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Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
(Ancient Greek: Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Latin: Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian
Christian
church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.[1] Acts and the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author, usually dated to around 80–90 AD.[2][3] The first part, the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the world's salvation through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, the promised Messiah. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesus's Ascension to Heaven. The early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost
Pentecost
(the coming of the Holy Spirit) and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. Initially, the Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon they turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter
Apostle Peter
the message is taken to the Gentiles. The later chapters tell of Paul's conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, and finally his imprisonment in Rome, where, as the book ends, he awaits trial. Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah
Messiah
of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church; the answer it provides, and its central theme, is that the message of Christ was sent to the Gentiles because the Jews rejected it.[1] Luke–Acts can be also seen as a defense of (or "apology" for) the Jesus
Jesus
movement addressed to the Jews: the bulk of the speeches and sermons in Acts are addressed to Jewish audiences, with the Romans serving as external arbiters on disputes concerning Jewish customs and law.[4] On the one hand Luke portrays the Christians as a sect of the Jews, and therefore entitled to legal protection as a recognised religion; on the other, Luke seems unclear as to the future God intends for Jews and Christians, celebrating the Jewishness of Jesus and his immediate followers while also stressing how the Jews had rejected God's promised Messiah.[5]

Contents

1 Composition and setting

1.1 Title, unity of Luke–Acts, authorship and date 1.2 Genre, sources and historicity of Acts 1.3 Audience and authorial intent 1.4 Manuscripts

2 Structure and content

2.1 Structure 2.2 Outline 2.3 Content

3 Theology 4 Comparison with other writings

4.1 Gospel
Gospel
of Luke 4.2 Pauline epistles

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Composition and setting[edit] Main article: Authorship of Luke–Acts

Ministry of the Apostles: Russian icon by Fyodor Zubov, 1660

Title, unity of Luke–Acts, authorship and date[edit] The title "Acts of the Apostles" (Greek Πράξεις ἀποστόλων Praxeis Apostolon) was first used by Irenaeus
Irenaeus
in the late 2nd century. It is not known whether this was an existing title or one invented by Irenaeus; it does seem clear, however, that it was not given by the author.[6] The Gospel
Gospel
of Luke and Acts make up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts.[3] Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution attributed to a single author, providing the framework for both the Church's liturgical calendar and the historical outline into which later generations have fitted their idea of the story of Jesus
Jesus
and the early church.[7]

1644

The author is not named in either volume.[8] According to Church tradition dating from the 2nd century, he was the "Luke" named as a companion of the apostle Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself; this view is still sometimes advanced, but "a critical consensus emphasizes the countless contradictions between the account in Acts and the authentic Pauline letters."[9]) (An example can be seen by comparing Acts's accounts of Paul's conversion (Acts 9:1–31, 22:6–21, and 26:9–23) with Paul's own statement that he remained unknown to Christians in Judea after that event (Galatians 1:17–24).)[10] According to Eugene Boring, the author "is an admirer of Paul, but does not share Paul's own view of himself as an apostle; his own theology is considerably different from Paul's on key points and does not represent Paul's own views accurately."[11] He was educated, a man of means, probably urban, and someone who respected manual work, although not a worker himself; this is significant, because more high-brow writers of the time looked down on the artisans and small business people who made up the early church of Paul and were presumably Luke's audience.[12] The earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Paul's imprisonment in Rome
Rome
c.63 AD, but an early date is now rarely put forward.[13][9] The last possible date would be set by its first definite citation by another author, but there is no unanimity on this; some scholars find echoes of Acts in a work from c. 95 AD called I Clement, while others see no indisputable citation until the middle of the 2nd century.[13] The majority of scholars date Luke–Acts to 80–90 AD, on the grounds that it uses Mark as a source and looks back on the destruction of Jerusalem, and does not show any awareness of the letters of Paul (which began circulating late in the century); if, however, it does show awareness of Paul and also of Josephus, then a date early in the 2nd century is more likely.[13] In either case, there is evidence that it was still being substantially revised well into the 2nd century.[14] Genre, sources and historicity of Acts[edit] Luke (or more accurately the anonymous author of Luke–Acts) aligned his work, Luke–Acts, to the "narratives" (διήγησις, diēgēsis) which many others had written, and described his own work as an "orderly account" (ἀκριβῶς καθεξῆς).[15] Acts, the second part, is widely thought of as a history, but it lacks exact analogies in Hellenistic or Jewish literature.[16] The title "Acts of the Apostles" (Praxeis Apostolon) would seem to identify it with the genre telling of the deeds and achievements of great men (praxeis), but it was not the title given by the author.[6] Luke seems to have taken as his model the works of two respected Classical authors, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote a well-known history of Rome, and the Jewish historian Josephus, author of a history of the Jews.[17] Like them, he anchors his history by dating the birth of the founder (Romulus for Dionysius, Moses for Josephus, Jesus
Jesus
for Luke) and like them he tells how the founder is born from God, taught authoritatively, and appeared to witnesses after death before ascending to heaven.[17] By and large the sources for Acts can only be guessed at,[18] but Luke would have had access to the Septuagint
Septuagint
(a Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures), the Gospel of Mark and the collection of "sayings of Jesus" called the Q source.[19] He transposed a few incidents from Mark's gospel to the time of the Apostles—for example, the material about "clean" and "unclean" foods in Mark 7 is used in Acts 10, and Mark's account of the accusation that Jesus
Jesus
has attacked the Temple (Mark 14:58) is used in a story about Stephen (Acts 6:14).)[20] There are also points of contacts (meaning suggestive parallels but something less than clear evidence) with 1 Peter, the Letter to the Hebrews, and 1 Clement.[21] Other sources can only be inferred from internal evidence—the traditional explanation of the three "we" passages, for example, is that they represent eye-witness accounts.[22] The search for such inferred sources was popular in the 19th century, but by the mid-20th it had largely been abandoned.[23] Acts was read as a reliable history of the early church well into the post-Reformation era. By the 17th century, however, biblical scholars began to notice that it was incomplete and tendentious—its picture of a harmonious church is quite at odds with that given by Paul's letters, and it omits important events such as the deaths of both Peter and Paul. The mid-19th-century scholar Ferdinand Baur suggested that Luke had re-written history to present a united Peter and Paul and advance a single orthodoxy against the Marcionites. ( Marcion
Marcion
was a 2nd-century heretic who wished to cut Christianity off entirely from the Jews). Baur continues to have enormous influence, but today there is less interest in determining Luke's historical accuracy (although this has never died out) than in understanding his theological program.[24] The late archaeologist William Mitchell Ramsay concluded, after about 30 years of investigation, that: “Luke’s history is unsurpassed in respect of its trustworthiness. . . . Luke is a historian of the first rank . . . [Luke] should be placed along with the very greatest of historians.” [25] Audience and authorial intent[edit] Luke was written to be read aloud to a group of Jesus-followers gathered in a house to share the Lord's supper.[17] The author assumes an educated Greek-speaking audience, but directs his attention to specifically Christian
Christian
concerns rather than to the Greco-Roman world at large.[26] He begins his gospel with a preface addressed to Theophilus, informing him of his intention to provide an "ordered account" of events which will lead his reader to "certainty".[12] He did not write in order to provide Theophilus with historical justification—"did it happen?"—but to encourage faith—"what happened, and what does it all mean?"[27] Acts (or Luke–Acts) is intended as a work of "edification."[28] Edification means "the empirical demonstration that virtue is superior to vice,"[29] but is not all of Luke's purpose. He also engages with the question of a Christian's proper relationship with the Roman Empire, the civil power of the day: could a Christian
Christian
obey God and also Caesar? The answer is ambiguous.[4] The Romans never move against Jesus
Jesus
or his followers unless provoked by the Jews, in the trial scenes the Christian
Christian
missionaries are always cleared of charges of violating Roman laws, and Acts ends with Paul in Rome
Rome
proclaiming the Christian
Christian
message under Roman protection; at the same time, Luke makes clear that the Romans, like all earthly rulers, receive their authority from Satan, while Christ is ruler of the kingdom of God.[30] Manuscripts[edit] There are two major textual variants of Acts, the Western text-type and the Alexandrian. The oldest complete Alexandrian manuscripts date from the 4th century and the oldest Western ones from the 6th, with fragments and citations going back to the 3rd. Western texts of Acts are 6.2–8.4% longer than Alexandrian texts, the additions tending to enhance the Jewish rejection of the Messiah
Messiah
and the role of the Holy Spirit, in ways that are stylistically different from the rest of Acts.[31] These conflicts suggest that Acts was still being substantially revised well into the 2nd century.[14] The majority of scholars prefer the Alexandrian (shorter) text-type over the Western as the more authentic, but this same argument would favour the Western over the Alexandrian for the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, as in that case the, Western version is the shorter. The debate therefore continues.[31] Structure and content[edit]

Acts 1:1–2a from the 14th century Minuscule 223

Structure[edit] Acts has two key structural principles. The first is the geographic movement from Jerusalem, centre of God's Covenantal people, the Jews, to Rome, centre of the Gentile world. This structure reaches back to the author's preceding work, the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke, and is signaled by parallel scenes such as Paul's utterance in Acts 19:21, which echoes Jesus's words 9:51 (Paul has Rome
Rome
as his destination, as Jesus
Jesus
had Jerusalem). The second key element is the roles of Peter and Paul, the first representing the Jewish Christian
Jewish Christian
church, the second the mission to the Gentiles.[32]

Transition: reprise of the preface addressed to Theophilus and the closing events of the gospel (Acts 1–1:26) Petrine Christianity: the Jewish church from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Antioch (Acts 2:1–12:25)

2:1–8:1 – beginnings in Jerusalem 8:2–40 – the church expands to Samaria and beyond 9:1–31 – conversion of Paul 9:32–12:25 – the conversion of Cornelius, and the formation of the Antioch
Antioch
church

Pauline Christianity: the Gentile mission from Antioch
Antioch
to Rome
Rome
(Acts 13:1–28:21)

13:1–14:28 – the Gentile mission is promoted from Antioch 15:1–35 – the Gentile mission is confirmed in Jerusalem 15:36–28:31 – the Gentile mission, climaxing in Paul's passion story in Rome
Rome
(21:17–28:31)

Outline[edit]

Dedication to Theophilus (1:1–2) Resurrection appearances (1:3) Great Commission
Great Commission
(1:4–8) Ascension (1:9) Second Coming
Second Coming
Prophecy (1:10–11) Matthias replaced Judas (1:12–26)

the Upper Room (1:13)

Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
came at Pentecost
Pentecost
(2), see also Paraclete Peter healed a crippled beggar (3:1–10) Peter's speech at the Temple (3:11–26) Peter and John before the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
(4:1–22)

Resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the dead
(4:2)

Believers' Prayer (4:23–31) Everything is shared (4:32–37) Ananias and Sapphira
Ananias and Sapphira
(5:1–11) Signs and Wonders (5:12–16) Apostles
Apostles
before the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
(5:17–42) Seven Deacons
Seven Deacons
appointed (6:1–7) Stephen before the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
(6:8–7:60)

The "Cave of the Patriarchs" was located in Shechem
Shechem
(7:16) "Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (7:22) First mentioning of Saul (Paul the Apostle) in the Bible
Bible
(7:58) Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
confesses his part in the martyrdom of Stephen (7:58–60)

Saul persecuted the Church of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(8:1–3) Philip the Evangelist
Philip the Evangelist
(8:4–40)

Simon Magus
Simon Magus
(8:9–24) Ethiopian eunuch
Ethiopian eunuch
(8:26–39)

Conversion of Paul the Apostle
Conversion of Paul the Apostle
(9:1–31, 22:1–22, 26:9–24)

Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
confesses his active part in the martyrdom of Stephen (22:20)

Peter healed Aeneas and raised Tabitha from the dead (9:32–43) Conversion of Cornelius (10:1–8, 24–48) Peter's vision of a sheet with animals
Peter's vision of a sheet with animals
(10:9–23, 11:1–18) Church of Antioch
Antioch
founded (11:19–30)

term "Christian" first used (11:26)

James the Great
James the Great
executed (12:1–2) Peter's rescue from prison (12:3–19) Death of Herod Agrippa I
Agrippa I
[in 44] (12:20–25)

"the voice of a god" (12:22)

Mission of Barnabas
Barnabas
and Saul (13–14)

"Saul, who was also known as Paul" (13:9) called "gods ... in human form" (14:11)

Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
(15:1–35) Paul separated from Barnabas
Barnabas
(15:36–41) 2nd and 3rd missions (16–20)

Areopagus sermon
Areopagus sermon
(17:16–34)

"God...has set a day" (17:30–31)

Trial before Gallio
Gallio
c. 51–52 (18:12–17)

Trip to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(21) Before the people and the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
(22–23) Before Felix–Festus– Herod Agrippa II
Herod Agrippa II
(24–26) Trip to Rome
Rome
(27–28)

called a god on Malta
Malta
(28:6)

Content[edit] See also: Early Christianity
Early Christianity
and Jewish Christians The Gospel
Gospel
of Luke began with a prologue addressed to Theophilus; Acts likewise opens with an address to Theophilus and refers to "my earlier book", almost certainly the gospel. The apostles and other followers of Jesus
Jesus
meet and elect Matthias to replace Judas as a member of The Twelve. On Pentecost, the Holy Spirit descends and confers God's power on them, and Peter, along with John, preaches to many in Jerusalem, and performs Christ-like healings, casting out of evil spirits, and raising of the dead. The first believers share all property in common, ate in each other's homes, and worshipped together.[33] At first many Jews follow Christ and are baptized, but the Christians begin to be increasingly persecuted by the Jews. Stephen is arrested for blasphemy, and after a trial, is found guilty and stoned by the Jews. Stephen's death marks a major turning point: the Jews have rejected the message, and henceforth it will be taken to the Gentiles.[34] The message is taken to the Samaritans, a people rejected by Jews, and to the Gentiles. Saul of Tarsus, one of the Jews who persecuted the Christians, is converted by a vision to become a follower of Christ (an event which Luke regards as so important that he relates it three times). Peter, directed by a series of visions, preaches to Cornelius the Centurion, a Gentile God-fearer, who becomes a follower of Christ. The Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
descends on Peter and Cornelius, thus confirming that the message of eternal life in Christ is for all mankind. The Gentile church is established in Antioch
Antioch
(north-western Syria, the third-largest city of the empire), and here Christ's followers are first called Christians.[35] The mission to the Gentiles is promoted from Antioch
Antioch
and confirmed at meeting in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
between Paul and the leadership of the Jerusalem church. Paul spends the next few years traveling through western Asia Minor and the Aegean, preaching, converting Gentiles, and founding new churches. On a visit to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
he is set on by a Jewish mob. Saved by the Roman commander, he is accused by the Jews of being a revolutionary, the "ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes", and imprisoned. Paul asserts his right as a Roman citizen, to be tried in Rome
Rome
and is sent by sea to Rome, where he spends another two years under house arrest, proclaiming the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
and teaching the "Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". Acts ends abruptly without recording the outcome of Paul's legal troubles.[36] Theology[edit]

Paul's conversion, from Livre d'Heures d'Étienne Chevalier (c. 1450–1460), Jean Fouquet, in the Château de Chantilly.

Prior to the 1950s, Luke–Acts was seen as a historical work, written to defend Christianity before the Romans or Paul against his detractors; since then, however, the tendency has been to see the work as primarily theological.[37] Luke's theology is expressed primarily through his overarching plot, the way scenes, themes and characters combine to construct his specific worldview.[38] His "salvation history" stretches from the Creation to the present time of his readers, in three ages: first, the time of "the Law and the Prophets" (Luke 16:16), the period beginning with Genesis and ending with the appearance of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(Luke 1:5–3:1); second, the epoch of Jesus, in which the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
was preached (Luke 3:2–24:51); and finally the period of the Church, which began when the risen Christ was taken into Heaven, and would end with his second coming.[39] Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah
Messiah
promised to the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church; the answer it provides, and its central theme, is that the message of Christ was sent to the Gentiles because the Jews rejected it.[1] This theme is introduced at the opening of the Gospel of Luke, when Jesus, rejected in Nazareth, recalls that the prophets were rejected by Israel and accepted by Gentiles; at the end of the gospel he commands his disciples to preach his message to all nations, "beginning from Jerusalem." He repeats the command in Acts, telling them to preach "in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the Earth." They then proceed to do so, in the order outlined: first Jerusalem, then Judea, then Samaria, then the entire (Roman) world.[40] For Luke, the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
is the driving force behind the spread of the Christian
Christian
message, and he places more emphasis on it than do any of the other evangelists. The Spirit is "poured out" at Pentecost, on the first Samaritan and Gentile believers, and on disciples who had been baptised only by John the Baptist, each time as a sign of God's approval. The Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
represents God's power (At his ascension, Jesus
Jesus
tells his followers, "You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you"): through it the disciples are given speech to convert thousands in Jerusalem, forming the first church (the term is used for the first time in Acts 5).[41] One issue debated by scholars is Luke’s political vision regarding the relationship between the early church and the Roman Empire. On the one hand, Luke generally does not portray this interaction as one of direct conflict. Rather, there are ways in which each may have considered having a relationship with the other rather advantageous to its own cause. For example, early Christians may have appreciated hearing about the protection Paul received from Roman officials against Gentile rioters in Philippi
Philippi
(Acts 16:16-40) and Ephesus
Ephesus
(Acts 19:23-41), and against Jewish rioters on two occasions (Acts 17:1-17; Acts 18:12-17). Meanwhile, Roman readers may have approved of Paul’s censure of the illegal practice of magic (Acts 19:17-19) as well as the amicability of his rapport with Roman officials such as Sergius Paulus (Acts 13:6-12) and Festus (Acts 26:30-32). Furthermore, Acts does not include any account of a struggle between Christians and the Roman government as a result of the latter’s imperial cult. Thus Paul is depicted as a moderating presence between the church and the Roman Empire.[42] On the other hand, events such as the imprisonment of Paul at the hands of the empire (Acts 22-28) as well as several encounters that reflect negatively on Roman officials (for instance, Felix’s desire for a bribe from Paul in Acts 24:26) function as concrete points of conflict between Rome
Rome
and the early church.[43] Perhaps the most significant point of tension between Roman imperial ideology and Luke’s political vision is reflected in Peter’s speech to the Roman centurion, Cornelius (Acts 10:36). Peter states that “this one” [οὗτος], i.e. Jesus, “is lord [κύριος] of all.” The title, κύριος, was often ascribed to the Roman emperor in antiquity, rendering its use by Luke as an appellation for Jesus
Jesus
an unsubtle challenge to the emperor’s authority.[44] Thus, while the overt relationship between Christianity and empire in the book of Acts can generally be characterized as irenic, Luke insinuates the inevitability of conflict between the two over the issue of ultimate allegiance. Comparison with other writings[edit]

Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, ascribed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century

Gospel
Gospel
of Luke[edit] As the second part of the two-part work Luke–Acts, Acts has significant links to the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke. Major turning points in the structure of Acts, for example, find parallels in Luke: the presentation of the child Jesus
Jesus
in the Temple parallels the opening of Acts in the Temple, Jesus's forty days of testing in the wilderness prior to his mission parallel the forty days prior to his Ascension in Acts, the mission of Jesus
Jesus
in Samaria and the Decapolis (the lands of the Samaritans
Samaritans
and Gentiles) parallels the missions of the Apostles
Apostles
in Samaria and the Gentile lands, and so on (see Gospel
Gospel
of Luke). These parallels continue through both books. There are also differences between Luke and Acts, amounting at times to outright contradiction. For example, the gospel seems to place the Ascension on Easter Sunday, immediately after the Resurrection, while Acts 1
Acts 1
puts it forty days later.[45] There are similar conflicts over the theology. While not seriously questioning the single authorship of Luke–Acts, these differences do suggest the need for caution in seeking too much consistency in books written in essence as popular literature.[46] Pauline epistles[edit] Acts agrees with Paul's letters on the major outline of Paul's career: as Saul he is converted and becomes Paul the Christian
Christian
missionary and apostle, establishing new churches in Asia Minor and the Aegean and struggling to free Gentile Christians from the Jewish Law. There are also agreements on many incidents, such as Paul's escape from Damascus, where he is lowered down the walls in a basket. But details of these same incidents are frequently seen as contradictory: for example, according to Paul it was a pagan king who was trying to arrest him in Damascus, but according to Luke it was the Jews (2 Corinthians 11:33 and Acts 9:24). Acts speaks of "Christians" and "disciples", but Paul never uses either term, and it is striking that Acts never brings Paul into conflict with the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
church and places Paul under the authority of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
church and its leaders, especially James and Peter ( Acts 15
Acts 15
vs. Galatians 2).[47] Acts omits much from the letters, notably Paul's problems with his congregations (internal difficulties are said to be the fault of the Jews instead), and his apparent final rejection by the church leaders in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Acts has Paul and Barnabas
Barnabas
deliver an offering that is accepted, a trip that has no mention in the letters). There are also alleged major differences between Acts and Paul on Christology
Christology
(the understanding of Christ's nature), eschatology (understanding of the "last things"), and apostleship.[48] See also[edit]

Book: Acts of the Apostles

Bible
Bible
portal

Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
(genre) List of Gospels List of omitted Bible
Bible
verses The Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, also known as the Sonnini Manuscript Textual variants in the Acts of the Apostles Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
in the Acts of the Apostles

References[edit]

^ a b c Burkett 2002, p. 263. ^ Charlesworth 2008, p. no page numbers. ^ a b Burkett 2002, p. 195. ^ a b Pickett 2011, pp. 6–7. ^ Boring 2012, p. 563. ^ a b Matthews 2011, p. 12. ^ Boring 2012, p. 556. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 196. ^ a b Theissen & Merz 1998, p. 32. ^ Perkins 1998, p. 253. ^ Boring 2012, p. 590. ^ a b Green 1997, p. 35. ^ a b c Boring 2012, p. 587. ^ a b Perkins 2009, pp. 250–53. ^ Luke 1:1,3 ^ Aune 1988, p. 77. ^ a b c Balch 2003, p. 1104. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 40. ^ Boring 2012, p. 577. ^ Witherington 1998, p. 8. ^ Boring 2012, p. 578. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 40–41. ^ Boring 2012, p. 579. ^ Holladay 2011, p. no page numbers. ^ Ramsay, William Mitchell (1915). The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament. London: Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 81, 222.  ^ Green 1995, pp. 16–17. ^ Green 1997, p. 36. ^ Fitzmyer 1998, pp. 55–65. ^ Aune 1988, p. 80. ^ Boring 2012, p. 562. ^ a b Thompson 2010, p. 332. ^ Boring 2012, pp. 569–70. ^ "Bruderhof - Fellowship for Intentional Community". Fellowship for Intentional Community. Retrieved 2017-12-28.  ^ Burkett 2002, p. 265. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 266. ^ Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible. Freedman, David Noel, 1922-2008., Myers, Allen C., 1945-, Beck, Astrid B. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans. 2000. ISBN 0802824005. OCLC 44454699.  ^ Buckwalter 1996, p. 6. ^ Allen 2009, p. 326. ^ Evans 2011, p. no page numbers. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 264. ^ Burkett 2002, pp. 268–70. ^ Phillips 2009, pp. 119. ^ Phillips 2009, pp. 119-21. ^ Rowe 2005, pp. 291-8. ^ Zwiep 2010, p. 39. ^ Parsons 1993, pp. 17–18. ^ Phillips, Thomas E. (January 1, 2010). Paul, His Letters, and Acts. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4412-5793-2.  ^ Boring 2012, pp. 581, 588–90.

Bibliography[edit]

Allen, O. Wesley, Jr. (2009). "Luke". In Petersen, David L.; O'Day, Gail R. Theological Bible
Bible
Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press.  Aune, David E. (1988). The New Testament
New Testament
in its literary environment. Westminster John Knox Press.  Balch, David L. (2003). "Luke". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.  Boring, M. Eugene (2012). An Introduction to the New Testament: History, Literature, Theology. Westminster John Knox Press.  Bruce, F.F. (1990). The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802809667.  Buckwalter, Douglas (1996). The Character and Purpose of Luke's Christology. Cambridge University Press.  Burkett, Delbert (2002). An Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
and the Origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00720-7.  Charlesworth, James H. (2008). The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press.  Evans, Craig A. (2011). Luke. Baker Books.  Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (1998). The Anchor Bible: The Acts of the Apostles-A new Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385490207.  Gooding, David (2013). True to the Faith: The Acts of the Apostles: Defining and Defending the Gospel. Myrtlefield House.  Green, Joel (1995). The Theology of the Gospel
Gospel
of Luke. Cambridge University Press.  Green, Joel (1997). The Gospel
Gospel
of Luke. Eerdmans.  Holladay, Carl R. (2011). A Critical Introduction to the New Testament: Interpreting the Message and Meaning of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. Abingdon Press.  Matthews, Christopher R. (2011). "Acts of the Apostles". In Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible. Oxford University Press.  Parsons, Mikeal C. (1993). Rethinking the Unity of Luke and Acts. Fortress Press.  Perkins, Pheme (1998). "The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
and the Acts of the Apostles: Telling the Christian
Christian
Story". In Barton, John. The Cambridge companion to biblical interpretation. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7.  Perkins, Pheme (2009). Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6553-3.  Phillips, Thomas E. (2009). Paul, His Letters, and Acts. Baker Academic.  Pickett, Raymond (2011). "Luke and Empire: An Introduction". In Rhoads, David; Esterline, David; Lee, Jae Won. Luke-Acts and Empire: Essays in Honor of Robert L. Brawley. Wipf and Stock Publishers.  Rowe, C. Kavin (2005). "Luke-Acts and the Imperial Cult: A Way through the Conundrum?". Journal for the Study of the New Testament. 27 (3): 279–300.  Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette (1998). The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Eerdmans.  Thompson, Richard P. (2010). "Luke-Acts: The Gospel
Gospel
of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles". In Aune, David E. The Blackwell Companion to The New Testament. Wiley–Blackwell.  Witherington, Ben (1998). The Acts of the Apostles: A Socio-rhetorical Commentary. Eerdmans.  Zwiep, Arie W. (2010). Christ, the Spirit and the Community of God: Essays on the Acts of the Apostles. Mohr Siebeck. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acts of the Apostles.

Wikisource
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has original text related to this article: Acts

Wikiversity has learning resources about Biblical Studies (NT) #Acts: The Birth and Growth of the Early Church

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A Brief Introduction to Luke–Acts Book
Book
of Acts at Bible
Bible
Gateway (NIV & KJV) Tertullian.org: The Western Text of the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
(1923) J. M. WILSON, D.D. Texts on Wikisource:

Breen, Andrew Edward (1913). "Acts of the Apostles". Catholic Encyclopedia.  Aherene, C. (1913). " Gospel
Gospel
of Saint Luke". Catholic Encyclopedia.  See Section VI: Saint Luke's Accuracy "Acts of the Apostles". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Acts of the Apostles". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

Bible: Acts public domain audiobook at LibriVox
LibriVox
Various versions

Acts of the Apostles Acts of the Apostles

Preceded by Gospel
Gospel
of John New Testament Books of the Bible Succeeded by Paul's Epistle to the Romans

v t e

Acts of the Apostles

Bible

Acts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Places

Achaea Alexandria Amphipolis Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia Antioch
Antioch
of Syria Asia Assos Atalia Athens Berea Bithynia Caesarea Cenchrea Chios Cilicia Corinth Cos Creta Cyprus Derbe Ephesus Forum Appii Galatia Iconium Italy Jerusalem Lycaonia Lystra Macedonia Malta Mytilene Miletus Mysia Neapolis Paphos Pamphilia Patara Perga Philippi Phrygia Pisidia Pontus Ptolemais Puteoli Regium Rodos Rome Salamis Samos Samothrace Seleucia Syracuse Syria Thessalonica Thyatira Tyre Three Taverns Troas

People

Aeneas Agabus Agrippa Agrippa II Ananias (Judaea) Ananias (Damascus) Ananias ben Nebedeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Bar-jesus Barnabas Berenice Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Drusilla Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Felix Festus Gallio Gamaliel James the Just Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Lysias Manaen (John) Mark Mary mother of John Mark Matthias Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Paullus Peter Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas/Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon the Sorcerer Sopater Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus

Other Events

Ascension Pentecost Conversion of Paul Peter's vision Peter's liberation Council of Jerusalem Areopagus sermon Book
Book
burning at Ephesus

Sources

Greek Text Latin Vulgate Wycliffe Version King James Version American Standard Version World English Version

←  Gospel
Gospel
of John (chapter 21) Epistle
Epistle
to the Romans (chapter 1) →

v t e

Books of the Bible

Principal divisions

Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament
Old Testament
Protocanon

Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1–2 Samuel 1–2 Kings 1–2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Deuterocanon and Apocrypha

Catholic Orthodox

Tobit Judith Additions to Esther 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom Sirach Baruch / Letter of Jeremiah Additions to Daniel

Susanna Song of the Three Children Bel and the Dragon

Orthodox only

1 Esdras 2 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Odes

Tewahedo Orthodox

Enoch Jubilees 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan Paralipomena of Baruch Broader canon

Syriac

Letter of Baruch 2 Baruch Psalms
Psalms
152–155

New Testament

Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation

Subdivisions

Chapters and verses Pentateuch Wisdom Major prophets / Minor prophets Gospels

Synoptic

Epistles

Pauline Johannine Pastoral Catholic

Apocalyptic literature

Development

Old Testament
Old Testament
canon New Testament
New Testament
canon Antilegomena Jewish canon Christian
Christian
canon

Manuscripts

Dead Sea Scrolls Samaritan Pentateuch Septuagint Targum Diatessaron Muratorian fragment Peshitta Vetus Latina Masoretic Text New Testament
New Testament
manuscript categories New Testament
New Testament
papyri New Testament
New Testament
uncials

See also

Biblical canon Luther's canon Authorship English Bible
Bible
translations Other books referenced in the Bible Pseudepigrapha

list

New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Studies Synod of Hippo Textual criticism

Category Portal WikiProject Book

v t e

New Testament
New Testament
people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

Authority control

.