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The Adelidae or fairy longhorn moths are a family of monotrysian moths in the lepidopteran infraorder Heteroneura. Most species have at least partially metallic patterns coloration and are diurnal, sometimes swarming around the tips of branches with an undulating flight. Others are crepuscular and have a drab coloration. Fairy longhorn moths have a wingspan of 4–28 millimeters, and males often have especially long antennae, 1–3 times as long as the forewing. They are widespread across the world and can be found over much of North America and Eurasia from April to June. About 50 species occur in Europe, of which most widely noted is the green longhorn (Adela reaumurella) which can sometimes reach great abundance; due to climate change[2] its peak flying season is shifting towards spring. In general, they are more plentiful in the Northern Hemisphere, but the family occurs in the Neotropics, sub-Saharan Africa, South-East Asia and Australia too.[3] Adelidae are usually closely restricted to particular host plants [1], in which the females insert their eggs or just lay among leaf litter, and the caterpillars make a case, completing their development on the ground. Fairy longhorn moths feed in sunshine on nectar from the flowers of herbaceous (woody) plants. Systematics[edit] Fairy longhorn moths belong to the superfamily Incurvarioidea, one of the basal ("monotrysian") branches of the advanced moth infraorder Heteroneura. By lepidopteran standards, they are thus still rather primitive micromoths. But like other Heteroneura, they already possess the apomorphic sucking proboscis – usually considered a defining feature of Lepidoptera, but the most ancestral moths still live on solid food which they chew.[4] The Adelidae were previously placed as the subfamily Adelinae within the family Incurvariidae.[5] Subfamilies[edit] The Adelidae are usually divided into two subfamilies, but most genera are of uncertain or basal relationships. Selected species are also listed:[6]

Subfamily Adelinae

Adela Latreille, 1796

Adela croesella Adela reaumurella – green longhorn

Cauchas Zeller, 1839

Cauchas rufimitrella

Nemophora Illiger & Hoffmannsegg[verification needed], 1798 (tentatively placed here)

Nemophora degeerella – longhorn moth Nemophora metallica Nemophora ochsenheimerella

Subfamily Nematopogoninae

Ceromitia Zeller, 1852 (tentatively placed here)

Ceromitia iolampra

Nematopogon

Incertae sedis

Subclemensia Trichofrons

The genus Tridentaforma is sometimes placed among the Adelidae incertae sedis too; others assign it to the closely related Prodoxidae.[4] Footnotes[edit]

^ Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness – Lepidoptera ^ Kuchlein & Ellis (2004) ^ Edwards (2007), FE (2009) ^ a b Davis (1999) ^ Bradley, J.D.; Fletcher, D.S. (1979). A Recorder's Log Book or Label List of British Butterflies and Moths. London: Curwen Books.  ^ Wikispecies (2008-OCT-31), FE (2009), and see references in Savela (2003)

References[edit]

Davis, D.R. (1999): The Monotrysian Heteroneura. In: Kristensen, N.P. (ed.): Handbuch der Zoologie/Handbook of Zoology (Volume IV – Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35: Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies 1): 65–90. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York. ISBN 3-11-015704-7 Edwards, E.D. (2007): Australian Faunal Directory – Adelidae. Version of 2007-JUN-28. Retrieved 2010-MAY-09. Fauna Europaea (FE) (2009): Adelidae. Version 2.1, 2009-DEC-22. Retrieved 2010-MAY-03. Kuchlein, J.H. & Ellis, W.N. (2004): Climate-induced changes in the microlepidoptera fauna of the Netherlands and the implications for nature conservation. Journal of Insect Conservation 1(2): 73–80. doi:10.1023/A:1018483026265 PDF fulltext Savela, Markku (2003): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Adelidae. Version of 2003-DEC-27. Retrieved 2010-MAY-03.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adelidae.

Wikispecies has information related to Adelidae

UK Adelidae key UK Adelinae Adelidae at BugGuide.net

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Extant Lepidoptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae (mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae (swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae (fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae (yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae (pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae (white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae (burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae (fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae (ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae (false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae (sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae (case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae (cosmet moths) Elachistidae (grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae (twirler moths) Lecithoceridae (long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae (mompha moths) Oecophoridae (concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae (flower moths) Xyloryctidae (timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae (burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae (planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae (slug caterpillars) Limacodidae (slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae (carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae (castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae (clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae (metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae (tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae (false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae (bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae (fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae (plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae (fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae (teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae (snout moths) Crambidae (grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae (picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae (eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae (Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae (silk moths) Brahmaeidae (Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae (Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae (saturniids) Sphingidae (hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae (underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae (daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae (tuft moths) Notodontidae (prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae (oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae (hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae (Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae (American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae (gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae (brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae (whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae (metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q927746 BAMONA: Adelidae BugGuide: 34115 EoL: 755 EPPO: 1ADLIF Fauna Europaea: 342 Fossilworks: 217882 GBIF: 4538 ITIS:

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