1 Importance 2 Art and religion
2.1 Mounds 2.2 Prominent mounds 2.3 Shamanism 2.4 Stone tablets 2.5 Pottery
3 Domestic life
3.1 Settlement patterns 3.2 Food sources 3.3 Tools
4 See also 5 References 6 External links
The Adena Culture was named for the large mound on Thomas
Worthington's early 19th-century estate located near Chillicothe,
Ohio, which he named "Adena",
Adena sites are concentrated in a relatively small area - maybe 200
sites in the central
Site Image Description
The Adena Mound, the type site for the culture, is a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio.
The site, located in Greenup County, Kentucky, is a conical abide
surrounded by a series of circular ditches and embankments. It is
connected to the
A 35-foot (11 m) high and 175-foot (53 m)-diameter conical
mound, it is the second largest of its type in West Virginia. It is
located in South Charleston, West Virginia. P. W. Norris of the
Ohio's second largest conical burial mound, it is believed to have been built by the Adena.
Grave Creek Mound
At 69 feet (21 m) high and 295 feet (90 m) in diameter, it is one of the largest conical-type burial mounds in the United States. It is located in Moundsville, West Virginia. In 1838, much of the archaeological evidence in this mound was destroyed when several non-archaeologists tunneled into the mound.
Once serving as an ancient burial site, the Miamisburg
A Late Adena group of 30 earthworks including 22 conical mounds and nine circular enclosures. It is located a few miles to the northwest of Athens, Ohio.
Shamanism Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many later Native Americans began with the Adena. Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves, bears and deer—and back to human form. This may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf, deer and mountain lion jawbones, and many other objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces and other forms of regalia by the Adena. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica. All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs. Stone tablets The Adena also carved small stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by .5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were probably used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies. It is possible that they were used to outline designs for tattooing. Pottery Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts. Usually Adena pottery was tempered with grit or crushed limestone and was very thick; its decoration was largely plain, cord-marked or fabric marked, although one type bore a nested-diamond design incised into its surface. The vessel shapes were sub-conoidal or flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports. Domestic life Settlement patterns The large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter. The walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were then joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was then covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork. Food sources Their sustenance was acquired through foraging and the cultivation of native plants.
Hunted deer, elk, black bear, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine, turkey, trumpeter swan, and ruffed grouse. Gathered several edible seed, grasses, and nuts. Cultivated pumpkin, squash, sunflower, and goosefoot. 
Tools The Adena ground stone tools and axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were probably used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools, but even more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads, combs, and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia. Spoons, beads and other implements were made from the marine conch. A few copper axes have been found, but otherwise the metal was hammered into ornamental forms, such as bracelets, rings, beads, and reel-shaped pendants. See also
Early Woodland Period
1000 BC–200 AD
^ "Identifying Flint Artifacts/Early Woodland People". Retrieved
^ a b "Native Peoples of North America–Adena". Archived from the
original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
^ "Civilizations Of The Americas, The Peoples To The North". Retrieved
^ "Early Woodland: Northeastern Middlesex Tradition". Retrieved
^ "Grave Creek
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adena culture.
v t e
Highbanks Metro Park
Criel Grave Creek
Mounds State Park
Related topics Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley burial mound Eastern Agricultural Complex Hopewell tradition
v t e
Periods Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic
Adena Alachua Ancient Beringian Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) Baytown Belle Glade Buttermilk Creek Complex Caborn-Welborn Calf Creek Caloosahatchee Clovis Coles Creek Comondú Deptford Folsom Fort Ancient Fort Walton Fremont Glacial Kame Glades Hohokam Hopewell
List of Hopewell sites
La Jolla Las Palmas Leon-Jefferson Mississippian
List of Mississippian sites
Mogollon Monongahela Old Cordilleran Oneota Paleo-Arctic Paleo-Indians Patayan Plano Plaquemine Poverty Point Red Ocher Santa Rosa-Swift Creek St. Johns Steed-Kisker Tchefuncte Tocobaga Troyville
Angel Mounds Anzick Clovis burial Bandelier National Monument Blue Spring Shelter The Bluff Point Stoneworks Cahokia Candelaria Cave Casa Grande Chaco Canyon Coso Rock Art District Crystal River Archaeological State Park Cuarenta Casas Cueva de la Olla Eaker El Fin del Mundo El Vallecito Effigy Mounds National Monument Etowah Indian Mounds Eva Folsom Site Fort Ancient Fort Center Fort Juelson Four Mounds Site Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Glenwood Grimes Point Holly Bluff Site Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Huápoca Kimball Village Kincaid Mounds Kolomoki Mounds L'Anse aux Meadows Marksville Marmes Rockshelter Meadowcroft Rockshelter Mesa Verde Moaning Cavern Moorehead Circle Morrison Mounds Moundville Mummy Cave Nodena Site Ocmulgee National Monument Old Stone Fort Orwell Site Paquime Parkin Park Pinson Mounds Portsmouth Earthworks Poverty Point Pueblo Bonito Recapture Canyon Rock Eagle Rock Hawk Russell Cave National Monument Salmon Ruins Serpent Mound Sierra de San Francisco Spiro Mounds SunWatch Taos Pueblo Toltec Mounds Town Creek Indian Mound Turkey River Mounds Upward Sun River site West Oak Forest Earthlodge Winterville Wupatki National Monument
Anzick-1 Arlington Springs Man Buhl Woman Kennewick Man La Brea Woman Leanderthal Lady Minnesota Woman Spirit Cave mummy
Eastern Agricultural Complex
Green Corn Ceremony
Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing
Coordinates: 38°04′21″N 83°57′03″W / 38.07250°N 83.95083°W / 3