Administrative divisions of Taiwan
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Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, officially known as the Republic of China (ROC), is divided into multi-layered statutory subdivisions. Due to the complex
political status of Taiwan The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the ''Taiwan Issue'' or ''Taiwan Strait Issue'' or, from a Taiwanese perspective, as the ''mainland Issue'', is a result of the Chinese Civil War The Chines ...
, there is a significant difference in the ''de jure'' system set out in the original constitution and the ''de facto'' system in use today. Constitutionally, the ROC is divided into and special municipalities, with each province subdivided into
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
and
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
. The provinces have been "streamlined" and are no longer functional. With provinces non-functional in practice, Taiwan is divided into 22 subnational divisions each with a local government led by an elected head and a local council. Matters for which local governments are responsible or partially responsible include social services, education, urban planning, public construction, water management, environmental protection, transport and public safety. There are three types of subnational divisions: special municipalities, cities and counties. Special municipalities and cities are further divided into districts for local administration. Counties are further divided into
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
and county-administered cities. These divisions have a degree of autonomy. They have government offices with elected leaders and local councils, which share responsibilities with the county. When the ROC retreated to Taiwan in 1949, its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions. However, since its retreat, the ROC has controlled only
Taiwan Province Taiwan Province (; PFS: ''Thòi-vàn-sén'' or ''Thòi-vân-sén'') is a nominal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was ...
and some islands of
Fujian Province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...
. The ROC also controls
Pratas Island Pratas Island, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is an island in the northern part of the South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas o ...
and
Taiping Island Taiping Island, also known as Itu Aba, and also known by various other names, is the largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands in the South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean. It is boun ...
in the
Spratly Islands The Spratly Islands ( vi, Quần đảo Trường Sa; tl, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan; ms, Kepulauan Spratly; Mandarin zh, c=南沙群島/南沙群岛, s=, t=, p=Nánshā Qúndǎo; Dusun: ''Kopulohon Dibut)'' are a disputed archipelago in the ...

Spratly Islands
, which are part of the disputed
South China Sea Islands The South China Sea Islands consist of over 250 island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lowe ...

South China Sea Islands
. They were placed under
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic languages, Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the ph ...

Kaohsiung
administration after the retreat to Taiwan. Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control.
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
became a special municipality in 1967 and
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic languages, Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the ph ...

Kaohsiung
in 1979. The two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government (Fujian in 1956 and Taiwan in 1998). In 2010,
New Taipei New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...
,
Taichung Taichung (, Wade–Giles: ''Tʻai²-chung¹''), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second ...

Taichung
and
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...

Tainan
were upgraded to special municipalities. And in 2014, Taoyuan County was also upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality. This brought the top-level divisions to their current state: According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities also apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million. This provision does not currently apply to any county, although it previously applied to Taipei County (now
New Taipei City New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the ...
) and Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City).


History


Territory

In 1945, after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
acquired Taiwan (Formosa) and
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
(the Pescadores) from the
Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the and several , s, , and other . Under the slogans of and Japan underwent ...

Empire of Japan
. In 1949 and 1950, the
government of the Republic of China The Government of the Republic of China, also known retroactively as the Government of Nationalist China, is the unitary government that exercises control over Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in ...
led by the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Ch ...
lost the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
and retreated to
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
. The government lost almost all its jurisdiction over
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

mainland China
, with only some offshore islands remaining. This history gives two different sources of the current Taiwanese administrative divisions on the
Free area of the Republic of China The free area of the Republic of China, also known as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", "Tai-Min Area (Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia ...

Free area of the Republic of China
or Taiwan Area. *
Taiwan Province Taiwan Province (; PFS: ''Thòi-vàn-sén'' or ''Thòi-vân-sén'') is a nominal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was ...
: The island of Taiwan (Formosa) and
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
(the Pescadores): inherited from the divisions of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
under the
Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the and several , s, , and other . Under the slogans of and Japan underwent ...

Empire of Japan
. *
Fujian Province Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territori ...
:
Kinmen Kinmen, English exonyms#Taiwan, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands governed as a County (Taiwan), county by the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan, off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It lies roughly east of the ...

Kinmen
(Quemoy) and the
Matsu Islands The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; ) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originall ...
– inherited from the divisions of
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

mainland China
under the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
. *
Hainan Special Administrative Region
Hainan Special Administrative Region
: Formerly administered by the ROC, the island was conquered in 1950 by the PRC and since became a province. * Chekiang Province: Formerly administered by the ROC, the PRC conquered most of the province in 1949. However the ROC controlled
Dachen Islands The Dachen Islands, Tachen Islands or Tachens () are a group of islands off the coast of Taizhou Taizhou (Taichow) may refer to either of two cities in eastern China: * Taizhou, Jiangsu (), located on the Yangtze River, northwest of Shanghai * ...
until 1955.


Changes to divisions

Since 1949, the government has made some changes in the area under its control. The two provincial governments were downscaled and much of their functions transferred to the central or county governments. Six special municipalities have been created. Since 1949, the most controversial part of the political division system has been the existence of
Taiwan Province Taiwan Province (; PFS: ''Thòi-vàn-sén'' or ''Thòi-vân-sén'') is a nominal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was ...
, as its existence was part of a larger controversy over the
political status of Taiwan The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the ''Taiwan Issue'' or ''Taiwan Strait Issue'' or, from a Taiwanese perspective, as the ''mainland Issue'', is a result of the Chinese Civil War The Chines ...
. Since 1998, most of the duties and powers of
Taiwan Provincial Government The Taiwan Provincial Government was the government that governed Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. Its functions have been transferred to the National Development Council and other ministries of the Executive Yuan. History At th ...
have been transferred to the
central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists ...
, through amendments to the constitution. The much smaller Fukien province,
Fujian Provincial Government The Fujian Provincial Government was the former government that governed Fujian Province of the Republic of China (Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the Chi ...
has been downsized since 1956. There has been some criticism of the current administrative scheme as being inefficient and not conducive to regional planning. In particular, most of the administrative cities are much smaller than the actual metropolitan areas, and there are no formal means for coordinating policy between an administrative city and its surrounding areas. Before 2008, the likelihood of consolidation was low. Many of the cities had political demographics which were very different from their surrounding counties, making the prospect of consolidation highly politically charged. For example, while the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a revolutionary political party during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Era on the Chinese mainland, where it is sometimes referred to as the Ch ...
argued that combining
Taipei City Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China ( ...

Taipei City
,
Taipei County New Taipei City is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan. Located in Geography of Taiwan, northern Taiwan, the city includes a substantial stretch of the island's northern coastline and surrou ...
, and
Keelung City Keelung (; Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunc ...
into a metropolitan Taipei region would allow for better regional planning, the
Democratic Progressive Party The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is a Taiwanese nationalist and centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic langua ...
argued that this was merely an excuse to eliminate the government of Taipei County, which it had at times controlled, by swamping it with votes from
Taipei City Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China ( ...

Taipei City
and
Keelung City Keelung (; Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-Tsiang (泉漳) in linguistics, is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Standard Chinese, Mandarin pronunc ...
, which tended to vote Kuomintang. On 1 October 2007, Taipei County was upgraded to a quasi-municipality () on the same level as Kaohsiung City and Taipei City. This allowed the county to have the organizational and budgetary framework of a ''de jure'' municipality, but it was still formally styled as a county. Taichung County and Tainan City lobbied the central government for similar status.
Taoyuan County Taoyuan County () is under the administration of Changde Changde ( ) is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a us ...
was also upgraded to a quasi-municipality on 1 January 2011, as its population was above 2 million on the date of elevation. Under President
Ma Ying-jeou Ma Ying-jeou (born 13 July 1950) is a Hong Kong-born Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous cont ...
's administration, the central government has reorganized more counties and cities. Four mergers and promotions were approved in 2009 and became effective on 25 December 2010 and one more became effective on 25 December 2014. The summary of changes on administrative divisions are shown below. This brought the top-level divisions of Taiwan (ROC) to its current state: 2 nominal provinces without administrative function and 6 special municipalities; and under the provinces, 13
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
and three
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
.中華民國國情簡介 政府組織


Current system


Special municipalities, counties, and cities

Currently there are three types and in total 22 administrative divisions are directly governed by the central government (
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforce ...
). According to the ''Local Government Act'' of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, a place with population more than 1.25 million may become a special municipality, a place with population between 0.5 and 1.25 million may become a
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
. Counties with population more than 2 million may grant some extra privileges in local autonomy that was designed for special municipalities. These 22 divisions are also regulated by the ''Local Government Act'' as local self-governance bodies. Each division has its own executive called "city/county government" and own legislature called "city/county council". The city mayors, county magistrates and all legislators are elected by the people under its jurisdiction every four years. Geographically, * Six special municipalities, three provincial cities and 10 counties are on the main
island of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The m ...
: *
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
County administers Penghu Islands. *
Kinmen Kinmen, English exonyms#Taiwan, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands governed as a County (Taiwan), county by the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan, off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It lies roughly east of the ...

Kinmen
County administers Kinmen Islands and Wuqiu Islands. * Lienchiang County administers
Matsu Islands The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; ) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originall ...
. * Note that Kaohsiung also administers
Pratas Island Pratas Island, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is an island in the northern part of the South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas o ...
(Tungsha, Dongsha) and
Taiping Island Taiping Island, also known as Itu Aba, and also known by various other names, is the largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands in the South China Sea The South China Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean. It is boun ...
of the
South China Sea Islands The South China Sea Islands consist of over 250 island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lowe ...

South China Sea Islands
.


Townships, county-administered cities and districts

The 22 main divisions in the country are further divided into 368 subdivisions. These 368 divisions can be categorized as the following. According to the ''Local Government Act'', a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
is divided into
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
and county-administered cities. The county seat or place with population between 100,000 and 500,000 may become a
county-administered city A county-administered city ( is a unit of administrative division in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the north ...
. A special municipality or a
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
is divided into
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
. The
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
, county-administered cities in
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
, and mountain indigenous
district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By country/region Afghanistan In , a d ...
in special municipalities are also local self-governance bodies. Each division has its own executive called "township/city/district office" and own legislature called "township/city/district council". The city mayors, township/district chiefs and all legislators are elected by the people under its jurisdiction every four years. The normal
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
in special municipalities and
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
are governed as branches of the municipality/city government and do not hold any local self-governance power. The mountain indigenous
township A township is a kind of human settlement or administrative subdivision, with its meaning varying in different countries. While the term is occasionally associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canad ...
and
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
are created for its significant population of
Taiwanese aborigines Taiwanese may refer to: * Taiwanese language, another name for Taiwanese Hokkien * Something from or related to Taiwan (Formosa) * Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan * Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan * Taiwanese people ...
, in these divisions, only
Taiwanese aborigines Taiwanese may refer to: * Taiwanese language, another name for Taiwanese Hokkien * Something from or related to Taiwan (Formosa) * Taiwanese aborigines, the indigenous people of Taiwan * Han Taiwanese, the Han people of Taiwan * Taiwanese people ...
may be elected to be the township/district chiefs.


Lower-level administrative divisions

The 368 divisions are further divided into
villages A village is a clustered human settlement or Residential community, community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a population typ ...
and to neighborhoods. The village chiefs are elected by the people under its jurisdiction every four years. The neighborhood chiefs are appointed by the village chief.


Other issues


Joint Service Centers of Executive Yuan

The central government operates five regional Joint Service Centers (JSC, ) outside
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
as outposts of the government ministries in the
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforce ...
, similar to the cross-departmental mode of working in the former Government Offices in England. These regions, laid out the Comprehensive National Spatial planning, Spatial Development Plan for Taiwan (), can be considered a de facto level of government, perhaps equivalent to the English regions or the federal districts of Russia. The divisions of northern Taiwan are not covered by any JSC, including Hsinchu (city and Hsinchu County, county), Keelung, New Taipei City, New Taipei,
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
, Taoyuan and Yilan County, Taiwan, Yilan. They are served directly by the headquarter of
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforce ...
in
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
.


Romanization

The romanization used for Taiwanese placenames above the county level is a modified form of Wade–Giles, ignoring the apostrophes and hyphens of the original, thus yielding "Taipei" instead of "T'ai-pei" and "Yilan" instead of "I-lan", for example. Some postal romanizations also exist, like "Keelung" and "Kinmen". In 2002, the ROC adopted Tongyong Pinyin as its national standard for romanization. Most
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...
and county-administered cities changed their romanization to Tongyong Pinyin at that time. However, some local administrations, like
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
and
Taichung Taichung (, Wade–Giles: ''Tʻai²-chung¹''), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second ...

Taichung
, decided to use Hanyu Pinyin. In 2009, Tongyong Pinyin was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin as the ROC government standard. Currently, most of the divisions are romanized by Hanyu Pinyin system, but some local governments still use Tongyong Pinyin, like
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic languages, Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the ph ...

Kaohsiung
. In 2011, the ROC Ministry of the Interior restored historical romanizations for two towns, Lukang, Changhua, Lukang and Tamsui District, Tamsui.


See also

* List of administrative divisions of Taiwan * History of Taiwan * History of the Republic of China * Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945) * Provinces of China * History of the administrative divisions of China (1912–49) * Mainland China *
Free area of the Republic of China The free area of the Republic of China, also known as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", "Tai-Min Area (Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia ...

Free area of the Republic of China
* Indigenous Area (Taiwan) * ISO 3166-2:TW


Notes


References


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Administrative Divisions Of Taiwan Subdivisions of Taiwan Administrative divisions in Asia, Taiwan Administrative divisions by country, Taiwan