral U.S. Navy

Đô đốc Vietnam People's Navy

National ranks[edit] Australia[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(Australia) Canada[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(Canada) Germany[edit] Admiral
Admiral
is a German Navy
Navy
OF-9
OF-9
four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army
German Army
and German Air Force
German Air Force
rank of General.

See also

Main articles: Admiral (Germany)
Admiral (Germany)
and Rank insignia of the German Bundeswehr

Japan[edit] Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral
Admiral
serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff(幕僚長たる海将) with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense (Japan), compared to Gensui (Imperial Japanese Navy) during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945,. Netherlands[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(Netherlands) Russia[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(Russia) Spain[edit] Admiral of Castile was a post with a long and important history in Spain. Main article: Admiral
Admiral
of Castile Sweden[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(Sweden) United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(United Kingdom) United States[edit] Main article: Admiral
Admiral
(United States) See also[edit]

Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Nebraska admiral

Notes[edit]

^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Retrieved 4 May 2015.  ^ "Definition of ADMIRAL". www.m-w.com.  ^ Abulafia (2011). ^ Chief of Joint Staff Japan Self-Defense Forcese and Chief of Staff Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

References[edit]

Abulafia, David (2011) The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean. (London: Allen Lane). ISBN 978-0-7139-9934-1

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Military ranks and insignia by country

List of comparative military ranks

Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros DR Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt

Army Navy Air Force

Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Former

Biafra Bophuthatswana Ciskei Kingdom of Egypt Ethiopian Empire Rhodesia South West Africa Transkei Venda Zaire

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Apartheid States in Southern Africa

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile

Army Air Force Navy

Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico

Army Navy

Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States

Officers:

Army Navy Air Force Coast Guard

Enlisted:

Army Navy Air Force Coast Guard

Other:

Marine Corps Warrant officer

Uruguay Venezuela

Former

United States Army enlisted

World War I World War II

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Asia

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh

Army Navy Air Force

Bhutan Brunei Cambodia PR of China

Army Navy Air Force

Republic of China(Taiwan)

Army Navy Air Force

East Timor India

Army Air Force Navy

Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea(North & South) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar

Army Navy Air Force

Nepal Oman Pakistan

Army Air Force Navy

Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka

Army Navy Air Force

Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

Former

Democratic Kampuchea Imperial Iran Imperial Japan

Army Navy

Mengjiang Manchukuo South Vietnam

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Europe

Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark

Army Navy Air Force

Estonia Finland France

Army Navy Gendarmerie Air Force Foresters

Germany

Rank information Rank insignia

Georgia Greece Hungary Iceland

Land Forces Coast Guard

Ireland Italy

Army Navy Air Force Carabinieri Finance Guard

Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia

Army Navy Air Force Between 1994 and 2010

San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Army officers Army other ranks Navy
Navy
officers Navy
Navy
ratings Air Force officers Air Force other ranks

Vatican

Former

Austria–Hungary

Army Navy

Independent State of Croatia Czechoslovakia German Empire Nazi Germany

Army Navy Air Force People's Militia SA SS Nazi Party

East Germany Kingdom of Greece

Army Navy Air Force

Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian People's Republic Kingdom of Italy

Blackshirts

Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Soviet Union

1918–35 1935–40 1940–43 1943–55 1955–91

Kingdom of Yugoslavia SFR Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Oceania

Australia Fiji New Zealand Papua New Guinea Tonga Vanuatu

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Post-Soviet states

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Commonwealth of Nations

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

NATO

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air Force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Comparative officer ranks of

World War I World War II

v t e

Star officer grades

General
General
officer Flag officer Air officer

By star ranks

Six-star rank
Six-star rank
(proposed) Five-star rank Four-star rank Three-star rank Two-star rank One-star rank

By titles

Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General
General
of the Armies Generalfeldmarschall Field marshal Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Russian Federation Marshal of the Soviet Union Mushir Caudillo Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Constable of France Grand Domestic Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Reichsmarschall Sardar Serasker Strategos autokrator First marshal of the empire Dai-gensui Taewonsu Voivoda Wonsu Yuan Shuai Da yuan shuai Marshal of Yugoslavia

v t e

Highest military ranks

General
General
officer Flag officer Air officer

Imperator Marshal of Italy Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General
General
of the Armies General
General
of the Air Force Generalfeldmarschall Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Russian Federation Mushir Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Bojni Vojvoda Chom Thap Thai Constable of France Domestic of the Schools Grand Domestic Shōgun Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Polemarch Reichsmarschall Federal General
General
of Switzerland Sardar Serasker Autokrator First marshal of the empire Da yuan shuai Dai-gensui Taewonsu Yuan shuai Wonsu Marshal of Yugoslavia

Authority control

.