The ADENA CULTURE was a
Pre-Columbian Native American culture that
existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland
period . The
* 1 Importance
* 2 Art and religion
* 2.1 Mounds
* 2.2 Prominent mounds
* 3 Domestic life
* 3.1 Settlement patterns * 3.2 Food sources * 3.3 Tools
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Adena sites are concentrated in a relatively small area - maybe 200
sites in the central
The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, pottery,
artistic works and extensive trading network, which supplied them with
a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes
to shells from the Gulf Coast. The
ART AND RELIGION
Lasting traces of
Main article: List of Adena culture sites
SITE IMAGE DESCRIPTION
The Adena Mound, the type site for the culture, is a registered
historic structure near Chillicothe,
The site, located in Greenup County,
A 35-foot (11 m) high and 175-foot (53 m)-diameter conical mound,
it is the second largest of its type in
Ohio's second largest conical burial mound , it is believed to have been built by the Adena.
Grave Creek Mound
At 69 feet (21 m) high and 295 feet (90 m) in diameter, it is the
largest conical-type burial mound in the United States. It is located
Once serving as an ancient burial site, the Miamisburg
Mound is the
most recognizable landmark in Miamisburg. It is the largest conical
burial mound in
Wolf Plains Group
A Late Adena group of 30 earthworks including 22 conical mounds and
nine circular enclosures. It is located a few miles to the northwest
Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many later Native Americans began with the Adena. Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves, bears and deer—and back to human form. This may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf, deer and mountain lion jawbones, and many other objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces and other forms of regalia by the Adena. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica . All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs.
The Adena also carved small stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by .5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were probably used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies. It is possible that they were used to outline designs for tattooing .
Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts. Usually tempered with grit or crushed limestone, it was largely plain, cord-marked or fabric marked, although one type bore a nested-diamond design incised into its surface. The vessel shapes were sub-conoidal or flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports.
The large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter. The walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were then joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was then covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork.
Their sustenance was acquired through foraging and the cultivation of native plants.
* Hunted deer, elk, black bear, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine, turkey, trumpeter swan, and ruffed grouse. * Gathered several edible seed, grasses, and nuts. * Cultivated pumpkin , squash , sunflower , and goosefoot .
The Adena ground stone tools and axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were probably used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools but even more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads, combs, and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia. Spoons, beads and other implements were made from the marine conch . A few copper axes have been found, but otherwise the metal was hammered into ornamental forms, such as bracelets, rings, beads, and reel-shaped pendants.
* ^ A B "Native Peoples of North America–Adena". Archived from
the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
* ^ "Civilizations Of The Americas, The Peoples To The North".
* ^ "Early Woodland: Northeastern Middlesex Tradition". Retrieved
* ^ "Grave Creek
Mound Archaeological Complex". Retrieved
* ^ "Identifying Flint Artifacts/Early Woodland People". Retrieved
* ^ "Portsmouth Earthworks-