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The Adena culture
Adena culture
was a Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture
Adena culture
refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Kentucky, New York, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland.

Contents

1 Importance 2 Art and religion

2.1 Mounds 2.2 Prominent mounds 2.3 Shamanism 2.4 Stone tablets 2.5 Pottery

3 Domestic life

3.1 Settlement patterns 3.2 Food sources 3.3 Tools

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Importance[edit] The Adena Culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthington's early 19th-century estate located near Chillicothe, Ohio[1], which he named "Adena", Adena sites are concentrated in a relatively small area - maybe 200 sites in the central Ohio
Ohio
Valley, with perhaps another 200 scattered throughout Wisconsin, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, although those in Ohio
Ohio
may once have numbered in the thousands. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its considerable influence on other contemporary and succeeding cultures.[2] The Adena culture
Adena culture
is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, which are sometimes thought as an elaboration, or zenith, of Adena traditions. The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, pottery, artistic works and extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast.[3][4][5] Art and religion[edit] Mounds[edit] Lasting traces of Adena culture
Adena culture
are still seen in the remains of their substantial earthworks. At one point, larger Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of the remains of the larger Adena earthen monuments still survive today. These mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet (6.1 m) to 300 feet (91 m) in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These earthen monuments were built using hundreds of thousands of baskets full of specially selected and graded earth. According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were often built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled immediately atop a burned mortuary building. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed. Before the construction of the earthworks, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, which was burned with the goods and honored dead within. The earthwork would then be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new earthwork. After a series of repetitions, mortuary/earthwork/mortuary/earthwork, a quite prominent earthwork would remain. In the later Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial earthworks.[2] Prominent mounds[edit] Main article: List of Adena culture
Adena culture
sites

Site Image Description

Adena Mound

The Adena Mound, the type site for the culture, is a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio.

Biggs Site

The site, located in Greenup County, Kentucky, is a conical abide surrounded by a series of circular ditches and embankments. It is connected to the Portsmouth Earthworks
Portsmouth Earthworks
directly across the Ohio
Ohio
River in Portsmouth, Ohio.[6][7]

Criel Mound

A 35-foot (11 m) high and 175-foot (53 m)-diameter conical mound, it is the second largest of its type in West Virginia. It is located in South Charleston, West Virginia. P. W. Norris of the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
oversaw the excavation. His team discovered numerous skeletons along with weapons and jewelry.[8]

Enon Mound

Ohio's second largest conical burial mound, it is believed to have been built by the Adena.

Grave Creek Mound

At 69 feet (21 m) high and 295 feet (90 m) in diameter, it is one of the largest conical-type burial mounds in the United States. It is located in Moundsville, West Virginia. In 1838, much of the archaeological evidence in this mound was destroyed when several non-archaeologists tunneled into the mound.[8][9]

Miamisburg Mound

Once serving as an ancient burial site, the Miamisburg Mound
Mound
is the most recognizable landmark in Miamisburg. It is the largest conical burial mound in Ohio, and remains virtually intact. Located in a city park at 900 Mound
Mound
Avenue, it is an Ohio
Ohio
historical site and serves as a popular attraction and picnic destination for area families. Visitors can climb to the top of the mound via stone-masonry steps.

Wolf Plains
Wolf Plains
Group

A Late Adena group of 30 earthworks including 22 conical mounds and nine circular enclosures.[10] It is located a few miles to the northwest of Athens, Ohio.

Shamanism[edit] Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many later Native Americans began with the Adena.[11] Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves, bears and deer—and back to human form. This may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf, deer and mountain lion jawbones, and many other objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces and other forms of regalia by the Adena.[12] Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica. All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs.[11] Stone tablets[edit] The Adena also carved small stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by .5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were probably used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies.[12] It is possible that they were used to outline designs for tattooing.[13] Pottery[edit] Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts. Usually Adena pottery was tempered with grit or crushed limestone and was very thick; its decoration was largely plain, cord-marked or fabric marked, although one type bore a nested-diamond design incised into its surface. The vessel shapes were sub-conoidal or flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports.[14] Domestic life[edit] Settlement patterns[edit] The large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter. The walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were then joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was then covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork.[15] Food sources[edit] Their sustenance was acquired through foraging and the cultivation of native plants.

Hunted deer, elk, black bear, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine, turkey, trumpeter swan, and ruffed grouse. Gathered several edible seed, grasses, and nuts.[16] Cultivated pumpkin, squash, sunflower, and goosefoot. [17]

Tools[edit] The Adena ground stone tools and axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were probably used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools, but even more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads, combs, and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia. Spoons, beads and other implements were made from the marine conch. A few copper axes have been found, but otherwise the metal was hammered into ornamental forms, such as bracelets, rings, beads, and reel-shaped pendants.[14] See also[edit]

Hopewell tradition

Preceded by Early Woodland Period Adena culture 1000 BC–200 AD Succeeded by Ohio
Ohio
Hopewell

References[edit]

^ "Identifying Flint Artifacts/Early Woodland People". Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ a b "Native Peoples of North America–Adena". Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ "Civilizations Of The Americas, The Peoples To The North". Retrieved 2008-09-11.  ^ "Early Woodland: Northeastern Middlesex Tradition". Retrieved 2008-09-11.  ^ "Grave Creek Mound
Mound
Archaeological Complex". Retrieved 2008-09-11.  ^ "Portsmouth Earthworks- Ohio
Ohio
Central History". Retrieved 2008-09-11.  ^ Lewis, R. Barry (1996). Kentucky
Kentucky
Archaeology. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-1907-6.  ^ a b "Mounds and Mound
Mound
Builders". Archived from the original on 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-09-11.  ^ "Mounds and Mound
Mound
Builders". Archived from the original on 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-09-11.  ^ "The Archaeological Conservancy-2008 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-02-03.  ^ a b "Adena-Definition from Answers.com". Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ a b Power, Susan (2004). Early Art of the Southeastern Indians-Feathered Serpents and Winged Beings. University of Georgia Press. pp. 29–34. ISBN 978-0-8203-2501-9.  ^ "Virtual First Ohioans".  ^ a b "Adena Site". Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ "The Adena Mounds". Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ "NA Archaeology : Adena". Archived from the original on 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2008-09-12.  ^ Whitaker, Alex. "The Mound
Mound
Builders". www.ancient-wisdom.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adena culture.

Ohio
Ohio
Memory Ohio
Ohio
Historical Society's Archaeology Page Virtual First Ohioans's webpage on the Adena Introduction to North America's Native People: Adena people Ancient Earthworks of Eastern North America Photo Galleries

v t e

Adena Culture

List of Adena culture
Adena culture
sites Woodland period Mound
Mound
builder (people) List of archaeological periods (North America)

Ohio
Ohio
sites

Adena Austin Brown Arledge Beam Farm Clemmons Conrad Coon Hunters George Deffenbaugh Enon Fortner Great Mound Highbanks Metro Park Hillside Haven Hodgen's Cemetery Horn Hurley Jackson Karshner Kinzer Luthor List McDaniel Miamisburg Mound
Mound
Cemetery Odd Fellows' Cemetery Old Maid's Orchard Orators Carl Potter Raleigh Reeves D.S. Rose Ross Trails Circle Short Woods Park Shrum Snead Spruce Run David Stitt Story (Cincinnati) Story (Chillicothe) Williamson Wolf Plains Wright-Patterson Zaleski

Kentucky
Kentucky
sites

Biggs Gaitskill Mound
Mound
Hill Mount Horeb Ramey Round Hill

West Virginia
West Virginia
sites

Criel Grave Creek

Indiana
Indiana
sites

Mounds State Park

Related topics Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley burial mound Eastern Agricultural Complex Hopewell tradition

v t e

Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
North America

Periods Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic

Archaeological cultures

Adena Alachua Ancient Beringian Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) Baytown Belle Glade Buttermilk Creek Complex Caborn-Welborn Calf Creek Caloosahatchee Clovis Coles Creek Comondú Deptford Folsom Fort Ancient Fort Walton Fremont Glacial Kame Glades Hohokam Hopewell

List of Hopewell sites

La Jolla Las Palmas Leon-Jefferson Mississippian

List of Mississippian sites

Mogollon Monongahela Old Cordilleran Oneota Paleo-Arctic Paleo-Indians Patayan Plano Plaquemine Poverty Point Red Ocher Santa Rosa-Swift Creek St. Johns Steed-Kisker Tchefuncte Tocobaga Troyville

Archaeological sites

Angel Mounds Anzick Clovis burial Bandelier National Monument Blue Spring Shelter The Bluff Point Stoneworks Cahokia Candelaria Cave Casa Grande Chaco Canyon Coso Rock Art District Crystal River Archaeological State Park Cuarenta Casas Cueva de la Olla Eaker El Fin del Mundo El Vallecito Effigy Mounds National Monument Etowah Indian Mounds Eva Folsom Site Fort Ancient Fort Center Fort Juelson Four Mounds Site Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Glenwood Grimes Point Holly Bluff Site Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Huápoca Kimball Village Kincaid Mounds Kolomoki Mounds L'Anse aux Meadows Marksville Marmes Rockshelter Meadowcroft Rockshelter Mesa Verde Moaning Cavern Moorehead Circle Morrison Mounds Moundville Mummy Cave Nodena Site Ocmulgee National Monument Old Stone Fort Orwell Site Paquime Parkin Park Pinson Mounds Portsmouth Earthworks Poverty Point Pueblo Bonito Recapture Canyon Rock Eagle Rock Hawk Russell Cave National Monument Salmon Ruins Serpent Mound Sierra de San Francisco Spiro Mounds SunWatch Taos Pueblo Toltec Mounds Town Creek Indian Mound Turkey River Mounds Upward Sun River site West Oak Forest Earthlodge Winterville Wupatki National Monument

Human remains

Anzick-1 Arlington Springs Man Buhl Woman Kennewick Man La Brea Woman Leanderthal Lady Minnesota Woman Spirit Cave mummy

Miscellaneous

Aridoamerica Black drink Ceremonial pipe Chunkey Clovis point Container Revolution Eastern Agricultural Complex Eden point Effigy mound Falcon dancer Folsom point Green Corn Ceremony Horned Serpent Kiva Medicine wheel Metallurgy Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing Mound
Mound
Builders N.A.G.P.R.A. Norse colonization of North America Oasisamerica Piasa Southeastern Ceremonial Complex Stickball Three Sisters agriculture Thunderbird Underwater panther Water glyphs

Related Genetic history Portal
Portal
of Indigenous peoples of North America Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
era

Coordinates: 38°04′21″N 83°57′03″W / 38.07250°N 83.95083°W / 3

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