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The Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
of 1819,[1] also known as the Transcontinental Treaty,[2] the Florida
Florida
Purchase Treaty,[3] or the Florida
Florida
Treaty,[4][5] was a treaty between the United States
United States
and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida
Florida
to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain's territorial boundaries in North America against the United States and Great Britain in the aftermath of the American Revolution; it also came during the Latin American wars of independence. Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons. Madrid
Madrid
decided to cede the territory to the United States through the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
in exchange for settling the boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Spanish Texas. The treaty established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and west to the Pacific Ocean, in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing the US claims on parts of Spanish Texas
Spanish Texas
west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas, under the terms of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase. The treaty remained in full effect for only 183 days: from February 22, 1821, to August 24, 1821, when Spain
Spain
signed the Treaty of Córdoba acknowledging the independence of Mexico. The Treaty of Limits, signed in 1828 and effective in 1832, recognized the border defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
as the boundary between the United States
United States
and Mexico.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Florida 1.2 Louisiana 1.3 Oregon Country 1.4 Russian America 1.5 New Spain 1.6 Details of the treaty

2 Border 3 Implementation 4 Later developments 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] The Treaty was negotiated by John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams, the Secretary of State under U.S. President James Monroe, and the Spanish foreign minister Luis de Onís
Luis de Onís
y González-Vara, during the reign of King Ferdinand VII.[6] Florida[edit]

Expandable map of Spanish West Florida
Florida
and East Florida
Florida
1810–1821

Spain
Spain
had long rejected repeated American efforts to purchase Florida. But by 1818, Spain
Spain
was facing a troubling colonial situation in which the cession of Florida
Florida
made sense. Spain
Spain
had been exhausted by the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in Europe and needed to rebuild its credibility and presence in its colonies. Revolutionaries in Central America and South America were beginning to demand independence. Spain
Spain
was unwilling to invest further in Florida, encroached on by American settlers, and it worried about the border between New Spain
Spain
(a large area including today's Mexico, Central America, and much of the current US Western States) and the United States. With minor military presence in Florida, Spain
Spain
was not able to restrain the Seminole
Seminole
warriors who routinely crossed the border and raided American villages and farms, as well as protected southern slave refugees from slave owners and traders of the southern United States.[7] By 1819, Spain
Spain
was forced to negotiate, as it was losing hold on its American empire, with its western territories primed to revolt.[citation needed] While fighting escaped black slaves, outlaws, and Native Americans in U.S.-controlled Georgia during the First Seminole
Seminole
War, American General Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
had pursued them into Spanish Florida. He built Fort Scott, at the southern border of the Georgia (i.e., the U.S.), and used it to destroy the Negro Fort
Negro Fort
in northwest Florida, whose existence was an untolerable disruptive risk to Georgia plantations. To stop the Seminole
Seminole
based in East Florida
Florida
from raiding Georgia settlements and offering havens for runaway slaves, the U.S. Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory. This included the 1817–1818 campaign by Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
that became known as the First Seminole
Seminole
War, after which the U.S. effectively seized control of Northeastern Florida; albeit for purposes of lawful government and administration (in the state of Georgia); but not for the outright annexation of territory for Georgia; for additional US Territory; or, for the creation of another U.S. state. Adams said the U.S. had to take control because Florida
Florida
(along the border of Georgia & Alabama Territory) had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them."[8] Spain
Spain
asked for British intervention, but London declined to assist Spain
Spain
in the negotiations. Some of President Monroe's cabinet demanded Jackson's immediate dismissal for invading Florida, but Adams realized that his success had given the U.S. a favorable diplomatic position. Adams was able to negotiate very favorable terms.[7] Louisiana[edit]

Expandable map of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Basin

In 1521, the Spanish Empire created the Virreinato de Nueva España (Viceroyalty of New Spain) to govern its conquests in the Caribbean, North America, and later the Pacific Ocean. In 1682, La Salle claimed La Louisiane for France.[9] For the Spanish Empire, this was an intrusion into the northeastern frontier of Nueva España. In 1691, Spain
Spain
created the Province of Tejas in Nueva España in an attempt to inhibit French settlement west of the Mississippi River. Fearing the loss of his American territories in the Seven Years' War, King Louis XV of France ceded La Louisiane to King Charles III of Spain
Spain
with the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1762. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 split La Louisiane with the portion east of the Mississippi River becoming a part of British North America
British North America
and the portion west of the river becoming the District of Luisiana of Nueva España. This eliminated the French threat to Nueva España, and the Spanish provinces of Luisiana, Tejas, and Santa Fe de Nuevo México
Santa Fe de Nuevo México
coexisted with only loosely defined borders. In 1800, French General Napoleon Bonaparte forced King Charles IV of Spain
Spain
to cede Luisiana to France with the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. Spain
Spain
continued to administer Luisiana until 1802, when Spain
Spain
publicly transferred the district to France. The following year, Napoleon
Napoleon
sold La Louisiane to the United States
United States
to raise money for his military campaigns. The United States
United States
and the Spanish Empire disagreed over the territorial boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
of 1803. The United States maintained the claim of France that Louisiana
Louisiana
included the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and "all lands whose waters flow to it." To the west of New Orleans, the United States
United States
assumed the French claim to all land east and north of the Sabine River.[10][notes 1] Spain
Spain
maintained that all land west of the Calcasieu River
Calcasieu River
and south of the Arkansas River belonged to Tejas and Santa Fe de Nuevo México
Santa Fe de Nuevo México
(see #New Spain.)

Oregon Country[edit]

Expandable map of the Columbia River
Columbia River
Basin

The United Kingdom claimed the region west of the Continental Divide between the undefined borders of Alta California
Alta California
and Russian Alaska on the basis of (1) the third voyage of James Cook in 1778, (2) the Vancouver Expedition
Vancouver Expedition
in 1791–1795, (3) the solo journey of Alexander Mackenzie to the North Bentinck Arm[notes 2] in 1792–1793, and (4) the exploration of David Thompson in 1807–1812. The Third Nootka Convention of 1794 called for the joint and exclusive British–Spanish exploitation of the region. The United States
United States
claimed essentially the same region on the basis of (1) the voyage of Robert Gray up the Columbia River
Columbia River
in 1792, (2) the United States
United States
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
of 1804–1806, and (3) the establishment of Fort Astoria[notes 3] on the Columbia River
Columbia River
in 1811. On 20 October 1818, the Anglo-American Convention of 1818
Anglo-American Convention of 1818
was signed setting the border between British North America
British North America
and the United States east of the Continental Divide along the 49th parallel north
49th parallel north
and calling for joint Anglo-American occupancy west of the Great Divide. The Anglo-American Convention ignored the Nootka Convention of 1794 which gave Spain
Spain
joint rights in the region. The Convention also ignored Russian settlements in the region. The United States
United States
referred to this region as the Oregon Country, while the United Kingdom referred to the region as the Columbia District.

Russian America[edit]

Expandable map of Russian claims in the Americas 1812–1824

On 16 July 1741, the crew of the Imperial Russian Navy
Russian Navy
ship Saint Peter (Апостол Пётр), captained by Vitus Bering, sighted Mount Saint Elias, [notes 4] the fourth-highest summit in North America. They became the first Europeans to land in northwestern North America. The Russian fur trade soon followed the discovery. By 1812, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
claimed Alaska and the Pacific Coast of North America as far south as the Russian settlement of Fortress Ross,[notes 5] only 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of the Spain's Presidio Real de San Francisco.

New Spain[edit]

Expandable map of Spanish claims north of Alta California
Alta California
1789–1795

Expandable map of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Spain
in 1800

Expandable map of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Spain
in 1819

The Spanish Empire claimed all lands west of the Continental Divide throughout the Americas.[notes 6] Between 1774 and 1779, King Charles III of Spain
Spain
ordered three naval expeditions north along the Pacific Coast to assert Spain's territorial claims. In July 1774, Juan José Pérez Hernández reached latitude 54°40′ north off the northwestern tip of Langara Island before being forced to turn south. On 15 August 1775, Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra
reached the latitude 59°0′ before returning south. On 23 July 1779, Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán and Bodega y Quadra reached Puerto de Santiago onIsla de la Magdalenda (now Port Etches on Hinchinbrook Island)[notes 7] where they held a formal possession ceremony commemorating Saint James, the patron saint of Spain. This marked the northernmost Spanish exploration in the Pacific Ocean. Between 1788 and 1793, Spain
Spain
launched several more expeditions north of Alta California. On 24 June 1789, Esteban José Martínez Fernández y Martínez de la Sierra established the Spanish colony of Santa Cruz de Nuca[notes 8] on the northwest coast of Vancouver Island. Asserting Spain's claim of exclusive sovereignty and navigation rights, Martínez seized several ships in Nootka Sound provoking the Nootka Crisis
Nootka Crisis
with the British Empire. In negotiations to resolve the crisis, Spain
Spain
claimed that its Nootka Territory extended north from Alta California
Alta California
to the 61st parallel north
61st parallel north
and from the Continental Divide west to the 147th meridian west. On 11 January 1794, the Spanish Empire and the British Empire signed the Third Nootka Convention which called for the abandonment of all permanent settlements on Nootka Sound. Santa Cruz de Nuca
Santa Cruz de Nuca
was formally abandoned on 28 March 1795. The Convention also called for joint and exclusive British–Spanish exploitation of the Nootka Territory. On 19 August 1796, the Spanish Empire joined the French First Republic
French First Republic
in war against the British Empire with the signing of the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso, thus ending Spanish and British cooperation in the Americas. East of the Continental Divide, the Spanish Empire claimed all land south of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
that was west of the Medina River
Medina River
and all land south of the Red River that was west of the Calcasieu River.[notes 9] The vast disputed region between the territorial claims of the United States
United States
and Spain
Spain
was occupied primarily by native peoples with very few traders of either Spain
Spain
or the United States. In the south, the disputed region between the Calcasieu River
Calcasieu River
and the Sabine River encompassed Los Adaes, the first capital of Spanish Texas. The region between the Calcasieu and Sabine rivers become a lawless no man's land. The United States
United States
saw great potential in these western lands, and hoped to settle their borders. Spain, seeing the end of New Spain, hoped to employ its territorial claims before it would be forced to grant Mexico
Mexico
its independence (later in 1821). Spain
Spain
hoped to regain much of its territory after the regional demands for independence subsided.

Details of the treaty[edit]

Expandable map of the Adams–Onís Treaty

The treaty, consisting of 16 articles[11] was signed in Adams' State Department office at Washington,[12] on February 22, 1819, by John Quincy Adams, U.S. Secretary of State, and Luis de Onís, Spanish minister. Ratification was postponed for two years, because Spain wanted to use the treaty as an incentive to keep the United States from giving diplomatic support to the revolutionaries in South America. As soon as the treaty was signed, the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
ratified unanimously; but because of Spain's stalling, a new ratification was necessary and this time there were objections. Henry Clay
Henry Clay
and other Western spokesmen demanded that Spain
Spain
also give up Texas. This proposal was defeated by the Senate, which ratified the treaty a second time on February 19, 1821, following ratification by Spain
Spain
on October 24, 1820. Ratifications were exchanged three days later and the treaty was proclaimed on February 22, 1821, two years after the signing.[13] The Treaty closed the first era of United States
United States
expansion by providing for the cession of East Florida
Florida
under Article 2; the abandonment of the controversy over West Florida
Florida
under Article 2 (a portion of which had been seized by the United States); and the definition of a boundary with the Spanish province of Mexico, that clearly made Spanish Texas
Spanish Texas
a part of Mexico, under Article 3, thus ending much of the vagueness in the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. Spain
Spain
also ceded to the U.S. its claims to the Oregon Country, under Article 3. The U.S. did not pay Spain
Spain
for Florida, but instead agreed to pay the legal claims of American citizens against Spain, to a maximum of $5 million, under Article 11.[notes 10] Under Article 12, Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 between the U.S. and Spain
Spain
was to remain in force. Under Article 15, Spanish goods received exclusive most-favored-nation privileges in the ports at Pensacola and St. Augustine for twelve years. Under Article 2, the U.S. received ownership of Spanish Florida (British East Florida
Florida
and West Florida
Florida
1763–1783). Under Article 3, the U.S. relinquished its own claims on parts of Texas
Texas
west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas.

Border[edit]

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

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Article 3 of the treaty states:

The Boundary Line between the two Countries, West of the Mississippi, shall begin on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the River Sabine in the Sea (29°40′42″N 93°50′03″W / 29.67822°N 93.83430°W / 29.67822; -93.83430 (Sabine Pass)), continuing North, along the Western Bank of that River, to the 32d degree of Latitude (32°00′00″N 94°02′45″W / 32°N 94.04574°W / 32; -94.04574 (Sabine River at 32°N)); thence by a Line due North to the degree of Latitude, where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Nachitoches, or Red-River (33°33′04″N 94°02′45″W / 33.55112°N 94.04574°W / 33.55112; -94.04574 (Red River at 94°2′45"W)), then following the course of the Rio-Roxo Westward to the degree of Longitude, 100 West from London and 23 from Washington (34°33′37″N 100°00′00″W / 34.56038°N 100°W / 34.56038; -100 (Red River at 100°W)), then crossing the said Red-River, and running thence by a Line due North to the River Arkansas (37°44′38″N 100°00′00″W / 37.74375°N 100°W / 37.74375; -100 ( Arkansas River
Arkansas River
at 100°W)), thence, following the Course of the Southern bank of the Arkansas to its source in Latitude, 42. North and thence by that parallel of Latitude to the South-Sea [Pacific Ocean]. The whole being as laid down in Melishe's Map of the United States, published at Philadelphia, improved to the first of January 1818. But if the Source of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
shall be found to fall North or South of Latitude 42, then the Line shall run from the said Source (39°15′30″N 106°20′38″W / 39.2583225°N 106.3439141°W / 39.2583225; -106.3439141 ( Arkansas River
Arkansas River
source)) due South or North, as the case may be, till it meets the said Parallel of Latitude 42 (42°00′00″N 106°20′38″W / 42°N 106.3439141°W / 42; -106.3439141 (42°N 106°20′38″W)), and thence along the said Parallel to the South Sea (42°00′00″N 124°12′46″W / 42°N 124.21266°W / 42; -124.21266 (Pacific Coast at 42°N)).

At the time the treaty was signed, the course of the Sabine River, Red River, and Arkansas River
Arkansas River
had only been partially charted. Furthermore, the rivers changed course periodically. It would take many years before the location of the border would be fully determined. South of the 32nd parallel north, the Spanish Empire and the United States settled for the U.S. claim along the Sabine River. Between the meridians 94°2′45" and 100° west, the parties settled on the Spanish claim along the Red River. West of the 100th meridian west, the parties settled on the Spanish claim along the Arkansas River. From the source of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
in the Rocky Mountains, the parties settled on a border due north along that meridian (106°20′37″W) to the 42nd parallel north, thence west along the 42nd parallel to the Pacific Ocean. Spain
Spain
won substantial buffer zones around its provinces of Tejas, Santa Fe de Nuevo México, and Alta California
Alta California
in New Spain. While the United States
United States
relinquished substantial territory east of Continental Divide, the newly defined border allowed settlement of the southwestern part of the State of Louisiana, the Territory of Arkansaw, and the Territory of Missouri. Spain
Spain
relinquished all claims in the Americas north of the 42nd parallel north. This was a historic retreat in its 327-year pursuit of lands in the Americas. The previous Anglo-American Convention of 1818 meant that both the United States
United States
and the British Empire could settle land north of the 42nd parallel and west of the Continental Divide. The United States
United States
now had a firm foothold on the Pacific Coast and could commence settlement of the jointly occupied Oregon Country (known as the Columbia District
Columbia District
to the rival United Kingdom). The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
also claimed this entire region as part of Russian America. For the United States, this Treaty (and the Treaty of 1818
Treaty of 1818
with Britain agreeing to joint occupancy of the Pacific Northwest) meant that its claimed territory now extended far west from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. For Spain, it meant that it kept its colony of Texas
Texas
and also kept a buffer zone between its colonies in California and New Mexico
Mexico
and the U.S. territories. Many historians consider the Treaty to be a great achievement for the U.S., as time validated Adams's vision that it would allow the U.S. to open trade with the Orient across the Pacific.[14] Informally this new border has been called the "Step Boundary," although the step-like shape of the boundary was not apparent for several decades—the source of the Arkansas, believed to be near the 42nd parallel north, was not known until John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont
located it in the 1840s, hundreds of miles south of the 42nd parallel. Implementation[edit] Washington set up a commission, 1821 to 1824, that handled American claims against Spain. Many notable lawyers, including Daniel Webster and William Wirt, represented claimants before the commission. During its term, the commission examined 1,859 claims arising from over 720 spoliation incidents, and distributed the $5 million in a basically fair manner.[15] The treaty reduced tensions with Spain
Spain
(and after 1821 Mexico), and allowed budget cutters in Congress to reduce the army budget and reject the plans to modernize and expand the army proposed by Secretary of War John C. Calhoun. The treaty was honored by both sides, although inaccurate maps from the treaty meant that the boundary between Texas
Texas
and Oklahoma remained unclear for most of the 19th century. The American boundary was expanded in 1848 by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
with Mexico. Later developments[edit]

An 1833 map of the United States
United States
in the shape of an eagle

The treaty was ratified by Spain
Spain
in 1820, and by the United States
United States
in 1821 (during the time that Spain
Spain
and Mexico
Mexico
were engaged in the prolonged Mexican War of Independence). Spain
Spain
finally recognized the independence of Mexico
Mexico
with the Treaty of Córdoba
Treaty of Córdoba
signed on August 24, 1821. While Mexico
Mexico
was not initially a party to the Adams–Onís Treaty, in 1831 Mexico
Mexico
ratified the treaty by agreeing to the 1828 Treaty of Limits with the U.S.[16] With the Russo-American Treaty of 1824, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
ceded its claims south of parallel 54°40′ north to the United States. With the Treaty of Saint Petersburg in 1825, Russia set the southern border of Alaska on the same parallel in exchange for the Russian right to trade south of that border and the British right to navigate north of that border. This set the absolute limits of the Oregon Country/ Columbia District
Columbia District
between the 42nd parallel north
42nd parallel north
and the parallel 54°40′ north west of the Continental Divide. By the mid-1830s, a controversy developed regarding the border with Texas, during which the United States
United States
demonstrated that the Sabine and Neches rivers had been switched on maps, moving the frontier in favor of Mexico. As a consequence, the eastern boundary of Texas
Texas
was not firmly established until the independence of the Republic of Texas
Texas
in 1836. It was not agreed upon by the United States
United States
and Mexico
Mexico
until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
in 1848, which concluded the Mexican–American War. That treaty also formalized the cession by Mexico
Mexico
of Alta California
Alta California
and today's American Southwest, except for the territory of the later Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
of 1854.[17] Another dispute occurred after Texas
Texas
joined the Union. The treaty stated that the boundary between the French claims on the north and the Spanish claims on the south was Rio Roxo de Natchitoches (Red River) until it reached the 100th meridian, as noted on the John Melish map of 1818. But, the 100th meridian on the Melish map was marked some 90 miles (140 km) east of the true 100th meridian, and the Red River forked about 50 miles (80 km) east of the 100th meridian. Texas
Texas
claimed the land south of the North Fork, and the United States
United States
claimed the land north of the South Fork (later called the Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River). In 1860 Texas
Texas
organized the area as Greer County. The matter was not settled until a United States Supreme Court ruling in 1896 upheld federal claims to the territory, after which it was added to the Oklahoma Territory.[18] The treaty gave rise to a later border dispute between the states of Oregon and California, which remains unresolved. Upon statehood in 1850, California established the 42nd parallel as its constitutional de jure border as it had existed since 1819 when the territory was part of Spanish Mexico. In an 1868–1870 border survey following the admission of Oregon as a state, errors were made in demarcating and marking the Oregon-California border, creating a dispute that continues to this day.[19][20][21][22]

See also[edit]

History portal Geography portal New Spain
Spain
portal United States
United States
portal Mexico
Mexico
portal

List of treaties John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams Luis de Onís
Luis de Onís
y Gonzalez-Vara Spain– United States
United States
relations Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest Alta California
Alta California
(Spanish Upper California) Santa Fe de Nuevo México
Santa Fe de Nuevo México
(Spanish New Mexico) Tejas (Spanish Texas) Louisiana Territory of Arkansaw Missouri Territory Republic of East Florida

Footnotes[edit]

^ At the time of the treaty negotiations, the exploration of the western Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Basin had only begun. A modern definition of the border initially claimed by the United States
United States
begins at the mouth of Sabine Pass
Sabine Pass
on the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
(29°40′42″N 93°50′03″W / 29.67822°N 93.83430°W / 29.67822; -93.83430 (Sabine Pass)), thence up the Sabine River to its source (33°19′16″N 96°12′58″W / 33.32108°N 96.21598°W / 33.32108; -96.21598 (Source of Sabine River)), thence due north (a distance of about 400 meters (1,300 ft) along meridian 96°12'58"W) to the southern extent of the Red River drainage basin (33°19′29″N 96°12′57″W / 33.32474°N 96.21589°W / 33.32474; -96.21589 (33°19′29″N 96°12′57″W)), thence westward along the southern extent of the Red River drainage basin to the tripoint of the Red River, Arkansas River, and Brazos River drainage basins (34°42′11″N 103°39′37″W / 34.70300°N 103.66035°W / 34.70300; -103.66035 (Red–Arkansas–Brazos tripoint)), thence northwestward along the southern extent of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
drainage basin to the tripoint of the Mississippi River, Colorado River, and San Luis drainage basins (38°20′51″N 106°15′10″W / 38.34760°N 106.25274°W / 38.34760; -106.25274 (Mississippi–Colorado–San Luis tripoint)), thence northward along the Continental Divide of the Americas
Continental Divide of the Americas
to the tripoint of the Mississippi River, Colorado River, and Columbia River
Columbia River
drainage basins (on Three Waters Mountain) (43°23′12″N 109°46′57″W / 43.38676°N 109.78260°W / 43.38676; -109.78260 (Mississippi–Colorado–Columbia tripoint)). At this tripoint the United States
United States
claim to the Oregon Country
Oregon Country
began (see #Oregon Country.) ^ 52°22′43″N 127°28′14″W / 52.37861°N 127.47056°W / 52.37861; -127.47056 (Alexander Mackenzie marker) ^ 46°11′18″N 123°49′39″W / 46.18820278°N 123.8274694°W / 46.18820278; -123.8274694 (Fort Astoria) ^ 60°17′38″N 140°55′44″W / 60.2937540°N 140.9289760°W / 60.2937540; -140.9289760 (Mount Saint Elias) ^ 38°30′51″N 123°14′37″W / 38.5140796°N 123.2436186°W / 38.5140796; -123.2436186 (Fortress Ross) ^ The claim of Spain
Spain
to all lands west of the Continental Divide in the Americas dated to the papal bull Inter caetera
Inter caetera
issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to the Crowns of Castile and Aragon the rights to colonize all "pagan lands" 100 leagues west of the Azores
Azores
and south of the Cabo Verde islands. This edict was superseded by the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
signed on June 7, 1494, which divided the Earth into hemispheres along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cabo Verde islands. In 1513, explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa claimed the entire "Mar de Sur" (Pacific Ocea]) and all lands adjacent for the Crowns of Castile and Aragon. ^ 60°19′49″N 146°36′16″W / 60.3302778°N 146.6044444°W / 60.3302778; -146.6044444 (Puerto de Santiago) ^ 49°35′30″N 126°36′56″W / 49.59163°N 126.615458°W / 49.59163; -126.615458 (Santa Cruz de Nuca) ^ At the time of the treaty negotiations, the course of the Calcasieu, Red and Arkansas Rivers were only partially known and the location of the Continental Divide was yet to be determined. A modern definition of the border initially claimed by Spain
Spain
begins at the mouth of Calcasieu Pass on the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
(29°45′41″N 93°20′39″W / 29.76125°N 93.34429°W / 29.76125; -93.34429 (Calcasieu Pass)), thence up the Calcasieu River
Calcasieu River
to its source (31°15′56″N 93°12′47″W / 31.2654598°N 93.2129426°W / 31.2654598; -93.2129426 (Source of Calcasieu River)), thence due north (along meridian 93°12'47"W) to the Red River (31°53′34″N 93°12′47″W / 31.89271°N 93.2129426°W / 31.89271; -93.2129426 (Red River at 96°12′58″W)), thence up the Red River to the meridian (99°15′19″W) of the source of the Medina River
Medina River
(34°22′20″N 99°15′19″W / 34.37222°N 99.25532°W / 34.37222; -99.25532 (Red River at 99°15′19″W)), thence due north along that meridian (99°15′19″W) to the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
(38°03′10″N 99°15′19″W / 38.05290°N 99.25532°W / 38.05290; -99.25532 ( Arkansas River
Arkansas River
at 99°15′19″W)), thence up the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
to its source (39°15′30″N 106°20′37″W / 39.25832°N 106.34364°W / 39.25832; -106.34364 (Source of Arkansas River)), thence due west (a distance of about 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) along the parallel 39°15'30"N) to the Continental Divide (39°15′30″N 106°28′58″W / 39.25832°N 106.48266°W / 39.25832; -106.48266 (Continental Divide at 39°15'30"N)), thence northward along the Continental Divide presumably all the way to the Bering Strait. ^ The U.S. commission established to adjudicate claims considered some 1,800 claims and agreed that they were collectively worth $5,454,545.13. Since the treaty limited the payment of claims to $5 million, the commission reduced the amount paid out proportionately by 8⅓ percent.

References[edit]

^ Crutchfield, James A.; Moutlon, Candy; Del Bene, Terry. The Settlement of America: An Encyclopedia of Westward Expansion from Jamestown to the Closing of the Frontier. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-317-45461-8. The formal name of the agreement is Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States
United States
of America and His Catholic Majesty.  ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History. OUP USA. January 31, 2013. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-975925-5.  ^ Danver, Steven L. (May 14, 2013). Encyclopedia of Politics of the American West. SAGE Publications. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4522-7606-9.  ^ Weeks, p.168. ^ A History of British Columbia, p. 90, E.O.S. Scholefield, British Columbia Historical Association, Vancouver, British Columbia 1913 ^ Weeks, pp. 170–175. ^ a b Weeks ^ Alexander Deconde, A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) p. 127 ^ On April 9, 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
claimed the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and "all lands whose waters flow to it" for King Louis XIV of France. La Salle named the region La Louisiane in honor of the king. ^ Hämäläinen, Pekka (2008), The Comanche Empire, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 156, ISBN 978-0-300-12654-9 . ^ " Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
of 1819". Sons of Dewitt Colony. TexasTexas A&M University,. Archived from the original on April 28, 2015.  ^ Adams, John Quincy. "Diary of John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams". 31: 44.  ^ Deconde, History of American Foreign Policy, p 128 ^ Jones, Howard (2009). Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations to 1913. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7425-6453-4.  ^ Cash, Peter Arnold (1999), "The Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
Claims Commission: Spoliation and Diplomacy, 1795–1824", DAI, PhD dissertation U. of Memphis 1998, 59 (9), pp. 3611–A. DA9905078  Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. ^ The Border: Adams–Onís Treaty, PBS ^ Brooks (1939) ch 6 ^ Meadows, William C. (January 1, 2010). Kiowa Ethnogeography. University of Texas
Texas
Press. p. 193. ISBN 9780292778443. Retrieved February 21, 2017.  ^ Barnard, Jeff (May 19, 1985). "California–Oregon Dispute : Border Fight Has Townfolk on Edge". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Preliminary studies indicate that, as the result of an 1870 surveying error, Oregon has about 31,000 acres of California, while California has about 20,000 acres of Oregon.  ^ Turner, Wallace (March 24, 1985). "SEA RICHES SPUR FEUD ON BORDER". New York Times. The border should follow the 42d parallel straight west from the 120th meridian to the Pacific. Instead it zigzags, and only one of the many surveyor's markers put down in 1868 actually is on the 42d parallel.  ^ Sims, Hank (June 14, 2013). "Will the North Coast Marine Protected Areas Spark a War With Oregon?". Lost Coast Outpost.  ^ California Department of Fish and Wildlife (1 Mar 2016). Map: Pyramid Point State Marine Conservation Area (PDF) (Map). California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Available from: http://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=117182 

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This article incorporates material from the Citizendium
Citizendium
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Further reading[edit]

Bailey, Hugh C. (1956). "Alabama's Political Leaders and the Acquisition of Florida" (PDF). Florida
Florida
Historical Quarterly. 35 (1): 17–29. ISSN 0015-4113.  Bemis, Samuel Flagg (1949). John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. New York: A. A. Knopf. , the standard history. Brooks, Philip Coolidge (1939). Diplomacy and the borderlands: the Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
of 1819.  Weeks, William Earl (1992). John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and American Global Empire. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-9058-4. .

Sources

Avalon Project – Treaty Text Text of the Adams–Onís Treaty

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