The Info List - Adiabene

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Monobaz II

 •  ? - 116 Meharaspes

Historical era Antiquity

 •  Established 15

 •  Disestablished 116

Preceded by Succeeded by

Parthian Empire

Roman Empire

This article is part of the series on the

History of the Assyrian people

Early History

Early Assyrian Period
Early Assyrian Period
(2600 BCE – 2025 BCE) Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
(2025 BC - 1378 BCE) Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1392 BC - 934 BCE) Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911 BCE – 609 BCE) Achaemenid Assyria
Achaemenid Assyria
(539 BCE – 330 BCE)

Classical Antiquity

Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(312 BCE – 63 BCE) Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE – 224 CE) Syrian Wars
Syrian Wars
(66 BCE – 217 CE) Roman Syria
Roman Syria
(64 BCE – 637 CE) Adiabene
(15–116) Roman Assyria
(116–118) Christianization (1st to 3rd c.) Nestorian Schism
Nestorian Schism
(5th c.) Asōristān
(226–651) Byzantine–Sasanian wars
Byzantine–Sasanian wars

Middle Ages

Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia
Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia
(630s) Muslim conquest of Syria
Muslim conquest of Syria
(630s) Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–1258) Emirs of Mosul (905–1383) Buyid amirate (945–1055) Principality of Antioch
Principality of Antioch
(1098–1268) Ilkhanate
(1258–1335) Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
(1335–1432) Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(1375–1468) Ağ Qoyunlu (1453–1501)

Modern History

Safavid dynasty (1508-1555) Ottoman Empire (1555–1917) Schism of 1552
Schism of 1552
(16th c.) Massacres of Badr Khan
Massacres of Badr Khan
(1840s) Massacres of Diyarbakir (1895) Rise of nationalism (19th c.) Adana massacre
Adana massacre
(1909) Assyrian genocide
Assyrian genocide
(1914–1920) Assyrian independence movement
Assyrian independence movement
(since 1919) Simele massacre
Simele massacre
(1933) Post-Saddam Iraq
(since 2003)

See also

Assyrian continuity Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora

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(from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from Classical Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ‎, Ḥaḏy’aḇ or Ḥḏay’aḇ, Middle Persian: Nodshēragān,[3][4] Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria,[5][6][7][8] with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Arbil, Iraq). Adiabenian rulers converted to Judaism
from paganism in the 1st century.[9] Queen Helena of Adiabene
Helena of Adiabene
(known in Jewish sources as Heleni
HaMalka) moved to Jerusalem, where she built palaces for herself and her sons, Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II at the northern part of the city of David, south of the Temple Mount, and aided Israel in their war with Rome.[10] According to the Talmud, both Helena and Monobaz donated large funds for the Temple of Jerusalem. After 115 CE, there are no historic traces of Jewish royalty in Adiabene.


1 Location 2 Population 3 History

3.1 Achaemenid Persian Empire 3.2 Queen Hellena conversion to Judaism 3.3 Hellenistic Period 3.4 Parthian Persian Empire

3.4.1 Roman intermezzo (117-118)

3.5 Sassanid

4 Rulers 5 Bishops 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 References 10 External links

Location[edit] Adiabene
occupied a district in Assyria
between the Upper Zab (Lycus) and the Lower Zab (Caprus), though Ammianus
speaks of Nineveh, Ecbatana, and Gaugamela
as also belonging to it.[11] Although nominally a dependency of the Parthian Empire, for some centuries, beginning with the 1st century BCE, it was independent. By the late 1st century CE, its borders extended as far as Nisibis.[a] In the Talmudic writings the name occurs as חדייב ,חדייף and הדייב, which is parallel to its Syriac form "Hadyab" or "Hedayab". Its chief city was Arbela (Arba-ilu), where Mar Uqba had a school, or the neighboring Hazzah, by which name the later Arabs also called Arbela.[14] In Kiddushin 72a the Biblical Habor is identified with Adiabene,[15] but in Yerushalmi Megillah i. 71b with Riphath.[16] In the Targum
to Jeremiah
li. 27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz
are paraphrased by Kordu, Harmini, and Hadayab, i.e., Corduene, Armenia, and Adiabene; while in Ezekiel
xxvii. 23 Harran, Caneh, and Eden are interpreted by the Aramaic translator as "Harwan, Nisibis, and Adiabene." Population[edit] Adiabene
had a mixed population, while the Syriac language
Syriac language
was dominant. According to Pliny, four tribes inhabited the region of Adiabene: Orontes, Alani, Azones and Silices.[17] The account of Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews
shows that there was a substantial Jewish population in the kingdom, which led to the establishment of a prominent rabbinic academy in Arbela.[citation needed] During the Sassanid
era, Persians came to the fore politically.[citation needed] The difficult mixing of cultures can be seen in the story of the martyrdom of Mahanuš, a prominent Iranian Zoroastrian
who converted to Christianity.[18] In later times Adiabene
became an archbishopric, with the seat of the metropolitan at Arbela.[19] Based on names of the Adiabenian rulers, Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Herzfeld
suggested a Saka/Scythian origin for the royal house of the kingdom;[20][21] however, later progress in Iranian linguistic studies showed that these names were common west middle Iranian names.[22] It has been suggested that the royal house of Adiabene, after fleeing Trajan's invasion, established the later Amatuni dynasty which ruled the area between the lakes Urmia and Van.[23][24] Adiabene
was a district in Mesopotamia between upper and lower Zab and was a part of the Neo Assyrian Empire
Neo Assyrian Empire
and inhabited by Assyrians even after the fall of Nineveh. It was an integral part of Achaemenid Assyria
(Athura) and Sassanid
(Assuristan).[25][26] The region was later made a part of the Roman province of Assyria
after the invasion by Trajan
in 116.[27] According to Patricia Crone
Patricia Crone
and Michael Cook, when the heartland of Assyria
was back into focus in early Christianity
(during the Parthian era and about six centuries after the fall of the Assyrian Empire), "it was with an Assyrian, not a Persian let alone Greek, self-identification: the temple of Ashur was restored, the city was rebuilt, and an Assyrian successor state that returned in the shape of the client kingdom of Adiabene." The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus states that the inhabitants of Adiabene
were Assyrians.[28][28] (For subsequent history, see Arbil; Assyrian people, Roman Empire, Iraq). History[edit] In ancient times Adiabene
was an integral part of Assyria. Achaemenid Persian Empire[edit] Under the Achaemenid Persian kings, Adiabene
seems for a time to have been a vassal state of the Persian Empire. At times the throne of Adiabene
was held by a member of the Achaemenid house; Ardashir III (king from 628 to 630 CE), before he came to the throne of Persia, had the title "King of Hadyab".[29] The Ten Thousand, an army of Greek mercenaries, retreated through Adiabene
on their march to the Black Sea after the Battle of Cunaxa. Queen Hellena conversion to Judaism[edit] According to Jewish tradition, Hellena, the Queen of Adiabne converted to Judaism
from paganism in the 1st century.[30] Queen Helena of Adiabene
(known in Jewish sources as Heleni
HaMalka) moved to Jerusalem
where she built palaces for herself and her sons, Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II at the northern part of the city of David, south of the Temple Mount, and aided Jews in their war with Rome. Queen Helena's sarcophagus was discovered in 1863. A pair of inscriptions on the sarcophagus, "tzaddan malka" and "tzadda malkata," is believed to be a reference to the provisions (tzeda in Hebrew ) that Helena supplied to Jerusalem's poor and to the Jewish kingdom in general. According to Josephus
"the queen converted to Judaism together with her son Monobaz II, under the influence of two Jews. Another tradition has it that she met a Jewish jewelry merchant in Adiabene
by the name of Hanania or Eliezer, who told her about the people of Israel and persuaded her to join them.[31] All historic traces of Jewish royalty in Adiabne ended around 115 CE, but these stories made huge impact on rabbinic literature and Talmud.[32] Nominally Zoroastrian, the people of Adiabne were tolerant toward Judaism, and permitted the establishment of Jewish communities there, The Jews of Edessa, Nisibis, and Adiabene
repaid them by being among the most vigorous opponents of Trajan. In late second century Christianity
rapidly spread among Zoroastrians and those formerly professing Judaism. When Christianity
became the official religion of the Roman empire under Constantine, the position of Adiabenian Christians was naturally exacerbated, since they were seen as potentially disaffected by the zealously Zoroastrian
Sasanians.[33] Hellenistic Period[edit] The little kingdom may have had a series of native rulers nominally vassal to the Macedonian and later Seleucid
empires. Parthian Persian Empire[edit] It later became one of the client kingdoms of the Parthian empire. During the 1st century BCE[dubious – discuss] and the 1st century CE, it gained a certain prominence under a series of kings descended from Monobaz I and his son Izates I. Monobaz I is known to have been allied with king Abennerig of Characene, in whose court his son Izates II bar Monobaz lived for a time and whose daughter Symacho Izates married, as well as the rulers of other small kingdoms on the periphery of the Parthian sphere of influence. Roman intermezzo (117-118)[edit] The chief opponent of Trajan
in Mesopotamia during the year 115 was the last king of independent Adiabene, Meharaspes. He had made common cause with Ma'nu (Mannus) of Singar
(Singara). Trajan
invaded Adiabene, and made it part of the Roman province of Assyria; under Hadrian
in 117,[5] however, Rome gave up possession of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia.[citation needed] In the summer of 195 Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
was again warring in Mesopotamia, and in 196 three divisions of the Roman army fell upon Adiabene. According to Dio Cassius, Caracalla
took Arbela in the year 216, and searched all the graves there, wishing to ascertain whether the Arsacid kings were buried there. Many of the ancient royal tombs were destroyed. Sassanid
Persia[edit] Despite the overthrow of the Parthians by the Sassanids in 224 CE, the feudatory dynasties remained loyal to the Parthians, and resisted Sassanid
advance into Adiabene
and Atropatene. Due to this, and religious differences, Adiabene
was never regarded as an integral part of Iran, even though the Sassanids controlled it for several centuries. After the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
gradually made Christianity
its official religion during the fourth century, the inhabitants of Adiabene, who were Assyrian Christians, sided with Christian Rome rather than the Zoroastrian
Sassanids. The Byzantine Empire sent armies to the region during the Byzantine- Sassanid
Wars, but this did nothing to change the territorial boundaries. Adiabene
remained a province of the Sassanid Empire until the Muslim conquest of Persia.[34] Rulers[edit] All dates are approximate.

Izates I (? - c. 15/30 CE)[35] Bazeus Monobazus I (20s? – c. 36)[2] Heleni
(c. 30 – c. 58) Izates II bar Monobazus (c. 36 – 55/59) Vologases (a Parthian rebel opposing Izates II) (c. 50) Monobazus II bar Monobazus (55/59[2] – late 60s/mid-70s) Meharaspes (? – 116) To the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(116–117) Rakbakt (?-191) (A Parthian governor of Alanian descent)[36] Narsai of Adiabene
(c. 191–200) Shahrat (Shahrad) (c. 213-224) To the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
(226–649) Ardashir II
Ardashir II
(344-376) Aphraates
(c. 310)

Bishops[edit] Between the 5th and the 14th centuries Adiabene
was a metropolitan province of the Assyrian Church of the East. The Chronicle of Erbil, a purported history of Christianity
in Adiabene
under the Parthians and Sassanians, lists a number of early bishops of Erbil. The authenticity of the Chronicle of Erbil
has been questioned, and scholars remain divided on how much credence to place in its evidence. Some of the bishops in the following list are attested in other sources, but the early bishops are probably legendary.

Pkidha (104–114) Semsoun (120–123) Isaac (135–148) Abraham (148–163) Noh (163–179) Habel (183–190) Abedhmiha (190–225) Hiran of Adiabene
(225–258) Saloupha (258–273) Ahadabuhi (273–291) Sri'a (291–317) Iohannon (317–346) Abraham (346–347) Maran-zkha (347–376) Soubhaliso (376–407) Daniel (407–431) Rhima (431–450) Abbousta (450–499) Joseph (499–511) Huana (511–?)

See also[edit]

Assyrians portal

(East Syrian Ecclesiastical Province) Assuristan Assyria
(Roman province) Osroene Sennacherib II


^ Nisibis was not part of Adiabene
before 36, when Artabanus presented the city to Izates as a reward for his loyalty. Strabo[12] implies that Nisibis was not part of Adiabene, while Pliny[13] reports that Nisibis and Alexandria were chief cities of Adiabene. On the remnants of the ten tribes in the Khabur area, see Emil Schiirer, The Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, II, ii, pp. 223-25; Avraham Ben-Yaakov, Jewish Communities of Kurdistan, [in Hebrew] (Jerusalem, 1961), pp. 9-11; Neusner, Jacob (1964). "The Conversion of Adiabene
to Judaism: A New Perspective". Journal of Biblical Literature. 83 (1): 60 (note 3). Retrieved 20 January 2016 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)). 


^ Nimmo, Douglas John. "Izates II King of Adiabene's Tree". June 8, 2011. geni.com. Retrieved 30 April 2014.  ^ a b c d http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brill-s-new-pauly/monobazus-e809010#e809030 ^ ŠKZ ^ Richard Nelson Frye, 1984, The history of ancient Iran: Volume 3, Part 7 - Page 222 ^ a b "The Chronicle of Arbela" (PDF). In 115, the Romans invaded Adiabene
and named it Assyria.  ^ The Biblical Geography of Central Asia: with a General Introduction, by Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller. Page 122. ^ In Memory of Rabbi and Mrs. Carl Friedman: Studies on the Problem of Tannaim in Babylonia (ca. 130-160 C. E.) Author(s): Jacob Neusner Source: Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Vol. 30 (1962), pp. 79-127. ^ Ammianus
Marcellinus, another fourth-century writer. In his excursus on the Sasanian Empire, he describes Assyria
in such a way that there is no mistaking he is talking about lower Mesopotamia (Amm. Marc. XXIII. 6. 15). For Assyria, he lists three major cities-Babylon, Ctesiphon and Seleucia (Amm. Marc. xxIII. 6. 23), whereas he refers to Adiabene
as ' Assyria
priscis temporibus vocitata' (Amm. Marc. xxIII. 6. 20). ^ Gottheil, Richard. "Adiabene". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 November 2011.  ^ Neusner, Jacob (1964). "The Conversion of Adiabene
to Judaism: A New Perspective". Journal of Biblical Literature. 83 (1): 60–66. JSTOR 3264908. (Registration required (help)).  ^ "Hist." xviii., vii. 1 ^ Geogr. xvi, 1, 1 ^ Hist. Nat. vi, 16, 42 ^ Yaqut, Geographisches Wörterbuch, ii. 263; Payne-Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, under "Hadyab"; Hoffmann, Auszüge aus Syrischen Akten, pp. 241, 243. ^ Compare Yebamot 16b et seq., Yalqut Daniel 1064 ^ Genesis x. 3; compare also Genesis Rabba
Genesis Rabba
xxxvii. ^ Pliny the Elder, The natural history, book VI, chap. 30 ^ Fiey, J. M. (1965). Assyrie chrétienne I. Beirut: Imprimerie catholique.  ^ Hoffmann, "Akten," pp. 259 et seq. ^ Ernst Herzfeld, 1947, Zoroaster and his world, Volume 1, p. 148, Princeton university press, University of Michigan, 851 pages ^ Ernst Herzfeld, Gerold Walser, 1968, The Persian Empire: Studies in geography and ethnography of the ancient Near East, p. 23, University of Michigan, 392 pages ^ Helmut Humbach, Prods Oktor Skjaervo, 1983, The Sassanian Inscription of Paikuli Pt. 3,1, p. 120, Humbach, Helmut und Prods O. Skjaervo, Reichert, 1983, ISBN 3882261560/9783882261561 ^ Jacob Neusner, 1969, A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volume 2, p. 352-353, Brill, 462 pages ^ Jacob Neusner, 1990, Judaism, Christianity
and Zoroastrianism
in Talmudic Babylonia, Volym 204, p. 103-104, University of Michigan, Scholars Press, 228 pages ^ Whinston, William. Translator. The Works of Josephus. Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers Inc. 1999 ^ Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. David Womersley, ed. Penguin Books, 2000 ^ "Adiabene:". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.  ^ a b https://books.google.com/books?id=Ta08AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false ^ Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, p. 70. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/helena ^ http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/a-royal-return-1.316609 ^ The Other Zions: The Lost Histories of Jewish Nations By Eric Maroney P:97 ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/adiabene ^ Encyclopædia Iranica online article on Adiabene ^ http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brill-s-new-pauly/izates-e604710#e604720 ^ John Bagnell Bury, Stanley Arthur Cook, Frank E. Adcock, 1969, The Cambridge ancient history: Volume 11, p. 111, The University press, University of Michigan


Brauer, E., The Jews of Kurdistan, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1993. Solomon Grayzel, A History of the Jews,New York: Mentor, 1968. Gottheil, Richard. "Adiabene". Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-1906.; which cites:

Josephus, Jewish Antiquities
Jewish Antiquities
xx. 2, § 4;

idem, Wars of the Jews. ii. 19, § 2; iv. 9, § 11; v. 2, § 2; 3, § 3; 4, § 2; 6, § 1, noting that Josephus
probably got his information from Adiabenian Jews in Jerusalem
(Von Gutschmid, Kleine Schriften, iii. 4).

Pliny the Elder, Historia Naturalis, v. 66, vi. 44 et seq. Ammianus, History, xviii. 7, § 1; xxiii. 6, § 21 Strabo, Geography, xvi. 745 et seq. Brüll, Adiabene, in Jahrbuch i. 58 et seq. Grätz, Heinrich, in Monatsschrift, 1877, xxvi. 241 et seq., 289 et seq. Von Gutschmid, Gesch. Irans, pp. 140 et seq. Schürer, Gesch. ii. 562.

External links[edit]

Bishops of Adiabene History of Aramaic (includes references to Adiabene) The forced conversion of the Jewish community of Persia
and the beginnings of the Kurds "Assyria" at Livius.org "Arbela" at Livius.org Adiabene, Jewish Kingdom of Mesopotamia (different page see above) Info from Jewish Encyclopedia

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Provinces of the Sasanian Empire

Abarshahr Adurbadagan Albania Arbayistan Armenia Asoristan Balasagan Dihistan Egypt* Eran-Khwarrah-Yazdegerd* Garamig Garamig ud Nodardashiragan Gurgan Harev Iberia India Khuzestan Kirman Kushanshahr Khwarazm Lazica Machelonia Makuran Marw Mazun Media Meshan Nodardashiragan Paradan Padishkhwargar Pars Sakastan Sogdia Spahan Turgistan

* indicates short living provinces

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Historical states and regions of Armenia

Independent Armenian states

Kingdom of Ararat (Urartian kings, 860 BC–590 BC) Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)
Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)
(Orontids, Artaxiads and Arsacids, 553 BC–428 AD) Kingdom of Armenia
(middle ages) (Bagratunis, 884-1045) Armenian Principality of Cilicia
(Rubenids, 1080-1198) Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
(Rubenids, Hethumids
and Lusignans, 1198-1375) Republic of Armenia
(1918-1920) Republic of Armenia

Minor or dependent Armenian states

Satrapy of Armenia
(Orontids, 522-331 BC) Kingdom of Sophene
Kingdom of Sophene
(Hellenized Orontids, 3rd century–94 BC) Kingdom of Commagene
Kingdom of Commagene
(Hellenized Orontids, 163 BC–72 AD) Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
(Artsrunis, 908–1021) Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget
(Kiurikians, 979–1118) Kingdom of Syunik
Kingdom of Syunik
(Siunis, 987–1170) Kingdom of Artsakh
Kingdom of Artsakh
(Khachen, 1000–1261) Zakarid Principality of Armenia
(Zakarians, 1201–1360) Melikdoms of Karabakh
Melikdoms of Karabakh
(Beglarians, Israelians, Hasan-Jalalians, Shanazarians and Avanians, 1603-1822) Republic of Mountainous Armenia
(unrecognized, 1921) Soviet Armenia

Provinces or Ashkhars of Armenia

Upper Armenia Sophene Arzanene Turuberan Moxoene Corduene Nor Shirakan Vaspurakan Syunik Artsakh Paytakaran Utik Gugark Tayk Ayrarat

Other Armenian regions

Lesser Armenia
(regions: First, Second and Third Armenia) Commagene Armenian Mesopotamia Cilicia
(regions: Mountainous, Plain and Rocky Cilicia)

Other provinces under Tigranes the Great

Syria Atropatene Adiabene Assyria Iberia Albania Cappad