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The ACTS OF UNION were two Acts of Parliament : the UNION WITH SCOTLAND ACT 1706 passed by the Parliament of England , and the UNION WITH ENGLAND ACT passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
. They put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. By the two Acts, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
—which at the time were separate states with separate legislatures, but with the same monarch —were, in the words of the Treaty, "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain".

The two countries had shared a monarch since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne from his double first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I . Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head (as opposed to the implied creation of a single Crown and a single Kingdom, exemplified by the later Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
). There had been three attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689 to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that both political establishments came to support the idea, albeit for different reasons.

The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707. On this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the Parliament of Great Britain
Great Britain
, based in the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
in London, the home of the English Parliament. Hence, the Acts are referred to as the UNION OF THE PARLIAMENTS. On the Union, the historian Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world ... it was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history."

CONTENTS

* 1 Historical background

* 1.1 Previous attempts at union

* 1.1.1 Early Stuart union * 1.1.2 Union during the interregnum * 1.1.3 Later attempts

* 1.2 Treaty and passage of the Acts of 1707

* 2 Political motivations

* 2.1 English perspective * 2.2 Scottish perspective * 2.3 Irish perspective

* 3 Provisions of the Acts * 4 Criticisms * 5 300th anniversary * 6 Scottish voting records * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

PREVIOUS ATTEMPTS AT UNION

England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
were separate states for several centuries before eventual union, and English attempts to take over Scotland
Scotland
by military force in the late 13th and early 14th centuries were ultimately unsuccessful (see the Wars of Scottish Independence ). The first attempts at Union surrounded the foreseen unification of the Royal lines of Scotland
Scotland
and England. In pursuing the English throne in the 1560s, Mary, Queen of Scots pledged herself to a peaceful union between the two kingdoms.

England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
were ruled by the same king for the first time in 1603 when James VI of Scotland
Scotland
also became the king of England. However they remained two separate states until 1 May 1707.

Early Stuart Union

The first Union flag
Union flag
, created by James VI and I, symbolising the uniting of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
under one Crown (A separate version was used in Scotland
Scotland
during the 17th Century)

The first attempt to unite the parliaments of England
England
and Scotland was by Mary's son, King James VI and I. On his accession to the English throne in 1603 King James announced his intention to unite his two realms so that he would not be "guilty of bigamy". James used his royal prerogative powers to take the style of 'King of Great Britain' and to give an explicitly British character to his court and person. Whilst James assumed the creation of a full union was a foregone conclusion, the Parliament of England was concerned that the formation of a new state would deprive England
England
of its ancient liberties, taking on the more absolutist monarchical structure James had previously enjoyed in Scotland. In the meantime, James declared that Great Britain be viewed 'as presently united, and as one realm and kingdom, and the subjects of both realms as one people'.

The Scottish and English parliaments established a commission to negotiate a union , formulating an instrument of union between the two countries. However, the idea of political union was unpopular, and when James dropped his policy of a speedy union, the topic quietly disappeared from the legislative agenda. When the House of Commons attempted to revive the proposal in 1610, it was met with a more open hostility.

Union During The Interregnum

Main article: Scotland
Scotland
under the Commonwealth Rare Commonwealth -era flag depicting the union between England
England
and Scotland
Scotland

The Solemn League and Covenant
Solemn League and Covenant
1643 sought a forced union of the Church of England
England
into the Church of Scotland
Scotland
, and although the covenant referred repeatedly to union between the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, a political union was not spelled out.

In the aftermath of the Civil War , in which the Covenanters had fought for the King, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
occupied Scotland
Scotland
and began a process of creating a 'Godly Britannic' Union between the former Kingdoms. In 1651, the Parliament of England issued the Tender of Union declaration supporting Scotland's incorporation into the Commonwealth and sent Commissioners to Scotland
Scotland
with the express purpose of securing support for Union, which was assented to by the Commissioners (Members of Parliament) in Scotland. On 12 April 1654, Cromwell – styling himself Lord Protector of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland – enacted _An Ordinance by the Protector for the Union of England
England
and Scotland,_ which created 'one Commonwealth and under one Government' to be known as the Commonwealth of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland . The ordinance was ratified by the Second Protectorate Parliament , as an Act of Union , on 26 June 1657. One united Parliament sat in Westminster, with 30 representatives from Scotland and 30 from Ireland joining the existing members from England. Whilst free trade was brought about amongst the new Commonwealth, the economic benefits were generally not felt as a result of heavy taxation used to fund Cromwell's New Model Army
New Model Army
.

This republican union was dissolved automatically with the restoration of King Charles II to the thrones of England
England
and Scotland. Scottish members expelled from the Commonwealth Parliament petitioned unsuccessfully for a continuance of the union. Cromwell's union had simultaneously raised interest in and suspicion of the concept of union and when Charles II attempted to recreate the union and fulfil the work of his grandfather in 1669, negotiations between Commissioners ground to a halt.

Later Attempts

An abortive scheme for union occurred in Scotland
Scotland
in 1670.

Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the records of the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
show much discussion of possible union. William and Mary , whilst supportive of the idea, had no interest in allowing it to delay their enthronement. Impetus for this incorporating union came almost entirely from King William, who feared leaving Scotland open to a French invasion. In the 1690s, the economic position of Scotland
Scotland
worsened, and relations between Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
became strained. In the following decade, however, union again became a significant topic of political debate.

TREATY AND PASSAGE OF THE ACTS OF 1707

"Articles of Union otherwise known as Treaty of Union", 1707

Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne from the time she acceded to the throne in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, the parliaments of England and Scotland
Scotland
agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a union treaty in 1705.

Both countries appointed 31 commissioners to conduct the negotiations. Most of the Scottish commissioners favoured union, and about half were government ministers and other officials. At the head of the list was Queensberry, and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland
Scotland
, the Earl of Seafield . The English commissioners included the Lord High Treasurer , the Earl of Godolphin , the Lord Keeper , Baron Cowper , and a large number of Whigs who supported union. Tories were not in favour of union and only one was represented among the commissioners.

Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners took place between 16 April and 22 July 1706 at the Cockpit in London. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, England gained a guarantee that the Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, and Scotland
Scotland
received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade.

After negotiations ended in July 1706, the acts had to be ratified by both Parliaments. In Scotland, about 100 of the 227 members of the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
were supportive of the Court Party . For extra votes the pro-court side could rely on about 25 members of the Squadrone Volante , led by the Marquess of Montrose and the Duke of Roxburghe . Opponents of the court were generally known as the Country party , and included various factions and individuals such as the Duke of Hamilton , Lord Belhaven and Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun , who spoke forcefully and passionately against the union. The Court party enjoyed significant funding from England
England
and the Treasury and included many who had accumulated debts following the Darien Disaster .

In Scotland, the Duke of Queensberry was largely responsible for the successful passage of the Union act by the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
. In Scotland, he received much criticism from local residents, but in England
England
he was cheered for his action. He had received around half of the funding awarded by the Westminster treasury for himself. In April 1707, he travelled to London to attend celebrations at the royal court, and was greeted by groups of noblemen and gentry lined along the road. From Barnet , the route was lined with crowds of cheering people, and once he reached London a huge crowd had formed. On 17 April, the Duke was gratefully received by the Queen at Kensington Palace .

POLITICAL MOTIVATIONS

Portrait of Queen Anne in 1702, the year she became queen, from the school of John Closterman

ENGLISH PERSPECTIVE

The English purpose was to ensure that Scotland
Scotland
would not choose a monarch different from the one on the English throne. The two countries had shared a king for much of the previous century, but the English were concerned that an independent Scotland
Scotland
with a different king, even if he were a Protestant, might make alliances against England. The English succession was provided for by the English Act of Settlement 1701 , which ensured that the monarch of England
England
would be a Protestant member of the House of Hanover . Until the Union of Parliaments, the Scottish throne might be inherited by a different successor after Queen Anne : the Scottish Act of Security 1704 granted parliament the right to choose a successor and explicitly required a choice different from the English monarch unless the English were to grant free trade and navigation. Many people in England
England
were unhappy about the prospect, however. English overseas possessions made England very wealthy in comparison to Scotland, a poor country with few roads, very little industry and almost no Navy. This made some view unification as a markedly unequal relationship.

SCOTTISH PERSPECTIVE

In Scotland, some claimed that union would enable Scotland
Scotland
to recover from the financial disaster wrought by the Darien scheme through English assistance and the lifting of measures put in place through the Alien Act to force the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
into compliance with the Act of Settlement.

The combined votes of the Court party with a majority of the Squadrone Volante were sufficient to ensure the final passage of the treaty through the House.

Personal financial interests were also allegedly involved. Many Commissioners had invested heavily in the Darien scheme and they believed that they would receive compensation for their losses; Article 15 granted £ 398,085 10s sterling to Scotland, a sum known as The Equivalent , to offset future liability towards the English national debt. In essence it was also used as a means of compensation for investors in the Company of Scotland's Darien scheme, as 58.6% was allocated to its shareholders and creditors. 18thC French illustration of an opening of the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament

Even more direct bribery was also said to be a factor. £20,000 (£240,000 Scots ) was dispatched to Scotland
Scotland
for distribution by the Earl of Glasgow . James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry , the Queen\'s Commissioner in Parliament , received £12,325, more than 60% of the funding. (Some contend that all of this money was properly accounted for as compensation for loss of office, pensions and so forth not outwith the usual run of government. It is perhaps a debate that will never be set to rest. However, modern research has shown that payments were made to supporters of union that appear not to have been overdue salaries. At least four payments were made to people who were not even members of the Scottish Parliament.) Robert Burns referred to this:

We're bought and sold for English Gold, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation.

Some of the money was used to hire spies , such as Daniel Defoe ; his first reports were of vivid descriptions of violent demonstrations against the Union. "A Scots rabble is the worst of its kind," he reported, "for every Scot in favour there is 99 against". Years later Sir John Clerk of Penicuik , originally a leading Unionist , wrote in his memoirs that,

(Defoe) was a spy among us, but not known as such, otherwise the Mob of Edinburgh would pull him to pieces.

The Treaty could be considered very unpopular at the time. Popular unrest occurred in Edinburgh, as mentioned above, with some lesser but still substantial riots in Glasgow. The people of Edinburgh demonstrated against the treaty, and their apparent leader in opposition to the Unionists, was James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton . However, Hamilton was actually on the side of the English Government. Demonstrators in Edinburgh were opposed to the Union, for many reasons: they feared the Kirk would be Anglicised; that Anglicisation would remove democracy from the only really elementally democratic part of the Kingdom and they feared that tax rises would come. Sir George Lockhart of Carnwath , the only member of the Scottish negotiating team against union, noted that "The whole nation appears against the Union" and even Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, an ardent pro-unionist and Union negotiator, observed that the treaty was "contrary to the inclinations of at least three-fourths of the Kingdom". Public opinion against the Treaty as it passed through the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
was voiced through petitions from shires, burghs, presbyteries and parishes. The Convention of Royal Burghs also petitioned against the Union as proposed:

That it is our indispensable duty to signify to your grace that, as we are not against an honourable and safe union with England
England
far less can we expect to have the condition of the people of Scotland, with relation to these great concerns, made better and improved without a Scots Parliament.

Not one petition in favour of an incorporating union was received by Parliament. On the day the treaty was signed, the carilloner in St Giles Cathedral , Edinburgh, rang the bells in the tune _Why should I be so sad on my wedding day?_ Threats of widespread civil unrest resulted in Parliament imposing martial law .

IRISH PERSPECTIVE

Ireland , the third of the "sister kingdoms", was not included in the union. The effective government of Ireland was in the hands of the ' Protestant Ascendancy ', a minority elite (about 10% of the population). The Roman Catholic majority were systematically excluded from political and military discourse through a series of post-Cromwellian Penal Laws , limiting their rights to property, education, and the franchise.

In July 1707 each House of the Parliament of Ireland passed a congratulatory address to Queen Anne, praying that "May God put it in your royal heart to add greater strength and lustre to your crown, by a still more comprehensive Union". The British government did not respond to the invitation and an equal union between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland was out of consideration until the 1790s.

Ireland's benefits from the Union of 1707 were therefore few. Its preferential status in trade with England
England
now extended to Scotland. However, Ireland was left unequal and unrepresented in the Parliament of Great Britain. The Kingdom of Ireland was to remain separate, and legally subordinate to Great Britain
Great Britain
until 1784. The union with Ireland finally came about on 1 January 1801.

PROVISIONS OF THE ACTS

Royal heraldic badge of Queen Anne, depicting the Tudor rose
Tudor rose
and the Scottish thistle growing out of the same stem. Main article: Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union

The Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
, agreed between representatives of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
in 1706, consisted of 25 articles, 15 of which were economic in nature. In Scotland, each article was voted on separately and several clauses in articles were delegated to specialised subcommittees. Article 1 of the treaty was based on the political principle of an incorporating union and this was secured by a majority of 116 votes to 83 on 4 November 1706. To minimise the opposition of the Church of Scotland
Scotland
, an Act was also passed to secure the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
establishment of the Church, after which the Church stopped its open opposition, although hostility remained at lower levels of the clergy. The treaty as a whole was finally ratified on 16 January 1707 by a majority of 110 votes to 69.

The two Acts incorporated provisions for Scotland
Scotland
to send representative peers from the Peerage of Scotland
Scotland
to sit in the House of Lords . It guaranteed that the Church of Scotland
Scotland
would remain the established church in Scotland, that the Court of Session would "remain in all time coming within Scotland", and that Scots law would "remain in the same force as before". Other provisions included the restatement of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the ban on Roman Catholics from taking the throne. It also created a customs union and monetary union .

The Act provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Act would "cease and become void."

Soon after the Union, the Act 6 Anne c.40—later infelicitously named the Union with Scotland
Scotland
(Amendment) Act 1707 —united the English and Scottish Privy Councils and decentralised Scottish administration by appointing justices of the peace in each shire to carry out administration. In effect it took the day-to-day government of Scotland
Scotland
out of the hands of politicians and into those of the College of Justice .

CRITICISMS

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The English and Scottish parliaments had evolved along different lines; especially, the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
had been unicameral while that of England
England
had been bicameral . Following Union, the parliament at Westminster followed the English model.

Defoe drew upon his Scottish experience to write his _Tour thro\' the whole Island of Great Britain
Great Britain
_, published in 1726, where he admitted that the increase of trade and population in Scotland
Scotland
, which he had predicted as a consequence of the Union, was "not the case, but rather the contrary".

However, by the time Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
and James Boswell made their tour in 1773, recorded in _A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland
Scotland
_, Johnson noted that Scotland
Scotland
was "a nation of which the commerce is hourly extending, and the wealth increasing" and in particular that Glasgow
Glasgow
had become one of the greatest cities of Britain.

300TH ANNIVERSARY

The £2 coin issued in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2007 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Acts of Union

A commemorative two-pound coin was issued to mark the tercentennial—300th anniversary —of the Union, which occurred two days before the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
general election on 3 May 2007.

The Scottish Executive
Scottish Executive
held a number of commemorative events through the year including an education project led by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
Scotland
, an exhibition of Union-related objects and documents at the National Museums of Scotland
Scotland
and an exhibition of portraits of people associated with the Union at the National Galleries of Scotland
Scotland
.

SCOTTISH VOTING RECORDS

Map of commissioner voting on the ratification of the Treaty of Union.

Voting Records for 16 January 1707 ratification of the Treaty of Union COMMISSIONER CONSTITUENCY/POSITION PARTY VOTE

James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose Lord President of the Council of Scotland
Scotland
/Stirlingshire Court Party Yes

John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll

Court Party Yes

John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale

Squadrone Volante Yes

William Kerr, 2nd Marquess of Lothian

Court Party Yes

John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar

Court Party Yes

John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland

Court Party Yes

John Hamilton-Leslie, 9th Earl of Rothes

Squadrone Volante Yes

James Douglas, 11th Earl of Morton

Yes

William Cunningham, 12th Earl of Glencairn
Earl of Glencairn

Yes

James Hamilton, 6th Earl of Abercorn

Yes

John Ker, 1st Duke of Roxburghe

Squadrone Volante Yes

Thomas Hamilton, 6th Earl of Haddington

Yes

John Maitland, 5th Earl of Lauderdale

Yes

David Wemyss, 4th Earl of Wemyss

Yes

William Ramsay, 5th Earl of Dalhousie

Yes

James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater Banffshire

Yes

David Leslie, 3rd Earl of Leven

Yes

David Carnegie, 4th Earl of Northesk

Yes

Earl of Belcarras

Yes

Archibald Douglas, 1st Earl of Forfar

Yes

William Boyd, 3rd Earl of Kilmarnock

Yes

John Keith, 1st Earl of Kintore

Yes

Patrick Hume, 1st Earl of Marchmont

Squadrone Volante Yes

George Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Cromartie

Yes

Archibald Primrose, 1st Earl of Rosebery

Yes

David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow

Yes

Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun LIKELY Linlithgowshire

Yes

Henry Scott, 1st Earl of Deloraine

Yes

Archibald Campbell, Earl of Illay

Yes

William Hay, Viscount Dupplin

Yes

William Forbes, 12th Lord Forbes

Yes

John Elphinstone, 8th Lord Elphinstone

Yes

William Ross, 12th Lord Ross

Yes

James Sandilands, 7th Lord Torphichen

Yes

Lord Fraser

Yes

George Ogilvy, 3rd Lord Banff

Yes

Alexander Murray, 4th Lord Elibank

Yes

Kenneth Sutherland, 3rd Lord Duffus

Yes

Robert Rollo, 4th Lord Rollo Stirlingshire

Yes

James Murray, Lord Philiphaugh Lord Clerk Register /Selkirkshire

Yes

Adam Cockburn, Lord Ormiston Lord Justice Clerk

Yes

Sir Robert Dickson of Inverask Edinburghshire

Yes

William Nisbet of Dirletoun Haddingtonshire Squadrone Volante Yes

John Cockburn, younger, of Ormestoun Haddingtonshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Sir John Swintoun of that ilk Berwickshire Court Party Yes

Sir Alexander Campbell of Cessnock Berwickshire

Yes

Sir William Kerr of Greenhead Roxburghshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Archibald Douglas of Cavers Roxburghshire Court Party Yes

William Bennet of Grubbet Roxburghshire Court Party Yes

Mr John Murray of Bowhill Selkirkshire Court Party Yes

Mr John Pringle of Haining Selkirkshire Court Party Yes

William Morison of Prestongrange Peeblesshire Court Party Yes

Alexander Horseburgh of that ilk Peeblesshire

Yes

George Baylie of Jerviswood Lanarkshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Sir John Johnstoun of Westerhall Dumfriesshire Court Party Yes

William Dowglass of Dornock Dumfriesshire

Yes

Mr William Stewart of Castlestewart Wigtownshire

Yes

Mr John Stewart of Sorbie Wigtownshire Court Party Yes

Mr Francis Montgomery of Giffan Ayrshire Court Party Yes

Mr William Dalrymple of Glenmuir Ayrshire Court Party Yes

Mr Robert Stewart of Tillicultrie Buteshire

Yes

Sir Robert Pollock of that ilk Renfrewshire Court Party Yes

Mr John Montgomery of Wrae Linlithgowshire

Yes

John Halden of Glenagies Perthshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Mongo Graham of Gorthie Perthshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Sir Thomas Burnet of Leyes Kincardineshire Court Party Yes

William Seton, younger, of Pitmedden Aberdeenshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Alexander Grant, younger, of that ilk Inverness-shire Court Party Yes

Sir William Mackenzie

Yes

Mr Aeneas McLeod of Cadboll Cromartyshire

Yes

Mr John Campbell of Mammore Argyllshire Court Party Yes

Sir James Campbell of Auchinbreck Argyllshire Court Party Yes

James Campbell, younger, of Ardkinglass Argyllshire Court Party Yes

Sir William Anstruther of that ilk Fife

Yes

James Halyburton of Pitcurr Forfarshire Squadrone Volante Yes

Alexander Abercrombie of Glassoch Banffshire Court Party Yes

Mr James Dunbarr, younger, of Hemprigs Caithness

Yes

Alexander Douglas of Eagleshay Orkney and Shetland Court Party Yes

Sir John Bruce, 2nd Baronet Kinross-shire Squadrone Volante Yes

John Scrimsour Dundee

Yes

Lieutenant Colonel John Areskine

Yes

John Mure Likely Ayr

Yes

James Scott Montrose Court Party Yes

Sir John Anstruther, 1st Baronet, of Anstruther Anstruther Easter

Yes

James Spittle Inverkeithing

Yes

Mr Patrick Moncrieff Kinghorn Court Party Yes

Sir Andrew Home Kirkcudbright Squadrone Volante Yes

Sir Peter Halket Dunfermline Squadrone Volante Yes

Sir James Smollet Dumbarton Court Party Yes

Mr William Carmichell Lanark

Yes

Mr William Sutherland Elgin

Yes

Captain Daniel McLeod Tain

Yes

Sir David Dalrymple, 1st Baronet Culross Court Party Yes

Sir Alexander Ogilvie Banff

Yes

Mr John Clerk Whithorn Court Party Yes

John Ross

Yes

Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick North Berwick

Yes

Mr Patrick Ogilvie Cullen Court Party Yes

George Allardyce Kintore Court Party Yes

William Avis

Yes

Mr James Bethun Kilrenny

Yes

Mr Roderick McKenzie Fortrose

Yes

John Urquhart Dornoch

Yes

Daniel Campbell Inveraray Court Party Yes

Sir Robert Forbes Inverurie

Yes

Mr Robert Dowglass Kirkwall

Yes

Mr Alexander Maitland Inverbervie Court Party Yes

Mr George Dalrymple Stranraer

Yes

Mr Charles Campbell Campbeltown

Yes

Total Ayes 106

James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton

No

William Johnstone, 1st Marquess of Annandale Annan

No

Charles Hay, 13th Earl of Erroll

No

William Keith, 9th Earl Marischal

No

David Erskine, 9th Earl of Buchan

No

Alexander Sinclair, 9th Earl of Caithness

No

John Fleming, 6th Earl of Wigtown

No

James Stewart, 5th Earl of Galloway

No

David Murray, 5th Viscount of Stormont

No

William Livingston, 3rd Viscount of Kilsyth

No

William Fraser, 12th Lord Saltoun

No

Francis Sempill, 10th Lord Sempill

No

Charles Oliphant, 7th Lord Oliphant

No

John Elphinstone, 4th Lord Balmerino

No

Walter Stuart, 6th Lord Blantyre Linlithgow

No

William Hamilton, 3rd Lord Bargany Queensferry

No

John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven and Stenton

No

Lord Colvill

No

Patrick Kinnaird, 3rd Lord Kinnaird

No

Sir John Lawder of Fountainhall Haddingtonshire

No

Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun Haddingtonshire

No

Sir Robert Sinclair, 3rd Baronet Berwickshire

No

Sir Patrick Home of Rentoun Berwickshire

No

Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto Roxburghshire

No

William Bayllie of Lamingtoun Lanarkshire

No

John Sinclair, younger, of Stevensone Lanarkshire

No

James Hamilton of Aikenhead Lanarkshire

No

Mr Alexander Fergusson of Isle Dumfriesshire

No

Sir Hugh Cathcart of Carletoun Ayrshire

No

John Brisbane, younger, of Bishoptoun Ayrshire

No

Mr William Cochrane of Kilmaronock Dumbartonshire

No

Sir Humphray Colquhoun of Luss Dumbartonshire

No

Sir John Houstoun of that ilk Renfrewshire

No

Robert Rollo of Powhouse

No

Thomas Sharp of Houstoun Linlithgowshire

No

John Murray of Strowan

No

Alexander Gordon of Pitlurg Aberdeenshire

No

John Forbes of Colloden Nairnshire

No

David Bethun of Balfour Fife

No

Major Henry Balfour of Dunboog Fife

No

Mr Thomas Hope of Rankeillor

No

Mr Patrick Lyon of Auchterhouse Forfarshire

No

Mr James Carnagie of Phinhaven Forfarshire

No

David Graham, younger, of Fintrie Forfarshire

No

William Maxwell of Cardines Kirkcudbrightshire

No

Alexander McKye of Palgown Kirkcudbrightshire

No

James Sinclair of Stempster Caithness

No

Sir Henry Innes, younger, of that ilk Elginshire

No

Mr George McKenzie of Inchcoulter Ross-shire

No

Robert Inglis Edinburgh

No

Alexander Robertson Perth

No

Walter Stewart

No

Hugh Montgomery Glasgow
Glasgow
Court Party No

Alexander Edgar Haddington

No

Alexander Duff Banffshire

No

Francis Molison Brechin

No

Walter Scott Jedburgh

No

Robert Scott Selkirk

No

Robert Kellie Dunbar

No

John Hutchesone Arbroath

No

Archibald Scheills Peebles

No

Mr John Lyon Forfar

No

George Brodie Forres

No

George Spens Rutherglen

No

Sir David Cuningham Lauder

No

Mr John Carruthers Lochmaben

No

George Home New Galloway

No

John Bayne Dingwall

No

Mr Robert Fraser Wick

No

Total Noes 69

Total Votes 175

Sources: Records of the Parliament of Scotland, Parliamentary Register, p.598

SEE ALSO

* Acts of Union 1800 * Andrew Fletcher * Daniel Defoe * History of democracy * List of treaties * _ MacCormick v Lord Advocate _ * Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Political union * Real union * English independence * Scottish independence
Scottish independence
* Unionism in Scotland
Scotland
* Welsh independence

NOTES

* ^ The citation of this Act by this short title was authorised by section 1 of, and Schedule 1 to, the Short Titles Act 1896 . Due to the repeal of those provisions, it is now authorised by section 19(2) of the Interpretation Act 1978. * ^ Article I of the Treaty of Union * ^ Act of Union 1707, Article 3 * ^ Simon Schama
Simon Schama
(presenter) (22 May 2001). "Britannia Incorporated". _A History of Britain _. Episode 10. 3 minutes in. BBC One . * ^ ABDN.ac.uk * ^ Larkin, James F.; Hughes, Paul L., eds. (1973). _Stuart Royal Proclamations: Volume I_. Clarendon Press. p. 19. * ^ Lockyer, R. (1998). _James VI and I_. London: Addison Wesley Longman. pp. 51–52. ISBN 0-582-27962-3 . * ^ Lockyer, _op. cit._, pp. 54–59 * ^ Parliament.uk Archived 10 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Lockyer, _op. cit._, p.59 * ^ _A_ _B_ Parliament.uk Archived 12 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Constitution.org * ^ The 1657 Act's long title was _An Act and Declaration touching several Acts and Ordinances made since 20 April 1653, and before 3 September 1654, and other Acts_ * ^ C. Whatley, _op. cit._, p.95 * ^ C. Whatley, _op. cit._, p.30 * ^ Whatley, C. (2006). _The Scots and the Union_. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-7486-1685-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "The commissioners". UK Parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013.

* ^ "The course of negotiations". UK Parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013.

* ^ "Ratification". UK parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013. * ^ "1 May 1707 – the Union comes into effect". UK Parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013. * ^ Whatley, C. A. (2001). _Bought and sold for English Gold? Explaining the Union of 1707_. East Linton: Tuckwell Press. p. 48. ISBN 1-86232-140-X . * ^ Watt, Douglas. _The Price of Scotland: Darien, Union and the wealth of nations_. Luath Press 2007. * ^ Parliament.uk Archived 25 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Bambery, Chris (2014). _A People's History of Scotland_. Verso.

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Scottish Referendums". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-16. * ^ The Humble Address of the Commissioners to the General Convention of the Royal Burrows of this Ancient Kingdom Convened the Twenty-Ninth of October 1706, at Edinburgh * ^ Notes by John Purser to CD _Scotland's Music_, Facts about Edinburgh. * ^ Journals of the Irish Commons, vol. iii. p. 421 * ^ Riley, P. J. W. (1969). "The Union of 1707 as an Episode in English Politics". _The English Historical Review_. 84 (332): 498–527 . JSTOR 562482 . doi :10.1093/ehr/lxxxiv.cccxxxii.498 . * ^ House of Lords
House of Lords
– Written answers, 6 November 2006, TheyWorkForYou.com * ^ Announced by the Scottish Culture Minister, Patricia Ferguson, 9 November 2006

REFERENCES

* Defoe, Daniel. _A tour thro\' the Whole Island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, 1724–27_ * Defoe, Daniel. _The Letters of Daniel Defoe_, GH Healey editor. Oxford: 1955. * Fletcher, Andrew (Saltoun). _An Account of a Conversation_ * Herman, Arthur . _ How the Scots Invented the Modern World _. Three Rivers Press , 2001. ISBN 0-609-80999-7 * Lockhart, George, "The Lockhart Papers", 1702–1728

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