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ADAM AND EVE, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions , were the first man and woman and the ancestors of all humans. The story of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
is central to the belief that God created human beings in the Garden of Eden , although they fell away from that state into the present world full of death, wickedness, pain and suffering. It provides the basis for the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors. It also provides much of the scriptural basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity
Christianity
, but which are not generally held in Judaism or Islam
Islam
.

In the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, chapters one through five, there are two creation narratives with two distinct perspectives. In the first, Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are not mentioned (at least not mentioned by name). Instead, God created humankind in God\'s image and instructed them to multiply and to be stewards over everything else that God had made. In the second narrative, God fashions Adam from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden . Adam
Adam
is told that he can till the ground and eat freely of all the trees in the garden, except for a tree of the knowledge of good and evil . Subsequently, Eve
Eve
is created from one of Adam's ribs to be Adam's companion. They are innocent and unembarrassed about their nakedness. However, a serpent deceives Eve
Eve
into eating fruit from the forbidden tree, and she gives some of the fruit to Adam. These acts give them additional knowledge, but it gives them the ability to conjure negative and destructive concepts such as shame and evil . God later curses the serpent and the ground. God prophetically tells the woman and the man what will be the consequences of their sin of disobeying God. Then he banishes them from the Garden of Eden.

The story underwent extensive elaboration in later Abrahamic traditions, and it has been extensively analyzed by modern biblical scholars. Interpretations and beliefs regarding Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
and the story revolving around them vary across religions and sects; for example, the Islamic version of the story holds that Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
were equally responsible for their sins of hubris , instead of Eve
Eve
being the first one to be unfaithful. The story of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
is often depicted in art, and it has had an important influence in literature and poetry. The story of the fall of Adam
Adam
is often understood to be an allegory.

There is no physical evidence that Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
ever literally existed, and their literal existence is incompatible with human evolutionary genetics . However, there is in some countries a large discrepancy between the scientific consensus and popular opinion; a 2014 poll reports that 56% of Americans believe that " Adam
Adam
and Eve were real people", and 44% believe so with strong or absolute certainty.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(Old Testament)

* 2.1 Creation narrative * 2.2 Eden narrative (the Fall) * 2.3 Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
and the Generations of Adam
Adam
* 2.4 The Fall and expulsion from Eden * 2.5 Offspring

* 3 In other works

* 4 Abrahamic traditions

* 4.1 Judaism * 4.2 Christianity
Christianity
* 4.3 Islam
Islam
* 4.4 Gnostic traditions * 4.5 Bahá\'í Faith

* 5 Dating Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve

* 6 Physical evidence

* 6.1 Scientific incompatibility * 6.2 Y-chromosomal Adam
Adam
and Mitochondrial Eve
Eve
* 6.3 Impact on religion

* 7 Arts and literature

* 7.1 Image gallery

* 8 See also * 9 Notes

* 10 References

* 10.1 Bibliography

* 11 External links

ORIGINS

The Creation of Adam
Adam
depicted in the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
by Michelangelo
Michelangelo

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are figures from the Primeval History (Genesis 1 to 11), the Bible's mythic history of the first years of the world\'s existence . The History tells how God creates the world and all its beings and places the first man and woman ( Adam
Adam
and Eve) in his Garden of Eden , how the first couple are expelled from God's presence, of the first murder which follows, and God's decision to destroy the world and save only the righteous Noah and his sons; a new humanity then descends from these sons and spreads throughout the world, but although the new world is as sinful as the old God has resolved never again to destroy the world by flood, and the History ends with Terah, the father of Abraham, from whom will descend God's chosen people, the Israelites .

The Primeval History forms the opening chapters of the Torah
Torah
, the five books making up the history of the origins of Israel. This achieved something like its current form in the 5th century BCE, but Genesis 1-11 shows little relationship to the rest of the Bible: for example, the names of its characters and its geography - Adam
Adam
(man) and Eve
Eve
(life), the Land of Nod ("Wandering"), and so on - are symbolic rather than real, and almost none of the persons, places and stories mentioned in it are ever met anywhere else. This has led scholars to suppose that the History forms a late composition attached to Genesis and the Pentateuch to serve as an introduction. Just how late is a subject for debate: at one extreme are those who see it as a product of the Hellenistic period, in which case it cannot be earlier than the first decades of the 4th century BCE; on the other hand the Yahwist source has been dated by some scholars, notably John Van Seters , to the exilic pre-Persian period (the 6th century BCE) precisely because the Primeval History contains so much Babylonian influence in the form of myth. The Primeval History draws on two distinct "sources", the Priestly source and what is sometimes called the Yahwist source and sometimes simply the "non-Priestly"; for the purpose of discussing Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
the terms "non-Priestly" and "Yahwist" can be regarded as interchangeable.

ADAM AND EVE IN THE HEBREW BIBLE (OLD TESTAMENT)

God Judging Adam William Blake
William Blake
, 1795 Tate Collection Main articles: Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
, Adam
Adam
, and Eve
Eve

CREATION NARRATIVE

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are the Bible's first man and first woman. Adam's name appears first in Genesis 1 with a collective sense, as "mankind"; subsequently in Genesis 2-3 it carries the definite article ha, equivalent to English "the", indicating that this is "the man". In these chapters God fashions "the man" (ha adam) from earth (adamah), breathes life into his nostrils, and makes him a caretaker over creation. God next creates for the man an ezer kenegdo, a "helper corresponding to him", from his side or rib. She is called issa, "woman", because, the text says, she is formed from is, "man". The man receives her with joy, and the reader is told that from this moment a man will leave his parents to "cling" to a woman, the two becoming one flesh.

EDEN NARRATIVE (THE FALL)

The first man and woman are in God's garden of Eden , where all creation is vegetarian and there is no violence. They are permitted to eat of all the trees save one, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil , the woman is tempted by a talking serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, and gives some to the man, who eats also. (Contrary to popular myth she does not beguile the man, who appears to have been present at the encounter with the serpent). God curses all three, the man to a lifetime of hard labour followed by death, the woman to the pain of childbirth and to subordination to her husband, and the serpent to go on his belly and suffer the enmity of both man and woman. God then clothes the nakedness of the man and woman, who have become god-like in knowing good and evil, from the garden lest they eat the fruit of a second tree, the tree of life , unmentioned up to this point, and live forever.

CAIN AND ABEL AND THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM

Genesis 4 introduces the humans in their life outside God's garden. The chapter deals with the birth of Adam's sons Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
and the story of the first murder, followed by the birth of a third son, Seth. Genesis 5, the Book of the Generations of Adam, lists the descendants of Adam
Adam
from Seth
Seth
to Noah with their ages at the birth of their first sons (except Adam
Adam
himself, for whom his age at the birth of Seth, his third son, is given) and their ages at death (Adam's lives 930 years, which would mean that he died only shortly before the Flood). The chapter notes that Adam
Adam
had other sons and daughters after Seth, but does not name them. Adam
Adam
has already named the woman Eve
Eve
at the end of the Eden narrative, and in Genesis 4:25 and for the first time, he is called Adam
Adam
as a personal name.

THE FALL AND EXPULSION FROM EDEN

Main article: Fall of man

The Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
story continues in Genesis 3 with the "expulsion from Eden " narrative. A form analysis of Genesis 3 reveals that this portion of the story can be characterized as a parable or "wisdom tale" in the wisdom tradition . The poetic addresses of the chapter belong to a speculative type of wisdom that questions the paradoxes and harsh realities of life. This characterization is determined by the narrative's format, settings , and the plot . The form of Genesis 3 is also shaped by its vocabulary, making use of various puns and double entendres . The chapter is said to date to around 900s BCE during the reigns of King David or Solomon . The documentary hypothesis for this narrative portion can be attributed to Yahwist (J) , due to the use of the tetragrammaton .

The expulsion from Eden narrative begins with a dialogue between the woman and a serpent, identified in Genesis 3:1 as an animal that was more crafty than any other animal made by God, although Genesis does not identify the serpent with Satan
Satan
. :16 The woman is willing to talk to the serpent and respond to the creature's cynicism by repeating God's prohibition against eating fruit from the tree of knowledge (Genesis 2:17). The woman is lured into dialogue on the serpent's terms which directly disputes God's command. The serpent assures the woman that God will not let her die if she ate the fruit, and, furthermore, that if she ate the fruit, her "eyes would be opened" and she would "be like God, knowing good and evil" (Genesis 3:5). The woman sees that the fruit of the tree of knowledge is a delight to the eye and that it would be desirable to acquire wisdom by eating the fruit. The woman eats the fruit and gives some to the man (Genesis 3:6). With this the man and woman recognize their own nakedness, and they make loincloths of fig leaves (Genesis 3:7).

In the next narrative dialogue, God questions the man and the woman (Genesis 3:8–13), and God initiates a dialogue by calling out to the man with a rhetorical question designed to consider his wrongdoing. The man explains that he hid in the garden out of fear because he realized his own nakedness (Genesis 3:10). This is followed by two more rhetorical questions designed to show awareness of a defiance of God's command. The man then points to the woman as the real offender, and he implies that God is responsible for the tragedy because the woman was given to him by God (Genesis 3:12). God challenges the woman to explain herself, whereby she shifts the blame to the serpent (Genesis 3:13). The Fall of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
as depicted in the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
by Michelangelo
Michelangelo

Divine pronouncement of three judgments are then laid against all the culprits, Genesis 3:14–19. A judgement oracle and the nature of the crime is first laid upon the serpent, then the woman, and, finally, the man. On the serpent, God places a divine curse . The woman receives penalties that impact her in two primary roles: she shall experience pangs during childbearing, pain during childbirth, and while she shall desire her husband, he will rule over her. The man's penalty results in God cursing the ground from which he came, and the man then receives a death oracle, although the man has not been described, in the text, as immortal. :18; Abruptly, in the flow of text, in Genesis 3:20, the man names the woman "Eve", (Heb. hawwah) "because she was the mother of all living " and Adam
Adam
receives his name "the man", changing from "eth-ha'adham", before the fall to "ha'Adham" (with article/command), to Adam
Adam
after the fall (disobedience). God makes skin garments for Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(Genesis 3:20).

The chiasmus structure of the death oracle given to Adam
Adam
in Genesis 3:19, is a link between man's creation from "dust" (Genesis 2:7) to the "return" of his beginnings: " you return, to the ground, since from it you were taken, for dust you are, and to dust, you will return."

The garden account ends with an intradivine monologue, determining the couple's expulsion, and the execution of that deliberation (Genesis 3:22–24}. The reason given for the expulsion was to prevent the man from eating from the tree of life and becoming immortal: "Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever" (Genesis 3:22). :18; God exiles Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
from the Garden and installs cherubs (supernatural beings that provide protection) and the "ever-turning sword" to guard the entrance (Genesis 3:24).

OFFSPRING

Genesis 4 tells of the birth of Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
, Adam
Adam
and Eve's first children, while Genesis 5 gives Adam's genealogy past that. Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are listed as having three children, Cain, Abel and Seth
Seth
, then "other sons and daughters", Genesis 5:4. According to the Book of Jubilees (which is usually not considered canonical), Cain married his sister Awan , a daughter of Adam
Adam
and Eve.

IN OTHER WORKS

Certain concepts, such as the serpent being identified as Satan
Satan
, Eve being a sexual temptation, or Adam's first wife being Lilith , come from literary works found in various Jewish apocrypha , but they are not found anywhere in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
or the Torah
Torah
itself. Writings dealing with these subjects are extant literature in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian, and Arabic, extending back to ancient Jewish thought. The concepts are not part of Rabbinic Judaism , but they did influence Christian theology, and this marks a radical split between the two religions. Some of the oldest Jewish portions of apocrypha are called Primary Adam
Adam
Literature where some works became Christianized. Examples of Christianized works are Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
, Conflict of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
with Satan
Satan
and an original Syriac work entitled Cave of Treasures which has close affinities to the Conflict as noted by August Dillmann .

Some modern scholars, such as James Barr , Moshe Greenberg , and Michael Fishbane , see the story of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
as a representation of a rise to moral agency, at least as much as, if not more than the story of a fall from grace. Carol Meyers and Bruce Naidoff view the tale as an explanation of agricultural conditions in the highlands of Canaan
Canaan
.

ABRAHAMIC TRADITIONS

JUDAISM

For the Jewish Weekly Torah
Torah
portion , see Bereshit (parsha) § Third reading , and Bereshit (parsha) § Fourth reading .

It was also recognized in ancient Judaism , that there are two distinct accounts for the creation of man. The first account says "male and female created them", implying simultaneous creation, whereas the second account states that God created Eve
Eve
subsequent to the creation of Adam. The Midrash Rabbah – Genesis VIII:1 reconciled the two by stating that Genesis one, "male and female He created them", indicates that God originally created Adam
Adam
as a hermaphrodite , bodily and spiritually both male and female, before creating the separate beings of Adam
Adam
and Eve. Other rabbis suggested that Eve
Eve
and the woman of the first account were two separate individuals, the first being identified as Lilith , a figure elsewhere described as a night demon.

According to traditional Jewish belief, Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are buried in the Cave of Machpelah , in Hebron
Hebron
.

In Reform Judaism , Harry Orlinsky analyzes the Hebrew word nefesh in Genesis 2:7 where "God breathes into the man's nostrils and he becomes nefesh hayya ." Orlinksy argues that the earlier translation of the phrase "living soul" is incorrect. He points out that "nefesh" signifies something like the English word "being", in the sense of a corporeal body capable of life; the concept of a "soul " in the modern sense, did not exist in Hebrew thought until around the 2nd century B.C., when the idea of a bodily resurrection gained popularity.

CHRISTIANITY

Adam, Eve, and the (female) Serpent (often identified as Lilith ) at the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris Main articles: Fall of man and Original sin
Original sin

Some early fathers of the Christian church held Eve
Eve
responsible for the Fall of man and all subsequent women to be the first sinners because Eve
Eve
tempted Adam
Adam
to commit the taboo. "You are the devil's gateway" Tertullian
Tertullian
told his female listeners in the early 2nd century, and went on to explain that they were responsible for the death of Christ: "On account of your desert , even the Son of God had to die." In 1486, the Dominicans Kramer and Sprengler used similar tracts in Malleus Maleficarum ("Hammer of Witches") to justify the persecution of "witches".

Medieval Christian art often depicted the Edenic Serpent as a woman (often identified as Lilith ), thus both emphasizing the Serpent's seductiveness as well as its relationship to Eve. Several early Church Fathers , including Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
and Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
, interpreted the Hebrew "Heva" as not only the name of Eve, but in its aspirated form as "female serpent."

Based on the Christian doctrine of the Fall of man , came the doctrine of original sin . St Augustine of Hippo (354–430), working with a Latin translation of the Epistle to the Romans , interpreted the Apostle Paul as having said that Adam's sin was hereditary: "Death passed upon all men because of Adam, all sinned", Romans 5:12 Original sin
Original sin
became a concept that man is born into a condition of sinfulness and must await redemption. This doctrine became a cornerstone of Western Christian theological tradition, however, not shared by Judaism or the Orthodox churches.

Over the centuries, a system of unique Christian beliefs had developed from these doctrines. Baptism
Baptism
became understood as a washing away of the stain of hereditary sin in many churches, although its original symbolism was apparently rebirth. Additionally, the serpent that tempted Eve
Eve
was interpreted to have been Satan
Satan
, or that Satan was using a serpent as a mouthpiece , although there is no mention of this identification in the Torah
Torah
and it is not held in Judaism.

Conservative Protestants typically interpret Genesis 3 as defining humanity's original parents as Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
who disobeyed God's prime directive that they were not to eat "the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" (NIV). When they disobeyed, they committed a major transgression against God and were immediately punished, which led to "the fall " of humanity. Thus, sin and death entered the universe for the first time. Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
were ejected from the Garden of Eden, never to return.

ISLAM

Main article: Biblical narratives and the Quran
Quran
§ Adam
Adam
and Eve (آدم Adam
Adam
and حواء Hawwaa) Painting from Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), depicting Adam
Adam
and Eve. From Maragheh in Iran, 1294–99

In Islam
Islam
, Adam
Adam
(Ādam; Arabic : آدم‎‎), whose role is being the father of humanity , is looked upon by Muslims with reverence. Eve (Ḥawwāʼ; Arabic : حواء ) is the "mother of humanity." The creation of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
is referred to in the Qurʼān, although different Qurʼanic interpreters give different views on the actual creation story (Qurʼan, Surat al-Nisaʼ, verse 1).

In al-Qummi\'s tafsir on the Garden of Eden , such place was not entirely earthly. According to the Qurʼān, both Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
ate the forbidden fruit in a Heavenly Eden (See also Jannah ). As a result, they were both sent down to Earth as God's representatives. Each person was sent to a mountain peak: Adam
Adam
on al-Safa , and Eve
Eve
on al-Marwah . In this Islamic tradition, Adam
Adam
wept 40 days until he repented, after which God sent down the Black Stone
Black Stone
, teaching him the Hajj
Hajj
. According to a prophetic hadith , Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
reunited in the plain of ʻArafat, near Mecca
Mecca
. They had two sons together, Qabil and Habil . There is also a legend of a younger son, named Rocail, who created a palace and sepulcher containing autonomous statues that lived out the lives of men so realistically they were mistaken for having souls.

The concept of "original sin" does not exist in Islam
Islam
, because according to Islam
Islam
Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
were forgiven by God. When God orders the angels to bow to Adam, Iblīs questioned, "Why should I bow to man? I am made of pure fire and he is made of soil." The liberal movements within Islam
Islam
have viewed God's commanding the angels to bow before Adam
Adam
as an exaltation of humanity, and as a means of supporting human rights ; others view it as an act of showing Adam
Adam
that the biggest enemy of humans on earth will be their ego.

GNOSTIC TRADITIONS

See also: Gnostics

Gnostic Christianity
Christianity
discussed Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in two known surviving texts, namely the "Apocalypse of Adam
Adam
" found in the Nag Hammadi documents and the "Testament of Adam
Adam
". The creation of Adam
Adam
as Protoanthropos , the original man, is the focal concept of these writings.

Another Gnostic tradition held that Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
were created to help defeat Satan. The serpent, instead of being identified with Satan, is seen as a hero by the Ophites . Still other Gnostics believed that Satan's fall, however, came after the creation of humanity. As in Islamic tradition, this story says that Satan
Satan
refused to bow to Adam due to pride. Satan
Satan
said that Adam
Adam
was inferior to him as he was made of fire, whereas Adam
Adam
was made of clay. This refusal led to the fall of Satan
Satan
recorded in works such as the Book of Enoch
Book of Enoch
.

BAHá\'í FAITH

In the Bahá\'í Faith , the Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
narrative is seen as symbolic. In Some Answered Questions
Some Answered Questions
, \'Abdu\'l-Bahá rejects a literal reading and states that the story contains "divine mysteries and universal meanings". Adam
Adam
symbolizes the "heavenly spirit", Eve symbolizes the "human soul", the Tree of Knowledge symbolizes "the human world", and the serpent symbolizes "attachment to the human world". The fall of Adam
Adam
thus represents the way humanity became conscious of good and evil.

DATING ADAM AND EVE

Main article: Chronology of the Bible

The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
) contains an internal Anno Mundi chronology, meaning one which commences with the creation of the world . Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are created on the sixth day of the first year of creation, i.e., in AM 1. Many attempts have been made over many centuries to identify AM 1 with real history, but the authors of the Bible were describing a mythical past which ended with the rededication of the Temple in 164 BCE – history, according to the mythical scheme adopted, began an ideal four thousand years in the past.

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

See also: Relationship between religion and science

SCIENTIFIC INCOMPATIBILITY

The story of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
contradicts the scientific consensus that humans evolved from earlier species of hominids and is incompatible with human evolutionary genetics ; in particular, if all humans descended from two individuals that lived several thousand years ago, the observed variation would require an impossibly high mutation rate. This entails a lower bound on the size of the ancestral group, currently thought to be of the order of 10,000 individuals.

Y-CHROMOSOMAL ADAM AND MITOCHONDRIAL EVE

The names Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
are used metaphorically in a scientific context to designate the patrilineal and matrilineal most recent common ancestors , the Y-chromosomal Adam
Adam
and the Mitochondrial Eve
Eve
. Those are not fixed individuals, nor is there any reason to assume that they lived at the same time, let alone that they met or formed a couple. A recent study on the subject estimates that the Y-chromosomal Adam
Adam
lived in prehistory 120 to 156 thousand years ago, while the Mitochondrial Eve
Eve
lived 99 to 148 thousand years ago. Another recent study places the Y-chromosomal Adam
Adam
180 to 200 thousand years ago.

IMPACT ON RELIGION

The evidence against Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
existing has caused many Christians to move away from a literal interpretation and belief in the Genesis creation narrative to an allegorical approach , while others continue to believe in what they see as fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith. In particular the evidence for their non-existence casts doubt on original sin and the origin and nature of evil .

ARTS AND LITERATURE

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
were used by early Renaissance artists as a theme to represent female and male nudes. Later, the nudity was objected to by more modest elements, and fig leaves were added to the older pictures and sculptures, covering their genitals . The choice of the fig was a result of Mediterranean traditions identifying the unnamed Tree of Knowledge as a fig tree, and since fig leaves were actually mentioned in Genesis as being used to cover Adam
Adam
and Eve's nudity.

Treating the concept of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
as the historical truth introduces some logical dilemmas. One such dilemma is whether they should be depicted with navels (the Omphalos theory ). Since they did not develop in a uterus, they would not have been connected to an umbilical cord like all other humans. Paintings without navels looked unnatural and some artists obscure that area of their bodies, sometimes by depicting them covering up that area of their body with their hand or some other intervening object.

John Milton
John Milton
's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
, a famous 17th-century epic poem written in blank verse , explores and elaborates upon the story of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in great detail. As opposed to the Biblical Adam, Milton's Adam
Adam
is given a glimpse of the future of mankind, by the archangel Michael , before he has to leave Paradise.

American painter Thomas Cole
Thomas Cole
painted The Garden of Eden (1828), with lavish detail of the first couple living amid waterfalls, vivid plants, and attractive deer.

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
wrote humorous and satirical diaries for Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in both Eve\'s Diary (1906) and The Private Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1931), posthumously published.

C. L. Moore 's 1940 story Fruit of Knowledge is a re-telling of the Fall of Man as a love triangle between Lilith , Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
– with Eve's eating the forbidden fruit being in this version the result of misguided manipulations by the jealous Lilith, who had hoped to get her rival discredited and destroyed by God and thus regain Adam's love.

In Stephen Schwartz 's musical Children of Eden
Children of Eden
, "Father" (God) creates Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
at the same time and considers them His children. They even assist Him in naming the animals. When Eve
Eve
is tempted by the serpent and eats the forbidden fruit, Father makes Adam
Adam
choose between Him and Eden, or Eve. Adam
Adam
chooses Eve
Eve
and eats the fruit, causing Father to banish them into the wilderness and destroying the Tree of Knowledge, from which Adam
Adam
carves a staff. Eve
Eve
gives birth to Cain and Abel, and Adam
Adam
forbids his children from going beyond the waterfall in hopes Father will forgive them and bring them back to Eden. When Cain and Abel grow up, Cain breaks his promise and goes beyond the waterfall, finding the giant stones made by other humans, which he brings the family to see, and Adam
Adam
reveals his discovery from the past: during their infancy, he discovered these humans, but had kept it secret. He tries to forbid Cain from seeking them out, which causes Cain to become enraged and he tries to attack Adam, but instead turns his rage to Abel when he tries to stop him and kills him. Later, when an elderly Eve
Eve
tries to speak to Father, she tells how Adam continually looked for Cain, and after many years, he dies and is buried underneath the waterfall. Eve
Eve
also gave birth to Seth, which expanded hers and Adam's generations. Finally, Father speaks to her to bring her home. Before she dies, she gives her blessings to all her future generations, and passes Adam's staff to Seth. Father embraces Eve
Eve
and she also reunited with Adam
Adam
and Abel. Smaller casts of the American version usually have the actors cast as Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
double as Noah and Mama Noah.

John William "Uncle Jack" Dey painted " Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
Leave Eden" (1973), using stripes and dabs of pure color to evoke Eden's lush surroundings.

In C.S.Lewis ' Science Fiction novel " Perelandra ", the story of Adam and Eve
Eve
is re-enacted on the Planet Venus
Venus
- but with a different ending. A green-skinned pair, who are destined to be the ancestors of Venusian humanity, are living in naked innocence on wonderful floating islands which are the Venusian Eden; a demonically-possessed Earth scientist arrives in a spaceship, acting the part of the snake and trying to tempt the Venusian Eve
Eve
into disobeying God; but the protagonist, Cambridge scholar Ransom, succeeds in thwarting him - so that Venusian humanity will have a glorious future, free of Original Sin .

IMAGE GALLERY

*

The Woman, the Man, and the Serpent by Byam Shaw *

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
by Titian
Titian
*

Depiction of the Fall in Kunsthalle Hamburg , by Master Bertram *

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
by Albrecht Dürer *

Eve
Eve
giving Adam
Adam
the forbidden fruit, by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
*

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
from a copy of the Falnama (Book of Omens) ascribed to Ja´far al-Sadiq, ca. 1550, Safavid dynasty , Iran *

Detail of a stained glass window (12th century) in Saint-Julien cathedral - Le Mans, France *

Adam
Adam
">

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
by Maarten van Heemskerck
Maarten van Heemskerck
*

Early Christian depiction of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in the Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter *

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
Driven From Paradise by James Tissot
James Tissot
*

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
depicted in a mural in Abreha wa Atsbeha Church, Ethiopia

SEE ALSO

* Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(LDS Church) * Ask and Embla , the first two humans created by Norse gods * Balbira ">

* ^ See John Van Seters, "Prologue to History: The Yahwist as Historian in Genesis (1992), pp.80, 155-156.

REFERENCES

* ^ Womack, Mari (2005). Symbols and meaning : a concise introduction. Walnut Creek ... : Altamira Press. p. 81. ISBN 0759103224 . Retrieved 16 August 2013. Creation myths are symbolic stories describing how the universe and its inhabitants came to be. Creation myths develop through oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions. * ^ A B C D Levenson, Jon D. (2004). "Genesis: introduction and annotations". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195297515 . * ^ Graves, Robert; Patai, Raphael (1986). Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis. Random House. p. 315. ISBN 9780795337154 . * ^ Schwartz, Howard; Loebel-Fried, Caren; Ginsburg, Elliot K. (2007). Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford University Press. p. 704. ISBN 9780195358704 . * ^ George, Arthur; George, Elena (2014). The Mythology of Eden. Hamilton Books. p. 458. ISBN 9780761862895 . * ^ Leeming, David (2010). Creation Myths of the World: Parts I-II. p. 303. * ^ Azra, Azyumardi (2009). "Chapter 14. Trialogue of Abrahamic Faiths: Towards an Alliance of Civilizations". In Ma'oz, Moshe. The Meeting of Civilizations. Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Eastbourne
Eastbourne
: Sussex Academic Press. pp. 220–229. ISBN 978-1-845-19395-9 . ISBN 1-84519395-4 . * ^ Alfred J., Kolatch (1985). The Second Jewish Book of Why (2nd, revised ed.). New York City: Jonathan David Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-824-60305-2 . Excerpt in Judaism\'s Rejection Of Original Sin. * ^ "Creationism Poll, BioLogos Foundation, 2014 (analysis by Slate.com)". * ^ Blenkinsopp 2011 , p. ix. * ^ Blenkinsopp 2011 , p. 1. * ^ Enns 2012 , p. 5. * ^ Sailhamer 2010 , p. 301 and fn.35. * ^ A B Blenkinsopp 2011 , p. 2. * ^ Sailhamer 2010 , p. 301. * ^ Gmirkin 2006 , p. 240-241. * ^ Gmirkin 2006 , p. 6. * ^ Carr 2000 , p. 492. * ^ A B C Hearne 1990 , p. 9. * ^ A B C D E F G Galambush 2000 , p. 436. * ^ Alter 2008 , p. 27-28. * ^ Freedman, Meyers, Patrick (1983). Carol L. Meyers ; Michael Patrick O'Connor; David Noel Freedman , eds. The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman . Eisenbrauns . pp. 343–344. ISBN 9780931464195 . * ^ Kristen E. Kvam; Linda S. Schearing; Valarie H. Ziegler, eds. (1999). Eve
Eve
and Adam
Adam
: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Muslim
readings on Genesis and gender. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Indiana University Press
. p. 16. ISBN 9780253212719 . * ^ Reed, A. Y. (September 20, 2004). "Source Criticism, the Documentary Hypothesis, and Genesis 1–3" (PDF). RS 2DD3 – Five Books of Moses. * ^ A B C D Mathews 1996 , p. 226 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 235 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 236 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 237 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 240 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 241 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 242 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 243 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 248 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 252 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 253 * ^ Addis, Edward (1893). The Documents of the Hexateuch, Volume 1. Putnam. pp. 4–7. * ^ Weinstein, Brian (2010). 54 Torah
Torah
Talks: From Layperson to Layperson. iUniverse. p. 4. ISBN 9781440192555 . * ^ The Empowerment of Women in the Book of Jubilees – Page 17, Betsy Halpern Amaru – 1999 * ^ First translated by August Dillmann (Das christl. Adambuch des Morgenlandes, 1853), and the Ethiopic book first edited by Trump (Abh. d. Münch. Akad. xv., 1870–1881). * ^ Die Schatzhöhle translated by Carl Bezold from three Syriac MSS (1883), edited in Syriac (1888). * ^ Title = Revelation and Authority: Sinai in Jewish Scripture and Tradition Author = Benjamin D. Sommer Pub = The Anchor Yale Bible Reference Library Date = June 30, 2015 pg = 20 * ^ Howard Schwartz (September 2004). "173". Tree of Souls : The Mythology of Judaism: The Mythology of Judaism. p. 138. ISBN 0195086791 . Retrieved 27 December 2014. The myth of Adam
Adam
the Hermaphrodite
Hermaphrodite
grows out of three biblical verses * ^ Harry Orlinsky 's Notes to the NJPS Torah * ^ "Tertullian, "De Cultu Feminarum", Book I Chapter I, \'\'Modesty in Apparel Becoming to Women in Memory of the Introduction of Sin Through a Woman\'\' (in "The Ante-Nicene Fathers")". Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2014-02-17. * ^ Fox, Robin Lane (2006) . The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
Limited. pp. 15–27. ISBN 9780141925752 . * ^ Robinson, B.A. "Salvation: Teachings by Southern Baptists and other conservative Protestant denominations". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2010. Accessed 2 Feb 2013 * ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, Wheeler, Adam
Adam
and Eve * ^ Quran
Quran
4:1:O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife Hawwa (Eve) , and from them both He created many men and women; * ^ Mecca
Mecca
and Eden: Ritual, Relics, and Territory in Islam
Islam
– Brannon M. Wheeler – Google Books. Books.google.com.qa. 2006-07. ISBN 9780226888040 . Retrieved 2014-02-17. Check date values in: date= (help ) * ^ William Godwin (1876). "Lives of the Necromancers". * ^ Quran
Quran
7:12 * ^ Javed Ahmed Ghamidi
Javed Ahmed Ghamidi
, Mizan. Lahore: Dar al-Ishraq, 2001 * ^ Sours, Michael (2001). The Tablet of the Holy Mariner: An Illustrated Guide to Baha\'u\'llah\'s Mystical Work in the Sufi Tradition. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press. p. 86. ISBN 1-890688-19-3 . * ^ Some Answered Questions: Adam
Adam
Eve. Author: \'Abdu\'l-Bahá . * ^ Momen, Wendy (1989). A Basic Bahá'í Dictionary. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 8. ISBN 0-85398-231-7 . * ^ McLean, Jack (1997). Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá\'í Theology – Volume 8. p. 215. * ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Adam". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 23. ISBN 1-85168-184-1 . * ^ Dilley, Stephen C. (2013). Darwinian Evolution and Classical Liberalism: Theories in Tension. Lexington Books. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0739181068 . * ^ A B C Barbara Bradley Hagerty (August 9, 2011). "Evangelicals Question The Existence Of Adam
Adam
And Eve". All Things Considered . Transcript * ^ Takahata, N (January 1993), "Allelic genealogy and human evolution", Mol. Biol. Evol., 10 (1): 2–22, PMID 8450756 "" * ^ Cruciani, F; Trombetta, B; Massaia, A; Destro-Bisol, G; Sellitto, D; Scozzari, R (June 10, 2011), "A Revised Root for the Human
Human
Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa", The American Journal of Human
Human
Genetics, 88 (6): 814–818, PMC 3113241  , PMID 21601174 , doi :10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002 * ^ Poznik, G. David; Henn, Brenna M.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Euskirchen, Ghia M.; Lin, Alice A.; Snyder, Michael; Quintana-Murci,, Lluis; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Underhill, Peter A.; Bustamante, Carlos D. (2 August 2013). "Sequencing Y Chromosomes Resolves Discrepancy in Time to Common Ancestor of Males Versus Females" . Science. 341 (6145): 562–565. PMC 4032117  . PMID 23908239 . doi :10.1126/science.1237619 . * ^ Francalacci, Paolo; Morelli, Laura; Angius, Andrea; Berutti, Riccardo; Reinier, Frederic; Atzeni, Rossano; Pilu, Rosella; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Zara, Ilenia; Sanna, Daria; Useli, Antonella; Urru, Maria Francesca; Marcelli, Marco; Cusano, Roberto; Oppo, Manuela; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Pitzalis, Maristella; Deidda, Francesca; Porcu, Eleonora; Poddie, Fausto; Kang, Hyun Min; Lyons, Robert; Tarrier, Brendan; Gresham, Jennifer Bragg; Li, Bingshan; Tofanelli, Sergio; Alonso, Santos; Dei, Mariano; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Whalen, Michael B.; Uzzau, Sergio; Jones, Chris; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Cucca, Francesco (2 August 2013). "Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny". Science. 341 (6145): 565–569. PMID 23908240 . doi :10.1126/science.1237947 . * ^ Exhibit at the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth , Texas
Texas
* ^ " Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
Leave Eden". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved 11 February 2014.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Galambush, Julie (2000). "Eve". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053565032 . * Hearne, Stephen Z. (1990). "Adam". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737 . * Hendel, Ronald S (2000). "Adam". In David Noel Freedman. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053565032 . * Mathews, K. A. (1996). Genesis 1–11:26. B&H Publishing Group
B&H Publishing Group
. ISBN 978-0805401011 . * Mckenzie, John L. (1995). The Dictionary of the Bible. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780684819136 . * Kissling, Paul (2004). Genesis, Volume 1. College Press. ISBN 978-0899008752 . * Almond, Philip C. ' Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in Seventeenth-Century Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, 2008) * Alter, Robert (2004). The Five Books of Moses. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-33393-0 . * Ayoub, Mahmoud . The Qur'an and its Interpreters, SUNY: Albany, 1984 * Murdoch, Brian O. The Apocryphal Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
in Medieval Europe: Vernacular Translations and Adaptations of the Vita Adae et Evae. Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-19-956414-9 * Patai, R. The Jewish Alchemists, Princeton University Press, 1994. * Rana padding:0.4em 2em">

* Creationism portal * Christianity
Christianity
portal * Judaism portal * Islam
Islam
portal * Baha\'i Faith portal

* v * t * e

Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve

SOURCE

* Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
* Adam
Adam
* Eve
Eve
* Lucifer

OFFSPRING

* Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
* Aclima * Seth
Seth
* Awan * Azura

TELEVISION

* " Probe 7, Over and Out " (1963)

FILM

* Mama\'s Affair (1921) * Good Morning, Eve! (1934) * The Broken Jug (1937) * The Original Sin
Original Sin
(1948) * The Private Lives of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1960) * El pecado de Adán y Eva (1969) * La Biblia en pasta (1984) * The Annunciation (1984) * Adipapam (1988) * Adam
Adam
(1992) * Man\'s Best Friend (1998) * Babs (2000) * The Last Eve
Eve
(2005) * Year One (2009) * The Tragedy of Man (2011) * Adam
Adam
and Dog (2011) * Tropico (2013)

PLAYS

* Le Jeu d\' Adam
Adam
(12th century) * The Broken Jug (1808) * The Tragedy of Man (1861) * The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972)

MUSICALS

* The Apple Tree (1966) * Dude (1972) * Up from Paradise
Up from Paradise
(1973) * Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991)

COMPOSITIONS

* The Creation (1798)

* structure

* La mort d\' Adam
Adam
(1809) * Ève (1875) * Genesis Suite (1945) * Lilith (2001)

LITERATURE

* Apocalypse of Adam
Adam
* Book of Moses * Book of Abraham * Books of Adam
Adam
* Book of the Penitence of Adam
Adam
* Cave of Treasures * " El y Ella " * Genesis A and Genesis B * Harrowing of Hell * Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
* Testament of Adam
Adam
* Testimony of Truth
Testimony of Truth
(3rd century) * Conflict of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
with Satan
Satan
(6th century) * " Old Saxon Genesis " (9th century) * " Adam
Adam
lay ybounden " (15th century) * Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667) * Le Dernier Homme (1805) * Extracts from Adam\'s Diary (1904) * Eve\'s Diary (1905) * The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
(2009)

ART

* Bernward Doors (1015) * Tapestry of Creation (11th century) * Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (1425) * Vienna Diptych (15th century) * The Last Judgment (1482) * The Garden of Earthly Delights
The Garden of Earthly Delights
(1504) * Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1507) * Paradise and Hell (1510) * The Creation of Adam
Adam
(1512) * The Haywain Triptych (1516) * Eve, the Serpent and Death (1510s or 1520s) * Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1528) * The Fall of Man (1550) * Maps of Ancient Israel * The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man (1617) * The Fall of Man (1628) * The Four Seasons (1660s) * The Koren Picture-Bible (1692–1696) * The First Mourning (1888) * Eve
Eve
(1931) * Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1932) * The Serpent Chooses Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1958) * Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1992)

SONGS

* "Dese Bones G\'wine Rise Again " * " Adam-ondi-Ahman
Adam-ondi-Ahman
" (1835) * "Forbidden Fruit " (1915) * "The Garden of Eden " (1956) * "Let\'s Give Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
Another Chance " (1970) * " Man Gave Names to All the Animals " (1979)

ALBUMS

* The Cainian Chronicle (1996) * Visions of Eden (2006)

OTHER CULTURES

* Adam–God doctrine * Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(LDS Church) * Adam
Adam
in Islam
Islam
* Adam
Adam
in rabbinic literature * Al-A\'raf * Book of Moses * Endowment * Manu (Hinduism) * Mashya and Mashyana * Serpent seed * Tree of Jiva and Atman * Tree of life (Quran) * Our Lady of Endor Coven

GEOGRAPHY

* Adam-ondi-Ahman
Adam-ondi-Ahman
* Tomb of Eve
Eve

BIOLOGY

* Mitochondrial Eve
Eve
* Y-chromosomal Adam
Adam
* The Real Eve
Eve

STORY WITHIN A STORY

* Doraemon: Nobita\'s Diary of the Creation of the World * Island of Love * The Visitors

GAMES

* Demon: The Fallen (2002)

RELATED THEOLOGY

* Fall of man * Original sin
Original sin
* Garden of Eden * Tree of the knowledge of good and evil * Serpents in the Bible

* Forbidden fruit
Forbidden fruit

* Apple * Fig leaf

* Figs in the Bible * Adam\'s ale * Adamic language * Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
* Camael * Shamsiel * Tree of life * Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

OTHER

* Pre-Adamite * Generations of Adam
Adam
* Cave of the Patriarchs
Cave of the Patriarchs
* " In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela " * " Simpsons Bible Stories " * Second Time Lucky * Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
cylinder seal * Timeline of Genesis patriarchs * Genealogies of Genesis * Carnal knowledge

* Legend of the Rood

* Ystorya Adaf

* Snakes for the Divine * Ransom theory of atonement

* v * t * e

Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel

Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis

BIBLICAL CHARACTERS

* Adam
Adam
* Eve
Eve
* Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
* Lucifer * Enoch * Awan

PORTRAYALS IN MEDIA

FILM

* East of Eden (film, 1952) * Caín (1984) * La Biblia en pasta (1984) * The Last Eve
Eve
(2005) * Year One (2009) * Abel Cain
Abel Cain

PLAYS

* Le Jeu d\' Adam
Adam
(12th century) * Cain (1821)

MUSICALS

* Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991) * Here\'s Where I Belong (1968)

LITERATURE

* Book of the Penitence of Adam
Adam
* East of Eden (novel, 1952) * Abel Sánchez: The History of a Passion (1917) * The Book of Lies (2008)

SONGS

* " Should the Bible Be Banned " (1988) * "Cain\'s Blood " (1995)

OTHER

* La mort d\'Abel (composition, 1810) * The First Mourning (painting, 1888) * Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
(TV series, 2009) * Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
(DC Comics) * Kane (Command border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Adam
Adam
and Eve * Curse
Curse
and mark of Cain

* Serpent seed

* Christian Identity

* Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel
in Islam
Islam
* Balbira and Kalmana * Cainites

OTHER

* Generations of Adam
Adam
* Timeline of Genesis patriarchs * Land of Nod

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 62342107 * GND :

.