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Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
(Amharic: አዲስ አበባ, Addis Abäba IPA: [adˈdis ˈabəba] ( listen), "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Oromo: Finfinne, "natural spring"), is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It is the seat of the Ethiopian federal government. According to the 2007 population census, the city has a total population of 2,739,551 inhabitants.[2] As a chartered city (ras gez astedader), Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
has the status of both a city and a state. It is where the African Union
African Union
is and its predecessor the OAU was based. It also hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
(ECA) and numerous other continental and international organizations. Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
is therefore often referred to as "the political capital of Africa" for its historical, diplomatic and political significance for the continent.[3] The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia. It is home to Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
University.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Subdivision 2.2 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Standard of living

4 Economy 5 Tourism 6 Law and government

6.1 Government 6.2 Crime

7 Landmarks

7.1 High rise, architecture and skyline 7.2 Culture 7.3 Development 7.4 Image gallery

8 Education 9 Transport

9.1 Road 9.2 Air 9.3 Railway 9.4 Light rail

10 Twin towns – sister cities 11 Notable residents 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Addis Ababa
History of Addis Ababa
and Timeline of Addis Ababa

Menelik II
Menelik II
Equestrian Monument commemorating the victory of the Ethiopians in Battle of Adwa, dedicated to Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
on March 1, 1896

Entoto
Entoto
is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara. This permanent fortified city was established during the early-to-mid 15th century, and it served as the main residence of several successive emperors up to the early 16th-century reign of Lebna Dingel.[4] The city was depicted standing between Mounts Zikwala and Menegasha on a map drawn by the Italian cartographer Fra Mauro
Fra Mauro
in around 1450, and it was razed and plundered by Ahmed Gragn
Ahmed Gragn
while the imperial army was trapped on the south of the Awash River
Awash River
in 1529, an event witnessed and documented two years later by the Yemeni writer Arab-Faqih. The suggestion that Barara was located on Mount Entoto
Entoto
is supported by the very recent discovery of a large medieval town overlooking Addis Ababa located between rock-hewn Washa Mikael and the more modern church of Entoto
Entoto
Maryam, founded in the late 19th century by Emperor Menelik. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30-hectare site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, along with 520 meters of stone walls measuring up to 5-meter high.[5] The site of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul
Taytu Betul
and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II. Menelik, as initially a King of the Shewa
Shewa
province, had found Mount Entoto
Entoto
a useful base for military operations in the south of his realm, and in 1879 he visited the reputed ruins of a medieval town and an unfinished rock church that showed proof of the medieval empire's capital in the area before the campaigns of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim. His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area.[4][5]

Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
and dignitaries and notables of the Ethiopian Empire

However, the immediate area did not encourage the founding of a town for lack of firewood and water, so settlement actually began in the valley south of the mountain in 1886. Initially, Taytu built a house for herself near the "Filwoha" hot mineral springs, where she and members of the Showan Royal Court liked to take mineral baths. Other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wife's house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
today. The name changed to Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and became Ethiopia's capital when Menelik II
Menelik II
became Emperor of Ethiopia. The town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Menelik's contributions that are still visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets.[6]

Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
of Egypt
Egypt
in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
for the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
summit, 1963.

Following all the major engagements of their invasion Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea
Eritrea
entered Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment (including the use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas) practiced elsewhere and its railway to Djibouti
Djibouti
remained intact. After the occupation the city served as the Duke of Aosta's capital for the unified of Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
until 1941, when it was abandoned in favor of Amba Alagi and other redoubts during the Second World War's East African Campaign. The city was liberated by Major Orde Wingate and negus Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
for Ethiopian Gideon Force
Gideon Force
and Ethiopian resistance in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassie's return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left. Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963 and invited the new organization to keep its headquarters in the city. The OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union
African Union
(AU), also headquartered in Addis Ababa. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
also has its headquarters in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
was also the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
has often been called the original home of mankind because of various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy.[7] North eastern Africa, and the Afar region in particular was the central focus of these claims until recent DNA evidence suggested origins in south central Ethiopian regions like present-day Addis Ababa.[8][9] After analysing the DNA of almost 1,000 people around the world, geneticists and other scientists claimed people spread from what is now Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
100,000 years ago.[10][11] The research indicated that genetic diversity decreases steadily the farther one's ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.[12][13] Geography[edit]

Addis-Ababa and vicinities (false colors satellite image): it is an urbanization strip connecting Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and Debre Zeyit
Debre Zeyit
city (at image right bottom corner)

Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
seen from SPOT satellite

District map of Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
lies at an elevation of 2,200 metres (7,200 ft) and is a grassland biome, located at 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000Coordinates: 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E / 9.03000°N 38.74000°E / 9.03000; 38.74000.[14] The city lies at the foot of Mount Entoto
Entoto
and forms part of the watershed for the Awash. From its lowest point, around Bole International Airport, at 2,326 metres (7,631 ft) above sea level in the southern periphery, the city rises to over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in the Entoto
Entoto
Mountains to the north. Subdivision[edit] The city is divided into 10 boroughs, called subcities (Amharic: ክፍለ ከተማ, kifle ketema), and 99 wards (Amharic: ቀበሌ, kebele).[15][16] The 10 subcities are:

Nr Subcity Area (km²) Population Density Map

1

Addis Ketema[17]

7.41

271,644

36,659.1

2

Akaky Kaliti[18]

118.08

195,273

1,653.7

3

Arada[19]

9.91

225,999

23,000

4

Bole[20]

122.08

328,900

2,694.1

5

Gullele[21]

30.18

284,865

9,438.9

6

Kirkos[22]

14.62

235,441

16,104

7

Kolfe
Kolfe
Keranio[23]

61.25

546,219

7,448.5

8

Lideta[24]

9.18

214,769

23,000

9

Nifas Silk-Lafto[25]

68.30

335,740

4,915.7

10

Yeka[26]

85.46

337,575

3950.1

Climate[edit]

Addis Ababa

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    13     24 7

    30     25 9

    58     25 11

    82     25 11

    84     25 11

    138     23 11

    280     21 11

    290     21 11

    149     22 11

    27     24 9

    7     23 7

    7     23 7

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: NMAE[27]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.5     75 45

    1.2     77 48

    2.3     77 52

    3.2     77 52

    3.3     77 52

    5.4     73 52

    11     70 52

    11     70 52

    5.9     72 52

    1.1     75 48

    0.3     73 45

    0.3     73 45

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen: Cwb).[28] The city has a complex mix of highland climate zones, with temperature differences of up to 10 °C (18 °F), depending on elevation and prevailing wind patterns. The high elevation moderates temperatures year-round, and the city's position near the equator means that temperatures are very constant from month to month. As such the climate would be maritime if its elevation was not taken into account, as no month is above 22 °C (72 °F) in mean temperatures. Mid-November to January is a season for occasional rain. The highland climate regions are characterized by dry winters, and this is the dry season in Addis Ababa. During this season the daily maximum temperatures are usually not more than 23 °C (73 °F), and the night-time minimum temperatures can drop to freezing. The short rainy season is from February to May. During this period, the difference between the daytime maximum temperatures and the night-time minimum temperatures is not as great as during other times of the year, with minimum temperatures in the range of 10–15 °C (50–59 °F). At this time of the year, the city experiences warm temperatures and a pleasant rainfall. The long wet season is from June to mid-September; it is the major winter season of the country. This period coincides with summer, but the temperatures are much lower than at other times of year because of the frequent rain and hail and the abundance of cloud cover and fewer hours of sunshine. This time of the year is characterized by dark, chilly and wet days and nights.[citation needed] The autumn which follows is a transitional period between the wet and dry seasons. The highest temperature on record was 32 °C (90 °F) 27 August 1996, while the lowest temperature on record was 0 °C (32 °F) on 23 November 1999.[29]

Climate data for Addis Ababa

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30 (86) 28 (82) 30 (86) 29 (84) 30 (86) 29 (84) 29 (84) 32 (90) 28 (82) 27 (81) 30 (86) 28 (82) 32 (90)

Average high °C (°F) 23.5 (74.3) 24.5 (76.1) 25.4 (77.7) 24.8 (76.6) 25.2 (77.4) 23.4 (74.1) 20.7 (69.3) 20.7 (69.3) 21.7 (71.1) 22.7 (72.9) 23.0 (73.4) 22.9 (73.2) 23.21 (73.78)

Daily mean °C (°F) 15.4 (59.7) 16.6 (61.9) 17.9 (64.2) 17.9 (64.2) 18.0 (64.4) 17.0 (62.6) 15.9 (60.6) 15.8 (60.4) 16.2 (61.2) 15.7 (60.3) 14.8 (58.6) 14.9 (58.8) 16.34 (61.41)

Average low °C (°F) 7.4 (45.3) 8.7 (47.7) 10.5 (50.9) 11.1 (52) 10.8 (51.4) 10.6 (51.1) 11.1 (52) 11.0 (51.8) 10.7 (51.3) 8.7 (47.7) 6.7 (44.1) 7.0 (44.6) 9.53 (49.16)

Record low °C (°F) 1 (34) 1 (34) 3 (37) 6 (43) 6 (43) 1 (34) 0 (32) 6 (43) 4 (39) 2 (36) 0 (32) 0 (32) 0 (32)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 13 (0.51) 30 (1.18) 58 (2.28) 82 (3.23) 84 (3.31) 138 (5.43) 280 (11.02) 290 (11.42) 149 (5.87) 27 (1.06) 7 (0.28) 7 (0.28) 1,165 (45.87)

Average rainy days 3 5 7 10 10 20 27 26 18 4 1 1 132

Average relative humidity (%) 47 51.5 47.5 54.5 53 67.5 79.5 79 71.5 47.5 48 45.5 57.67

Mean daily sunshine hours 9 9 8 7 8 6 3 3 5 8 9 9 7

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN)(precipitation),[30] Climate-Data.org for mean temperatures[28]

Source #2: Voodoo Skies for record temperatures,[29] BBC Weather for humidity and sunshine,[31] National Meteorological Agency[27]

Demographics[edit] As of the latest 2007 population census conducted by the Ethiopian national statistics authorities, Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
has a total population of 2,739,551 urban and rural inhabitants. For the capital city 662,728 households were counted living in 628,984 housing units, which results in an average of 5.3 persons to a household. Although all Ethiopian ethnic groups are represented in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
because it is the capital of the country, the largest groups include the Amhara (56.04%), Oromo (19.00%), Gurage
Gurage
(16.34%), Tigray (5.18%), Silt'e (2.94%), and Gamo (1.68%). Languages spoken include Amharic
Amharic
(71.0%), Oromiffa
Oromiffa
(10.7%), Gurage
Gurage
(8.37%), Tigrinya (3.60%), Silt'e (1.82%) and Gamo (1.03%). The religion with the most believers in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
is Ethiopian Orthodox with 74.7% of the population, while 16.2% are Muslim, 7.77% Protestant, and 0.48% Catholic.[2] Main article: Languages of Ethiopia

Languages of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
as of 2007 Census [32]    Amharic
Amharic
(71.0%)   Oromo (10.70%)    Gurage
Gurage
(8.37%)   Tigrinya (3.60%)   Silt'e (1.82%)   Gamo (1.03%)   Other (3.48%)

In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the city's population was reported to be 2,112,737, of whom 1,023,452 were men and 1,089,285 were women. At that time not all of the population were urban inhabitants; only 2,084,588 or 98.7% were. For the entire administrative council there were 404,783 households in 376,568 housing units with an average of 5.2 persons per household. The major ethnic groups included the Amhara (48.3%), Oromo (19.2%), Gurage (13.5%; 2.3% Sebat Bet, and 0.8% Sodo), Tigray 7.64%, Silt'e 3.98%, and foreigners from Eritrea
Eritrea
1.33%. Languages spoken included Amharic (72.6%), Oromiffa
Oromiffa
(10.0%), Gurage
Gurage
(6.54%), Tigrinya (5.41%), and Silt'e 2.29%. In 1994 the predominant religion was also Ethiopian Orthodox with 82.0% of the population, while 12.7% were Muslim, 3.87% Protestant, and 0.78% Catholic.[33] Standard of living[edit] According to the 2007 national census, 98.64% of the housing units of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
had access to safe drinking water, while 14.9% had flush toilets, 70.7% pit toilets (both ventilated and unventilated), and 14.3% had no toilet facilities.[34] In 2014, there were 63 public toilets in the city, with plans to build more.[35] Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Addis Ababa as of 2005[update] include the following: 0.1% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 93.6% and for women 79.95%, the highest in the nation for both sexes; and the civic infant mortality rate is 45 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of life.[36] The City is partially powered by water at the Koka Reservoir. Economy[edit]

The bustling center of Addis Ababa

Dembel City Center.

The economic activities in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
are diverse. According to official statistics from the federal government, some 119,197 people in the city are engaged in trade and commerce; 113,977 in manufacturing and industry; 80,391 Homemakers of different variety; 71,186 in civil administration; 50,538 in transport and communication; 42,514 in education, health and social services; 32,685 in hotel and catering services; and 16,602 in agriculture. In addition to the residents of rural parts of Addis Ababa, the city dwellers also participate in animal husbandry and cultivation of gardens. 677 hectares (1,670 acres) of land is irrigated annually, on which 129,880 quintals of vegetables are cultivated.[citation needed] It is a relatively clean and safe city, with the most common crimes being pickpocketing, scams and minor burglary.[37] The city has recently been in a construction boom with tall buildings rising in many places. Various luxury services have also become available and the construction of shopping malls has recently increased. According to Tia Goldenberg of IOL, area spa professionals said that some people have labeled the city, "the spa capital of Africa."[38] Ethiopian Airlines
Ethiopian Airlines
has its headquarters on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.[39] Tourism[edit] Tourism is a growing industry within Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
as a whole. The country has seen a 10% increase in tourism over the last decade, subsequently bringing an influx of tourists to Addis Ababa. In 2015, the European Council on Tourism and Trade named Ethiopia
Ethiopia
the #1 tourist spot in the world.[40] Law and government[edit] Government[edit] Pursuant to the Ethiopian Constitution of 1995, the city of Addis Ababa is one of the two federal cities that are accountable to the Federal Government of Ethiopia. The other city with the same status is Dire Dawa
Dire Dawa
in the east of the country and both federal cities are located within the State of Oromia. Earlier, following the establishment of the federal structure in 1991 under the Transitional Charter of Ethiopia, the City Government of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
was one of the then new 14 regional governments. However, that structure was changed by the federal constitution in 1995 and as a result, Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
does not have statehood status. The administration of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
city consists of the Mayor, who leads the executive branch, and the City Council, which enacts city regulations. However, as part of the Federal Government, the federal legislature enacts laws that are binding in Addis Ababa. Members of the City Council are directly elected by the residents of the city and the Council, in turn, elects the Mayor among its members. The term of office for elected officials is five years. However, the Federal Government, when it deems necessary, can dissolve the City Council and the entire administration and replace it by a temporary administration until elections take place next. Residents of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
are represented in the federal legislature, the House of Peoples' Representatives. However, the city is not represented in the House of Federation, which is the federal upper house constituted by the representatives of the member states. The executive branch under the Mayor comprises the City Manager and various branches of civil service offices. The current Mayor of Addis Ababa is Mr. Diriba Kuma from the Oromo People Democratic Organisation (OPDO), which is the member of the ruling coalition Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Mr. Diriba Kuma took office on 9 July 2013. His predecessor, Mr. Kuma Demeksa (also from the OPDO party), served a five-year term from 30 October 2008. Before that, the Federal Government appointed Mr. Berhane Deressa to lead the temporary caretaker administration that served from 9 May 2006 to 30 October 2008 following the 2005 election crisis. In the 2005 national election, the ruling EPRDF party suffered a major defeat in Addis Ababa. However, the opposition who won in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
did not take part in the government both on the regional and federal level. This situation forced the EPRDF-led Federal Government to assign a temporary administration until a new election was carried out. As a result, Mr. Berhane Deressa, an independent citizen, was appointed. Some of the notable past mayors of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
are Arkabe Oqubay (2003–06), Zewde Teklu (1985–89), Alemu Abebe (1977–85) and Zewde Gebrehiwot (1960–69). Crime[edit] Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
is considered to be extremely safe in comparison to the other cities in the region.[41] On a crime index, Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
scores a 44.28, putting it at a crime level of moderate. Pickpocketing and petty unarmed thefts are more common within the city. Corruption and bribery are extremely common crimes in Addis Ababa. Violent crimes are very unlikely to happen in the city.[42] Landmarks[edit] High rise, architecture and skyline[edit]

AU Conference Center building

A financial district is currently under construction in Addis Ababa, that will include many high-rise buildings.[43] Mayor Kuma Demeksa embarked on a quest to improve investment for the buildings in the city. Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
is the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the African Union.[citation needed] The fossilized skeleton, and a plaster replica of the early hominid Lucy (known in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
as Dinkinesh) is preserved at the National Museum of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in Addis Ababa. Meskel Square
Meskel Square
is one of the noted squares in the city and is the site for the annual Meskel
Meskel
at the end of September annually when thousands gather in celebration. The city is home to the Ethiopian National Library, the Ethiopian Ethnological Museum (and former Guenete Leul Palace), the Addis Ababa Museum, the Ethiopian Natural History Museum, the Ethiopian Railway Museum and National Postal Museum. Notable taller architecture in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
includes the Huda Tower, Nani Tower, Bank Misr Building, as well as the approved Angola
Angola
World Trade Center Tower, Abyssinia Bank Tower, Mexico Square Tower, and the 200 million dollars AU Conference Center and Office Complex.[44] Culture[edit] Notable buildings include St George's Cathedral (founded in 1896 and also home to a museum), Holy Trinity Cathedral (once the largest Ethiopian Orthodox
Ethiopian Orthodox
Cathedral and the location of Sylvia Pankhurst's tomb) as well as the burial place of Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
and the Imperial family, and those who fought the Italians during the World War II. There is also Menelik's old Imperial palace which remains the official seat of government, and the National Palace formerly known as the Jubilee Palace (built to mark Emperor Haile Selassie's Silver Jubilee in 1955) which is the residence of the President of Ethiopia. Jubilee Palace was also modeled after Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom. Africa Hall
Africa Hall
is located across Menelik II
Menelik II
avenue from this Palace and is where the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa is headquartered as well as most UN offices in Ethiopia. It is also the site of the founding of the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
(OAU), which eventually became the African Union
African Union
(AU). The African Union
African Union
is now housed in a new headquarters built on the site of the demolished Akaki Prison, on land donated by Ethiopia
Ethiopia
for this purpose in the south western part of the city. The Hager Fikir Theatre, the oldest theater in Ethiopia, is located at the Piazza district. Near Holy Trinity Cathedral is the art deco Parliament building, built during the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie, with its clock tower. It continues to serve as the seat of Parliament today. Across from the Parliament is the Shengo Hall, built by the Derg
Derg
regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam as its new parliament hall. The Shengo Hall was the world's largest pre-fabricated building, which was constructed in Finland
Finland
before being assembled in Addis Ababa. It is used for large meetings and conventions. Itegue Taitu Hotel, built in 1898 (Ethiopian Calendar) in the middle of the city (Piazza), was the first hotel in Ethiopia. In the Merkato district, which happens to be the largest open market in Africa, is the impressive Grand Anwar Mosque, the biggest mosque in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
built during the Italian occupation. A few meters to the southwest of the Anwar Mosque is the Raguel Church built after the liberation by Empress Menen. The proximity of the mosque and the church has symbolized the long peaceful relations between Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia. The Roman Catholic
Catholic
Cathedral of the Holy Family is also in the Merkato district. Near Bole International Airport
Bole International Airport
is the new Medhane Alem (Savior of the World) Orthodox Cathedral, which is the second largest in Africa. Other features of the city include the large Mercato market, the Jan Meda racecourse, Bihere Tsige Recreation Centre and a railway line to Djibouti. Sport facilities include Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and Nyala Stadiums. The 2008 African Championships in Athletics were held in Addis Ababa. The Entoto
Entoto
Mountains start among the northern suburbs. Suburbs of the city include Shiro Meda and Entoto
Entoto
in the north, Urael and Bole (home to Bole International Airport) in the east, Nifas Silk
Nifas Silk
in the south-east, Mekanisa in the south, and Keraniyo and Kolfe
Kolfe
in the west. Kolfe
Kolfe
was mentioned in Nelson Mandela's Autobiography "A Long Walk to Freedom", as the place he got military training. Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
has a distinct architectural style. Unlike many African cities, Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
was not built as a colonial settlement. This means that the city has not a European style of architecture. This changed with the Italian invasion of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in 1936. The Piazza district in the city center is the most evident indicator of Italian influence. The buildings are very much Italian in style and there are many Italian restaurants, as well as small cafes, and European-style shopping centers.[45] Parks include Africa Park, situated along Menelik II
Menelik II
Avenue. Development[edit] The city hosts the We Are the Future center, a child care center that provides children with a higher standard of living. The center is managed under the direction of the mayor's office, and the international NGO Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and program planner and coordinator for the WAF child center in each city. Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition. Launched in 2004, the program is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
Listen Up Foundation and Mr. Hani Masri, with the support of the World Bank, UN agencies and major companies. Image gallery[edit]

Arat Kilo monument

Commercial Bank of Ethiopia

Meskel
Meskel
Square

St George's Cathedral

Hager Fikir Theatre
Hager Fikir Theatre
(April 2006)

Ethiopian Radio and Television station

Headquarters of the Ethiopian Federal Police

Tewodros Square and Sebastopol Cannon

Education[edit]

Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
University

Addis Ababa University
Addis Ababa University
was founded in 1950 and was originally named "University College of Addis Ababa", then renamed in 1962 for the former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I who had donated his Genete Leul Palace to be the university's main campus in the previous year. It is the home of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies and the Ethnological Museum. The city also has numerous public universities and private colleges including Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Science and Technology University, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Admas University College, St. Mary's University, Unity University, Kotebe Metropolitan University and Rift Valley University. Transport[edit]

The distinctive Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
blue taxis.

Bole international airport

Public transport is through public buses from Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise, Light Rail
Light Rail
or blue and white taxis. The taxis are usually minibuses that can seat at most twelve people. Two people are responsible for each taxi, the driver and a weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi's destination. Road[edit] The construction of the Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Ring Road was initiated in 1998 to implement the city master plan and enhance peripheral development. The Ring Road was divided into three major phases that connect all the five main gates in and out of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
with all other regions (Jimma, Debre Zeit, Dessie, Gojjam
Gojjam
and Ambo). For this project, China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) was the partner of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
City Roads Authority (AACRA).[46] The Ring Road has greatly helped to decongest and alleviate city traffic. Intercity bus service is provided by the [Lion City Bus Services]. Air[edit] The city is served by Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Bole International Airport, where a new terminal opened in 2003. The old Lideta
Lideta
Airport in the western "Old Airport" district is used mostly by small craft and military planes and helicopters.[dubious – discuss] Railway[edit] Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
originally had a railway connection with Djibouti
Djibouti
City, with a picturesque French style railway station, but this route has been abandoned. The new Addis Ababa- Djibouti
Djibouti
Railway started operation in September 2016, running parallel to the route of the original railway line. Light rail[edit]

Light rail overpass at Mexico Square, Addis Ababa

Main article: Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Light Rail Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
opened its light rail system to the public on 20 September 2015. The system is the first of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa. The Ethiopian Railway Corporation reached a funding agreement worth millions of dollars with the Export and Import Bank of China
Export and Import Bank of China
in September 2010 and the light rail project was completed in January 2015. The route is a 34.25-kilometre (21.28 mi) network with two lines; the operational line running from the center to the south of the city. Upon completion, the east-west line will run from Ayat to the Torhailoch ring-road, and from Menelik Square to Merkato Bus Station, Meskel Square
Meskel Square
and Akaki.[47] Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Chuncheon, South Korea, 2004[48] Beersheba, Israel, 2004[49] Leipzig, Germany, 2004[50][51] Ankara, Turkey, 2006[52] Washington, D.C., United States, December 2013[53]

Notable residents[edit]

Ephraim Isaac: Scholar of Ancient Semitic Studies[54] Mohammed Hussein Al Amoudi: richest person in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(worth $8.9 billion)[55] Haile Gebrselassie: Ethiopian long distance runner Kenenisa Bekele: Ethiopian long distance runner Tedros Adhanom: Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) Saladin Said: Ethiopian soccer player Mulatu Astatke: Ethiopian Jazz musician Mahmoud Ahmed: Ethiopian singer Teddy Afro: Ethiopian singer Bethlehem Tilahun Alemu: Founder of Sole Rebels[56]

See also[edit]

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
portal

Large Cities Climate Leadership Group Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
lion Zewditu Hospital

References[edit]

^ "2011 National Statistics". Csa.gov.et. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  ^ a b c "Census 2007 Tables: Addis Abeba" Archived 14 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Tables 2.1, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2 and 3.4. For Silt'e, the statistics of reported Shitagne speakers were used, on the assumption that this was a typographical error. ^ "United Nations Economic Commission for Africa". UNECA. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ a b Philip Briggs. Ethiopia. Bradt Travel Guides (2015) pp. 49–50 ^ a b Philip Briggs. Ethiopia. Bradt Travel Guides (2015) pp. 131–132 ^ Pankhurst, p. 195 ^ African tribe from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
populated rest of the world. ^ "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010.  ^ "DNA Links Humanity To One Common Origin: Africa". Archived from the original on 14 September 2009.  ^ "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Startribune.com. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  ^ "New Study Proves Theory of Human Recent African Origin". Archived from the original on 2008-12-05.  ^ Brown, David (22 February 2008). "Genetic Mutations Offer Insights on Human Diversity". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ "DNA studies trace migration from Ethiopia". Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ "NGA: Country Files". Earth-info.nga.mil. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ " Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
city website (site map, see the list in "Sub Cities" section)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ "Article at unhabitat.org (map of Addis Ababa, page 9)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Addis Ketema
Addis Ketema
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Akaky Kaliti
Akaky Kaliti
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ "Arada page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ "Bole page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Gullele
Gullele
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Kirkos
Kirkos
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Kolfe Keranio
Kolfe Keranio
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Lideta
Lideta
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Nifas Silk-Lafto
Nifas Silk-Lafto
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ " Yeka
Yeka
page ( Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
website)". Addisababacity.gov.et. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ a b "NMA of Ethiopia". National Meteorological Agency of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Retrieved 9 May 2010.  ^ a b "Climate: Addis Abeba (altitude: 2350m) – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ a b "Adis Ababa, Ethiopia". Voodoo Skies. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2014.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Addis Ababa". UN. Retrieved 6 January 2014.  ^ "BBC Weather – Addis Ababa". BBC Weather. Retrieved 6 January 2014.  ^ Central Statistical Agency. 2010. Population and Housing Census 2007 Report, National. [ONLINE] Available at: http://catalog.ihsn.org/index.php/catalog/3583/download/50086. [Accessed 13 December 2016]. ^ "The 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Results for Addis Ababa", Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.8, 2.13A Archived 15 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Census 2007 Tables: Addis Abeba", Tables, 8.7, 8.8 ^ Smith, David (28 August 2014). "Ethiopians' plight: 'The toilets are unhealthy, but we don't have a choice'" – via The Guardian.  ^ Macro International Inc. "2008. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005." (Calverton: Macro International, 2008), pp. 2, 3, 10 (Retrieved 30 September 2010) ^ Overseas Security Advisory Council – Ethiopia
Ethiopia
2007 Crime and Safety Report[dead link]. ^ Massages and manicures hit Addis Ababa[dead link] by Tia Goldenberg. Retrieved 15 January 2010. IOL'. 6 November 2007. ^ "Company Profile Archived 13 October 2012 at WebCite." Ethiopian Airlines. Retrieved on 3 October 2009. ^ CNN, Sophie Eastaugh, for. "What makes Ethiopia
Ethiopia
the world's best spot for tourism?". CNN. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ "5 Reasons to Visit Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Now". www.fodors.com. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ "Crime in Addis Ababa". www.numbeo.com. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ Solomon, Abiy. " Ethiopia
Ethiopia
building a Financial District in Addis Ababa".  ^ Addis Today by Molalign GIRMA, 2014 ^ " Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Capital City, About Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Tourism and Travel".  ^ "INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MULTI-NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS: Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Ring Road Project – A Case Study of a Chinese ..." Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2010.  ^ "Railway Gazette: Chinese funding for Addis Abeba light rail". Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.  ^ "Korea's Most Charming Region: Chuncheon-si". tour.chuncheon.go.kr.  ^ "קשריםקשרים בין-לאומיים של העיר באר-שבע" (in Hebrew). Beer-sheva.muni.il. Archived from the original on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ "Partnerstadt Addis Abeba - Eine neue Blume für Leipzig" (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2017.  ^ "Städtepartnerschaft Leipzig–Addis Abeba e. V" (in English, German, and Amharic). Retrieved 20 October 2017.  ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara".  ^ Tadias Magazine, "DC & Addis to Become Sister Cities", 4 December 2013, available at http://www.tadias.com/12/04/2013/dc-addis-to-become-sister-cities/ ^ "Institute of Semitic Studies". instituteofsemiticstudies.org.  ^ "Mohammed Al Amoudi".  ^ "Our Founder". soleRebels. 

Further reading[edit]

Pankhurst, Richard (2001). The Ethiopians: A History (Peoples of Africa). Wiley-Blackwell; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-631-22493-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Addis Ababa.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Addis Ababa.

Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
City Administration Addis Ababa

v t e

Districts (subcities) of Addis Ababa

Addis Ketema Akaky Kaliti Arada Bole Gullele Kirkos Kolfe
Kolfe
Keranio Lideta Nifas Silk-Lafto Yeka

v t e

Streets and squares in Addis Ababa

Streets

Algeria
Algeria
Street Asmara
Asmara
Road Bole Road Churchill Avenue Debre Zeyit
Debre Zeyit
Road Entoto
Entoto
Avenue General Wingate Haile Gebre Selassie Road Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
Street John Melly Mahatma Gandhi Menelik II
Menelik II
Avenue New Ambo Road Ring Road Russia Street Tenagnework Tewodros

Squares

Abune Petros Square Adwa
Adwa
Square Bob Marley Square Megabit 28 Square Menelik Square Meyazia 27 Square Meskel
Meskel
Square Yekatit 12 Square

v t e

Cities of Ethiopia

Adama Addis Ababa Adigrat Adwa Ambo Arba Minch Asella Awasa Axum Bahir Dar Bishoftu Debre Berhan Debre Marqos Debre Tabor Degehabur Dembidolo Dessie Dila Dire Dawa Gambela Goba Gode Gondar Harar Hosaena Irgalem Jijiga Jimma Kebri Dahar Kombolcha Mek'ele Negele Arsi Negele Boran Nekemte Sebeta Shashamane Sodo Weldiya Wukro Ziway

v t e

First-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia

Regions

Afar Amhara Benishangul-Gumuz Gambela Harari Oromia Somali Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region Tigray

Chartered cities

Addis Ababa Dire Dawa

Provinces (prior to 1995)

Arsi Bale Begemder Gamu-Gofa Gojjam Hararghe Illubabor Kaffa Shoa Sidamo Tigray Welega Wollo

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141880939 LCCN: n79061184 GND: 4000459-4 BNF: cb119947834 (data) N

.