The Info List - Adam Sedgwick

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Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
(/ˈsɛdʒwɪk/; 22 March 1785 – 27 January 1873) was a British Priest and geologist, one of the founders of modern geology. He proposed the Devonian period
Devonian period
of the geological timescale. Based on work which he did on Welsh rock strata, he proposed the Cambrian period in 1835, in a joint publication in which Roderick Murchison also proposed the Silurian
period. Later in 1840, to resolve what later became known as the Great Devonian
Controversy about rocks near the boundary between the Silurian
and Carboniferous periods, he and Murchison proposed the Devonian
period. Though he had guided the young Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
in his early study of geology and continued to be on friendly terms, Sedgwick was an opponent of Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection.[2][3]


1 Life and career 2 Geological views and evolution 3 Sedgwick Club 4 Sedgwick Museum 5 Sedgwick Prize 6 Sedgwick Trail 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Life and career[edit] Sedgwick was born in Dent, Yorkshire, the third child of an Anglican vicar. He was educated at Sedbergh School
Sedbergh School
and Trinity College, Cambridge.[4] He studied mathematics and theology, and obtained his BA (5th Wrangler) from the University of Cambridge
in 1808 and his MA in 1811. On July 20, 1817 he was ordained a deacon, then a year later he was ordained as a priest.[4] His academic mentors at Cambridge
were Thomas Jones and John Dawson. He became a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
and Woodwardian Professor of Geology
at Cambridge
from 1818, holding the chair until his death in 1873.[5] His biography in the Cambridge
Alumni database says that upon his acceptance of the position, reverend Sedgwick had no working knowledge of geology.[4] An 1851 portrait of Sedgwick by William Boxall
William Boxall
hangs in Trinity's collection.[6] Sedgwick studied the geology of the British Isles and Europe. He founded the system for the classification of Cambrian
rocks and with Roderick Murchison
Roderick Murchison
worked out the order of the Carboniferous and underlying Devonian
strata. These studies were mostly carried out in the 1830s.[7] The investigations into the Devonian
meant that Sedgwick was involved with Murchison in a vigorous debate with Henry De la Beche, in what became known as the great Devonian
controversy.[8] Sedgwick investigated the phenomena of metamorphism and concretion, and was the first to distinguish clearly between stratification, jointing, and slaty cleavage. He was elected to Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 February 1821. In 1844, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[9] Sedgwick was an owner of slaves in plantations in Jamaica
and was awarded £3783 in compensation for 174 slaves, following the abolition of slavery by the British government.[10] Geological views and evolution[edit] The Church of England, by no means a fundamentalist or evangelical church, encloses a wide range of beliefs. During Sedgwick's life there developed something of a chasm between the conservative high church believers and the liberal wing.[citation needed] After simmering for some years, the publication of Essays and Reviews
Essays and Reviews
by liberal churchmen in 1860 pinpointed the differences. In all this, Sedgwick, whose science and faith were intertwined in a natural theology, was definitely on the conservative side, and extremely outspoken about it. He told the February 1830 meeting of the Geological Society of London:

"No opinion can be heretical, but that which is not true.... Conflicting falsehoods we can comprehend; but truths can never war against each other. I affirm, therefore, that we have nothing to fear from the results of our enquiries, provided they be followed in the laborious but secure road of honest induction. In this way we may rest assured that we shall never arrive at conclusions opposed to any truth, either physical or moral, from whatever source that truth may be derived".[11]

As a geologist in the mid-1820s he supported William Buckland's interpretation of certain superficial deposits, particularly loose rocks and gravel, as "diluvium" relating to worldwide floods, and in 1825 he published two papers identifying these as due to a "great irregular inundation" from the "waters of a general deluge", Noah's flood. Sedgwick's subsequent investigations and discussions with continental geologists persuaded him that this was problematic. In early 1827, after spending several weeks in Paris, he visited geological features in the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
with Roderick Murchison. He later wrote "If I have been converted in part from the diluvian theory...it was...by my own gradual improved experience, and by communicating with those about me. Perhaps I may date my change of mind (at least in part) from our journey in the Highlands, where there are so many indications of local diluvial operations.... Humboldt ridiculed [the doctrine] beyond measure when I met him in Paris. Prévost lectured against it." In response to Charles Lyell's 1830 publication promoting uniformitarian geology Sedgwick talked of floods at various dates, then on 18 February 1831 when retiring from the Presidency of the Geological Society he recanted his former belief in Buckland's theory.[12] He strongly believed that species of organisms originated in a succession of Divine creative acts throughout the long expanse of history. Any form of development that denied a direct creative action smacked as materialistic and amoral. For Sedgwick, moral truths (the obtainment of which separates man from beast) were to be distinguished from physical truths, and to combine these or blur them together could only lead to disastrous consequences. In fact, one's own hope for immortality may ultimately rest on it. He stated in 1830 that Scriptural geologists proposed "a deformed progeny of heretical and fantastical conclusions, by which sober philosophy has been put to open shame, and sometimes even the charities of life have been exposed to violation."[13] In 1834 he continued, "They have committed the folly and SIN of dogmatizing," having "sinned against plain sense," and "of writing mischievous nonsense," "Their eyes cannot bear to look upon" truth and suppose an "ignorant and dishonest" theory. They show "bigotry and ignorance," of nature's laws and natural phenomena.[14] Henry Cole then responded in 1834 in a 136-page "letter," Popular Geology
Subversive of Divine Revelation.[15] He referred to Sedgwick's ideas as "unscriptural and anti-Christian," "scripture-defying", "revelation-subverting," and "baseless speculations and self-contradictions," which were "impious and infidel".[16] While he became increasingly Evangelical with age, he strongly supported advances in geology against conservative churchmen. At the September 1844 British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting at York
he achieved national celebrity for his reply defending modern geology against an attack by the Dean of York, the Reverend William Cockburn, who described it as unscriptural. The entire chapter house of the cathedral refused to sit down with Sedgwick, and he was opposed by conservative papers including The Times, but his courage was hailed by the full spectrum of the liberal press, and the confrontation was a key moment in the battle over relations between Scripture and science.[17]

Sedgwick in 1867

When Robert Chambers anonymously published his own theory of universal evolutionism as his "development hypothesis" in the book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation published in October 1844 to immediate popular success, Sedgwick's many friends urged him to respond. Like other eminent scientists he initially ignored the book, but the subject kept recurring and he then read it carefully and made a withering attack on the book in the July 1845 edition of the Edinburgh Review. Vestiges "comes before [its readers] with a bright, polished, and many-coloured surface, and the serpent coils a false philosophy, and asks them to stretch out their hands and pluck the forbidden fruit", he wrote in his review.[18] Accepting the arguments in Vestiges was akin to falling from grace and away from God's favour. He lashed out at the book in a letter to Charles Lyell, bemoaning the consequences of it conclusions. "...If the book be true, the labours of sober induction are in vain; religion is a lie; human law is a mass of folly, and a base injustice; morality is moonshine; our labours for the black people of Africa were works of madmen; and man and woman are only better beasts!"[19] Later, Sedgwick added a long preface to the 5th edition of his Discourse on the Studies of the University of Cambridge
(1850), including a lengthy attack on Vestiges and theories of development in general. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
was one of his geology students in 1831, and accompanied him on a field trip to Wales
that summer. The two kept up a correspondence while Darwin was on the Beagle expedition, and afterwards. However, Sedgwick never accepted the case for evolution made in On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
in 1859 any more than he did that in Vestiges in 1844. In response to receiving and reading Darwin's book, he wrote to Darwin saying:

"If I did not think you a good tempered & truth loving man I should not tell you that... I have read your book with more pain than pleasure. Parts of it I admired greatly; parts I laughed at till my sides were almost sore; other parts I read with absolute sorrow; because I think them utterly false & grievously mischievous — You have deserted—after a start in that tram-road of all solid physical truth—the true method of induction—& started up a machinery as wild I think as Bishop Wilkins's locomotive that was to sail with us to the Moon. Many of your wide conclusions are based upon assumptions which can neither be proved nor disproved. Why then express them in the language & arrangements of philosophical induction?"[20]

Sedgwick regarded natural selection as

"but a secondary consequence of supposed, or known, primary facts. Development is a better word because more close to the cause of the fact. For you do not deny causation. I call (in the abstract) causation the will of God: & I can prove that He acts for the good of His creatures. He also acts by laws which we can study & comprehend—Acting by law, & under what is called final cause, comprehends, I think, your whole principle".

He emphasised his distinction between the moral and physical aspects of life, "There is a moral or metaphysical part of nature as well as a physical. A man who denies this is deep in the mire of folly". If humanity broke this distinction it "would suffer a damage that might brutalize it—& sink the human race into a lower grade of degradation than any into which it has fallen since its written records tell us of its history".[20] In a letter to another correspondent, Sedgwick was even harsher on Darwin's book, calling it "utterly false" and writing that "It repudiates all reasoning from final causes; and seems to shut the door on any view (however feeble) of the God of Nature as manifested in His works. From first to last it is a dish of rank materialism cleverly cooked and served up".[21] Despite this difference of opinion, the two men remained friendly until Sedgwick's death. In contrast to Sedgwick, liberal church members (who included biologists such as George Rolleston, William Henry Flower and William Kitchen Parker) were usually comfortable with evolution. Sedgwick Club[edit] The Sedgwick Club, the oldest student-run geological society in the world, was set up in honour of him in 1880.[22] Sedgwick Museum[edit] On the death of Sedgwick it was decided that his memorial should take the form of a new and larger museum. Hitherto the geological collections had been placed in the Woodwardian Museum
Woodwardian Museum
in Cockerell's Building. Through the energy of Professor T. McK. Hughes (successor to Sedgwick) the new building, termed the Sedgwick Museum, was completed and opened in 1903.[23] Sedgwick Prize[edit] In 1865, the University of Cambridge
received from A. A. Van Sittart the sum of 500 pounds sterling "for the purpose of encouraging the study of geology among the resident members of the university, and in honour of the Rev. Adam Sedgwick". Thus was founded the Sedgwick Prize to be given every third year for the best essay on some geological subject.[5] The first Sedgwick Prize was awarded in 1873. Sedgwick Trail[edit] To celebrate the bicentenary of Sedgwick's birth a geological trail was created near Dent, the village where he was born. The Sedgwick Trail follows the River Clough, highlighting rock features and exploring the Dent Fault. Notes[edit]

^ Background note on Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ray Spangenburg, Diane Moser, The Age of Synthesis: 1800–1895. Infobase Publishing. p. 94 ^ Bernard V. Lightman, Bennett Zon. Evolution
and Victorian Culture. Cambridge
University Press, p. 292 ^ a b c "Sedgwick, Adam (SGWK803A)". A Cambridge
Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ a b Bonney 1889. ^ "Trinity College, University of Cambridge". BBC Your Paintings.  ^ von Zittel, Karl Alfred 1901. History of geology and palaeontology to the end of the nineteenth century. Scott, London. p432 ^ Rudwick M.S.J. 1985. The great Devonian
controversy. Chicago. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter S" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 9 September 2016.  ^ "Summary of Individual Legacies of British Slave-ownership". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-01.  ^ Browne 1995, p. 129, Sedgwick, Adam (1830). "Geological Society, Feb. 19 – At the Annual General Meeting of the Society, held on this day, the President, Professor Sedgwick, delivered the following Address from the chair: –". The Philosophical Magazine: Or Annals of Chemistry, Mathematics, Astronomy, Natural History and General Science. 7. Richard Taylor. p. 310.  ^ Herbert 1991, pp. 170–174, Sedgwick, Adam (April 1831). "Address to the Geological Society, delivered on the Evening of the 18th of February 1831, by the Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A. F.R.S. &c. on retiring from the President's chair". Philosophical Magazine. 9. Taylor & Francis. pp. 312–315. Retrieved 13 June 2014.  ^ Sedgwick 1830, p. 310 ^ Sedgwick, Adam (1834). On the Studies of the University. pp. 148–153.  ^ O’Connor 2007, p. 371 ^ Cole 1834, pp. 52, 113 ^ James Secord, Victorian Sensation (2000), pp. 232–233. ^ James Secord, Victorian Sensation (2000), pp. 233, 246. ^ Letter of Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
to Charles Lyell, 9 April 1845, in The Life and Letters of the Rev. Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
vol. 2 (1890), pg. 84. ^ a b "Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 2548 – Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859". Retrieved 24 January 2009.  ^ Letter to Miss Gerard from Adam Sedgwick, 2 January 1860, in The Life and Letters of the Rev. Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
vol. 2 (1890), pgs. 359–360. ^ http://sedgwickclub.soc.srcf.net/index.php ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Archived 20 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.


J.W. Clark and T.M. Hughes, The Life and Letters of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick, Cambridge
University Press, 1890, vols. 1–2. (Reissued by Cambridge
University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01831-9) Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons: 1970–1990; vol. 12, pp. 275–279. A Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, Williams, T. I., Ed., Wiley, 1969, pp. 467–468. Isaac Asimov, I. Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (2nd Ed.), Doubleday: 1982, p. 299. Quart. J. Geol. Soc., 1873, 29, pp. xxx–xxxix.  Bonney, Thomas George (1889). "Sedgwick, Adam". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 17. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 179–182.  " Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
and Dalesman" Colin Speakman Broad Oak Press 1982. "Adam Sedgwick's Dent" A facsimile reprint of 'A Memorial by the Trustees of Cowgill Chapel (1868) and 'Supplement to the Memorial (1870) by Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
with introduction by David Boulton Hollett, Sedbergh and David Boulton Dent 1984. "A Discourse on the Studies of the University" Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
The Victorian Library, Leicester University Press 1969 Browne, E. Janet (1995), Charles Darwin: vol. 1 Voyaging, London: Jonathan Cape, ISBN 1-84413-314-1  Herbert, Sandra (1991), " Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
as a prospective geological author", British Journal for the History of Science, 24, pp. 159–192, doi:10.1017/s0007087400027060, archived from the original on 8 February 2009, retrieved 24 January 2009  Secord, James A. (2000), Victorian Sensation: the extraordinary publication, reception, and secret authorship of Vestiges of the natural history of creation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-74411-6 

External links[edit]

has original works written by or about: Adam Sedgwick

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adam_Sedgwick.

Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge Works by Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
at Internet Archive The life and letters of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
Vol.1 by J.W.Clark, 1890 The life and letters of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
Vol.2 by J.W.Clark, 1890 Obituary in:  "Obituary". Popular Science Monthly. 2. April 1873. 

v t e

Copley Medallists (1851–1900)

Richard Owen
Richard Owen
(1851) Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
(1852) Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
(1853) Johannes Peter Müller
Johannes Peter Müller
(1854) Léon Foucault
Léon Foucault
(1855) Henri Milne-Edwards
Henri Milne-Edwards
(1856) Michel Eugène Chevreul
Michel Eugène Chevreul
(1857) Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
(1858) Wilhelm Eduard Weber
Wilhelm Eduard Weber
(1859) Robert Bunsen
Robert Bunsen
(1860) Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz
(1861) Thomas Graham (1862) Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
(1863) Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(1864) Michel Chasles
Michel Chasles
(1865) Julius Plücker
Julius Plücker
(1866) Karl Ernst von Baer (1867) Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
(1868) Henri Victor Regnault
Henri Victor Regnault
(1869) James Prescott Joule
James Prescott Joule
(1870) Julius Robert von Mayer (1871) Friedrich Wöhler
Friedrich Wöhler
(1872) Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
(1873) Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(1874) August Wilhelm von Hofmann
August Wilhelm von Hofmann
(1875) Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard
(1876) James Dwight Dana
James Dwight Dana
(1877) Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
(1878) Rudolf Clausius
Rudolf Clausius
(1879) James Joseph Sylvester
James Joseph Sylvester
(1880) Charles Adolphe Wurtz
Charles Adolphe Wurtz
(1881) Arthur Cayley
Arthur Cayley
(1882) William Thomson (1883) Carl Ludwig
Carl Ludwig
(1884) Friedrich August Kekulé
August Kekulé
von Stradonitz (1885) Franz Ernst Neumann
Franz Ernst Neumann
(1886) Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
(1887) Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1888) George Salmon
George Salmon
(1889) Simon Newcomb
Simon Newcomb
(1890) Stanislao Cannizzaro
Stanislao Cannizzaro
(1891) Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
(1892) George Gabriel Stokes (1893) Edward Frankland
Edward Frankland
(1894) Karl Weierstrass
Karl Weierstrass
(1895) Karl Gegenbaur
Karl Gegenbaur
(1896) Albert von Kölliker
Albert von Kölliker
(1897) William Huggins
William Huggins
(1898) John William Strutt (1899) Marcellin Berthelot
Marcellin Berthelot

v t e

Presidents of the Geological Society of London

19th century

George Bellas Greenough Henry Grey Bennet William Blake John MacCulloch George Bellas Greenough Earl Compton William Babington William Buckland John Bostock William Fitton Adam Sedgwick Roderick Murchison George Bellas Greenough Charles Lyell William Whewell William Buckland Roderick Murchison Henry Warburton Leonard Horner Henry De la Beche Charles Lyell William Hopkins Edward Forbes William Hamilton Daniel Sharpe Joseph Ellison Portlock John Phillips Leonard Horner Andrew Crombie Ramsay William Hamilton Warington Wilkinson Smyth Thomas Henry Huxley Joseph Prestwich George Douglas Campbell John Evans Peter Martin Duncan Henry Clifton Sorby Robert Etheridge John Whitaker Hulke Thomas Bonney John Wesley Judd William Blanford Archibald Geikie Wilfred Hudleston Henry Woodward Henry Hicks William Whitaker

20th century

Jethro Teall Charles Lapworth John Marr Archibald Geikie William Sollas William Watts Aubrey Strahan Arthur Smith Woodward Alfred Harker George Lamplugh Richard Oldham Albert Seward John Evans Francis Bather John Gregory Edmund Garwood Thomas Holland John Green Owen Thomas Jones Henry Hurd Swinnerton Percy Boswell Herbert Leader Hawkins William Fearnsides Arthur Trueman Herbert Harold Read Cecil Tilley Owen Thomas Jones George Lees William King Walter Campbell Smith Leonard Hawkes James Stubblefield Sydney Hollingworth Oliver Bulman Frederick Shotton Kingsley Dunham Thomas Neville George William Alexander Deer Thomas Westoll Percy Kent Wallace Pitcher Percival Allen Howel Francis Janet Watson Charles Holland Bernard Leake Derek Blundell Anthony Harris Charles Curtis R. S. J. Sparks Richard Hardman Robin Cocks

21st century

Ronald Oxburgh Mark Moody-Stuart Peter Styles Richard Fortey Lynne Frostick

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64179295 LCCN: n83135443 ISNI: 0000 0000 8143 7562 GND: 119369567 SUDOC: 055320899 BNF: cb136074639 (data) MGP: 102043 NLA: 35487