An actor (often actress for females; see terminology) is a person who
portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the
flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern mediums
such as film, radio, and television. The analogous Greek term is
ὑποκριτής (hupokritḗs), literally "one who answers".
The actor's interpretation of their role pertains to the role played,
whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation
occurs even when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms
of experimental performance art or, more commonly; to act, is to
create, a character in performance.
Formerly, in some societies, only men could become actors, and women's
roles were generally played by men or boys.[when?] When used for
the stage, women occasionally played the roles of prepubescent
2.1 19th century
2.2 20th century
4 As opposite sex
5.1 In theatre
5.2 In film
5.2.1 Silent films
5.2.2 Advent of sound in film
5.2.3 Role of women
5.3 In television
5.4 In radio
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage,
the terms actor or actress were initially used interchangeably for
female performers, but later, influenced by the French actrice,
actress became the commonly used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with ess added.
However, when referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors
Actor is also used before the full name of a
performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the
re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the 1950–1960s, the
post-war period when the contributions of women to cultural life in
general were being reviewed. "When The Observer and The Guardian
published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use
["actor"] for both male and female actors; do not use actress except
when in name of award, e.g. Oscar for best actress."  The authors
of the style guide stated that "actress comes into the same category
as authoress, comedienne, manageress, 'lady doctor', 'male nurse' and
similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were
largely the preserve of one sex (usually men, see male as norm). As
Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper: 'An actress can
only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK
performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or
"actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe
that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the
"...subject divides the profession."  In 2009, the Los Angeles
Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major
acting awards given to female recipients (e.g., Academy Award for
With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral
term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early
days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film
context, it is generally deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in
use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a theatre
group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players,
etc. Also, actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as
The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC
(though the changes in calendar over the years make it hard to
determine exactly) when the Greek performer
Thespis stepped onto the
stage at the
Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to
speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act,
Grecian stories were only expressed in song, dance, and in third
person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are commonly called
Thespians. The exclusively male actors in the theatre of ancient
Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, and the
satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded considerably
under the Romans. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and
diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street
theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of situation
comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th
centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the
Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, pantomime, scenes or
recitations from tragedies and comedies, dances, and other
entertainments were very popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe
was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of
actors traveled around
Europe throughout the period, performing
wherever they could find an audience; there is no evidence that they
produced anything but crude scenes. Traditionally, actors were not
of high status; therefore, in the Early Middle Ages, traveling acting
troupes were often viewed with distrust.
Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages actors were
denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as
dangerous, immoral, and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional
beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a
In the Early Middle Ages, churches in
Europe began staging dramatized
versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century,
liturgical drama had spread from
Scandinavia to Italy. The
Feast of Fools
Feast of Fools encouraged the development of comedy. In the Late
Middle Ages, plays were produced in 127 towns. These vernacular
Mystery plays often contained comedy, with actors playing devils,
villains, and clowns. The majority of actors in these plays were
drawn from the local population. Amateur performers in
exclusively male, but other countries had female performers.
There were a number of secular plays staged in the Middle Ages, the
earliest of which is The Play of the Greenwood by
Adam de la Halle
Adam de la Halle in
1276. It contains satirical scenes and folk material such as faeries
and other supernatural occurrences. Farces also rose dramatically in
popularity after the 13th century. At the end of the Late Middle Ages,
professional actors began to appear in
England and Europe. Richard III
and Henry VII both maintained small companies of professional actors.
Beginning in the mid-16th century,
Commedia dell'arte troupes
performed lively improvisational playlets across
Europe for centuries.
Commedia dell'arte was an actor-centred theatre, requiring little
scenery and very few props. Plays were loose frameworks that provided
situations, complications, and outcome of the action, around which the
actors improvised. The plays utilised stock characters. A troupe
typically consisted of 13 to 14 members. Most actors were paid a share
of the play's profits roughly equivalent to the sizes of their roles.
A 1596 sketch of a performance in progress on the thrust stage of The
Swan, a typical Elizabethan open-roof playhouse.
Renaissance theatre derived from several medieval theatre traditions,
such as the mystery plays, "morality plays", and the "university
drama" that attempted to recreate Athenian tragedy. The Italian
tradition of Commedia dell'arte, as well as the elaborate masques
frequently presented at court, also contributed to the shaping of
public theatre. Since before the reign of Elizabeth I, companies of
players were attached to households of leading aristocrats and
performed seasonally in various locations. These became the foundation
for the professional players that performed on the Elizabethan stage.
The development of the theatre and opportunities for acting ceased
Puritan opposition to the stage banned the performance of all
plays within London. Puritans viewed the theatre as immoral. The
re-opening of the theatres in 1660 signaled a renaissance of English
drama. English comedies written and performed in the Restoration
period from 1660 to 1710 are collectively called "Restoration comedy".
Restoration comedy is notorious for its sexual explicitness. At this
point, women were allowed for the first time to appear on the English
stage, exclusively in female roles. This period saw the introduction
of the first professional actresses and the rise of the first
Henry Irving in The Bells, 1874.
In the 19th century, the negative reputation of actors was largely
reversed, and acting became an honored, popular profession and
art. The rise of the actor as celebrity provided the transition,
as audiences flocked to their favorite "stars." A new role emerged for
the actor-managers, who formed their own companies and controlled the
actors, the productions, and the financing. When successful, they
built up a permanent clientele that flocked to their productions. They
could enlarge their audience by going on tour across the country,
performing a repertoire of well-known plays, such as those by
Shakespeare. The newspapers, private clubs, pubs, and coffee shops
rang with lively debates evaluating the relative merits of the stars
and the productions.
Henry Irving (1838-1905) was the most successful
of the British actor-managers. Irving was renowned for his
Shakespearean roles, and for such innovations as turning out the house
lights so that attention could focus more on the stage and less on the
audience. His company toured across Britain, as well as
Europe and the
United States, demonstrating the power of star actors and celebrated
roles to attract enthusiastic audiences. His knighthood in 1895
indicated full acceptance into the higher circles of British
By the early 20th century, the economics of large-scale productions
displaced the actor-manager model. It was too hard to find people who
combined a genius at acting as well as management, so specialization
divided the roles as stage managers and later theatre directors
emerged. Financially, much larger capital was required to operate out
of a major city. The solution was corporate ownership of chains of
theatres, such as by the Theatrical Syndicate, Edward Laurillard, and
especially The Shubert Organization. By catering to tourists, theaters
in large cities increasingly favored long runs of highly popular
plays, especially musicals. Big name stars became even more
Main article: List of acting techniques
Classical acting is an umbrella term for a philosophy of acting that
integrates the expression of the body, voice, imagination,
personalizing, improvisation, external stimuli, and script analysis.
It is based on the theories and systems of select classical actors and
Konstantin Stanislavski and Michel Saint-Denis.
In Stanislavski's system, also known as Stanislavski's method, actors
draw upon their own feelings and experiences to convey the "truth" of
the character they portray. Actors puts themselves in the mindset of
the character, finding things in common to give a more genuine
portrayal of the character.
Method acting is a range of techniques based on for training actors to
achieve better characterizations of the characters they play, as
formulated by Lee Strasberg. Strasberg's method is based upon the idea
that to develop an emotional and cognitive understanding of their
roles, actors should use their own experiences to identify personally
with their characters. It is based on aspects of Stanislavski's
system. Other acting techniques are also based on Stanislavski's
ideas, such as those of
Stella Adler and Sanford Meisner, but these
are not considered "method acting".
Meisner technique requires the actor to focus totally on the other
actor as though he or she is real and they only exist in that moment.
This is a method that makes the actors in the scene seem more
authentic to the audience. It is based on the principle that acting
finds its expression in people's response to other people and
circumstances. Is it based on Stanislavski's system.
As opposite sex
Margaret Hughes c. 1670
Formerly, in some societies, only men could become actors. In ancient
Greece and ancient Rome and the medieval world, it was considered
disgraceful for a woman to go on stage; this belief persisted until
the 17th century in Venice. In the time of William Shakespeare,
women's roles were generally played by men or boys.
When an eighteen-year
Puritan prohibition of drama was lifted after
English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in
Margaret Hughes is oft credited as the first professional
actress on the English stage. This prohibition ended during the
reign of Charles II in part because he enjoyed watching actresses on
stage. The first occurrence of the term actress was in 1608
according to the
OED and is ascribed to Middleton. In the 19th century
many viewed women in acting negatively, as actresses were often
courtesans and associated with promiscuity. Despite these prejudices,
the 19th century also saw the first female acting "stars", most
notably Sarah Bernhardt.
In Japan, onnagata, men taking on female roles, were used in kabuki
theatre when women were banned from performing on stage during the Edo
period. This convention continues. By contrast, some forms of Chinese
drama involve women playing all roles.
In modern times, women occasionally played the roles of prepubescent
boys. For example, the stage role of
Peter Pan is traditionally played
by a woman, as are most principal boys in British pantomime.
several "breeches roles" traditionally sung by women, usually
mezzo-sopranos. Examples are Hansel in Hänsel und Gretel, Cherubino
The Marriage of Figaro
The Marriage of Figaro and Octavian in Der Rosenkavalier.
Women playing male roles are uncommon in film, with notable
exceptions. In 1982,
Stina Ekblad played the mysterious Ismael
Retzinsky in Fanny and Alexander, and
Linda Hunt received the Academy
Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing Billy Kwan in The Year
of Living Dangerously. In 2007,
Cate Blanchett was nominated for the
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing Jude Quinn, a
fictionalized representation of
Bob Dylan in the 1960s, in I'm Not
In the 2000s, women playing men in live theatre is particularly common
in presentations of older plays, such as Shakespearean works with
large numbers of male characters in roles where gender is
Having an actor dress as the opposite sex for comic effect is also a
long-standing tradition in comic theatre and film. Most of
Shakespeare's comedies include instances of overt cross-dressing, such
Francis Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream. The movie A Funny Thing
Happened on the Way to the Forum stars
Jack Gilford dressing as a
Tony Curtis and
Jack Lemmon famously posed as women to
escape gangsters in the
Billy Wilder film Some Like It Hot.
Cross-dressing for comic effect was a frequently used device in most
of the Carry On films.
Dustin Hoffman and
Robin Williams have each
appeared in a hit comedy film (
Tootsie and Mrs. Doubtfire,
respectively) in which they played most scenes dressed as a woman.
Occasionally, the issue is further complicated, for example, by a
woman playing a woman acting as a man—who then pretends to be a
woman, such as
Julie Andrews in Victor/Victoria, or
Gwyneth Paltrow in
Shakespeare in Love. In It's Pat: The Movie, filmwatchers never learn
the gender of the androgynous main characters Pat and Chris (played by
Julia Sweeney and Dave Foley). Similarly, in the aforementioned
example of The Marriage of Figaro, there is a scene in which Cherubino
(a male character portrayed by a woman) dresses up and acts as a
woman; the other characters in the scene are aware of a single level
of gender role obfuscation, while the audience is aware of two levels.
A few modern roles are played by a member of the opposite sex in order
to emphasize the gender fluidity of the role. Edna Turnblad in
Hairspray was played by Divine in the 1988 original film, Harvey
Fierstein in the Broadway musical, and
John Travolta in the 2007 movie
Felicity Huffman was nominated for an Academy Award for Best
Actress for playing Bree Osbourne (a male-to-female transsexual) in
Actors working in theatre, film, television and radio have to learn
specific skills. Techniques that work well in one type of acting may
not work well in another type of acting.
To act on stage, actors need to learn the stage directions that appear
in the script, such as "Stage Left" and "Stage Right". These
directions are based on the actor's point of view as he or she stands
on the stage facing the audience. Actors also have to learn the
meaning of the stage directions "Upstage" (away from the audience) and
"Downstage" (towards the audience)
Theatre actors need to learn
blocking, which is "...where and how an actor moves on the stage
during a play". Most scripts specify some blocking. The Director also
gives instructions on blocking, such as crossing the stage or picking
up and using a prop.
Some theater actors need to learn stage combat, which is simulated
fighting on stage. Actors may have to simulate hand-to-hand [fighting]
or sword[-fighting]. Actors are coached by fight directors, who help
them learn the choreographed sequence of fight actions. 
From 1894 to the late 1920s, movies were silent films. Silent film
actors emphasized body language and facial expression, so that the
audience could better understand what an actor was feeling and
portraying on screen. Much silent film acting is apt to strike
modern-day audiences as simplistic or campy. The melodramatic acting
style was in some cases a habit actors transferred from their former
Vaudeville theatre was an especially popular origin
for many American silent film actors. The pervading presence of
stage actors in film was the cause of this outburst from director
Marshall Neilan in 1917: "The sooner the stage people who have come
into pictures get out, the better for the pictures." In other cases,
directors such as John Griffith Wray required their actors to deliver
larger-than-life expressions for emphasis. As early as 1914, American
viewers had begun to make known their preference for greater
naturalness on screen.
Pioneering film directors in
Europe and the United States recognized
the different limitations and freedoms of the mediums of stage and
screen by the early 1910s. Silent films became less vaudevillian in
the mid 1910s, as the differences between stage and screen became
apparent. Due to the work of directors such as D W Griffith,
cinematography became less stage-like, and the then-revolutionary
close up shot allowed subtle and naturalistic acting. In America, D.W.
Griffith's company Biograph Studios, became known for its innovative
direction and acting, conducted suit the cinema rather than the stage.
Griffith realized that theatrical acting did not look good on film and
required his actors and actresses to go through weeks of film acting
Lillian Gish has been called film's "first true actress" for her work
in the period, as she pioneered new film performing techniques,
recognizing the crucial differences between stage and screen acting.
Directors such as
Albert Capellani and
Maurice Tourneur began to
insist on naturalism in their films. By the mid-1920s many American
silent films had adopted a more naturalistic acting style, though not
all actors and directors accepted naturalistic, low-key acting
straight away; as late as 1927, films featuring expressionistic acting
styles, such as Metropolis, were still being released. 
According to Anton Kaes, a silent film scholar from the University of
Wisconsin, American silent cinema began to see a shift in acting
techniques between 1913 and 1921, influenced by techniques found in
German silent film. This is mainly attributed to the influx of
emigrants from the Weimar Republic, "including film directors,
producers, cameramen, lighting and stage technicians, as well as
actors and actresses".
Advent of sound in film
Film actors have to learn to get used to and be comfortable with a
camera being in front of them.
Film actors need to learn to find
and stay on their "mark." This is a position on the floor marked with
tape. This position is where the lights and camera focus are
Film actors also need to learn how to prepare well and
perform well on screen tests. Screen tests are a filmed audition of
part of the script.
Unlike theater actors, who develop characters for repeat performances,
film actors lack continuity, forcing them to come to all scenes
(sometimes shot in reverse of the order in which they ultimately
appear) with a fully developed character already.
"Since film captures even the smallest gesture and magnifies it...,
cinema demands a less flamboyant and stylized bodily performance from
the actor than does the theater." "The performance of emotion is the
most difficult aspect of film acting to master: ...the film actor must
rely on subtle facial ticks, quivers, and tiny lifts of the eyebrow to
create a believable character." Some theatre stars "...have made
the theater-to-cinema transition quite successfully (Laurence Olivier,
Glenn Close, and Julie Andrews, for instance), others have not..."
Role of women
Anne Hathaway, a popular actress today with many lead roles in film.
Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing
films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of
characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". In the U.S.,
there is an "industry-wide [gap] in salaries of all scales. On
average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man
makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male’s dollar,
Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to
that." Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined
that the "...men on Forbes’ list of top-paid actors for that year
made 2½ times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means
that Hollywood’s best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for
every dollar that the best-compensated men made."
"On a television set, there are typically several cameras angled at
the set. Actors who are new to on-screen acting can get confused about
which camera to look into." TV actors need to learn to use lav
mics (Lavaliere microphones). TV actors need to understand the
concept of "frame". "The term frame refers to the area that the
camera's lens is capturing." Within the acting industry, there are
four types of television roles one could land on a show. Each type
varies in prominence, frequency of appearance, and pay. The first is
known as a series regular—the main actors on the show as part of the
permanent cast. Actors in recurring roles are under contract to appear
in multiple episodes of a series. A co-star role is a small speaking
role that usually only appears in one episode. A guest star is a
larger role than a co-star role, and the character is often the
central focus of the episode or integral to the plot.
Recording a radio play in the Netherlands (1949), Spaarnestad Photo
Radio drama is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance, broadcast on
radio or published on audio media, such as tape or CD. With no visual
component, radio drama depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to
help the listener imagine the characters and story: "It is auditory in
the physical dimension but equally powerful as a visual force in the
Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its
initial development in the 1920s. By the 1940s, it was a leading
international popular entertainment. With the advent of television in
the 1950s, however, radio drama lost some of its popularity, and in
some countries has never regained large audiences. However, recordings
of OTR (old-time radio) survive today in the audio archives of
collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as
As of 2011, radio drama has a minimal presence on terrestrial radio in
the United States. Much of American radio drama is restricted to
rebroadcasts or podcasts of programs from previous decades. However,
other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the
United Kingdom, for example, the
BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds
of new radio plays each year on
Radio 4, and
Radio 4 Extra.
Podcasting has also offered the means of creating new radio dramas, in
addition to the distribution of vintage programs.
The terms "audio drama" or "audio theatre" are sometimes used
synonymously with "radio drama" with one possible distinction: audio
drama or audio theatre may not necessarily be intended specifically
for broadcast on radio. Audio drama, whether newly produced or OTR
classics, can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, podcasts, webcasts and
conventional broadcast radio.
Thanks to advances in digital recording and Internet distribution,
radio drama is experiencing a revival.
Presentational and representational acting
Lists of actors
Pornographic film actor
^ "Definition of actor". Hypokrites (related to our word for
hypocrite) also means, less often, "to answer" the tragic chorus. See
Weimann (1978, 2); see also Csapo and Slater, who offer translations
of classical source material using the term hypocrisis (acting) (1994,
^ "The dramatic world can be extended to include the 'author', the
'audience' and even the 'theatre'; but these remain 'possible'
surrogates, not the 'actual' referents as such" (Elam 1980, 110).
^ a b Neziroski, Lirim (2003). "narrative, lyric, drama". Theories of
Media :: Keywords Glossary :: multimedia. University of
Chicago. Retrieved 2009-03-14. For example, until the late 1600s,
audiences were opposed to seeing women on stage, because of the belief
stage performance reduced them to the status of showgirls and
prostitutes. Even Shakespeare's plays were performed by boys dressed
^ a b JULIET DUSINBERRE. "Boys Becoming Women in Shakespeare's Plays"
(PDF). S-sj.orgaccessdate=22 October 2017.
^ "actress, n.".
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (3 ed.). Oxford, England:
Oxford University Press. November 2010. Although actor refers to a
person who acts regardless of gender, where this term "is increasingly
preferred", actress remains in general use; actor is increasingly
preferred for performers of both sexes as a gender-neutral term.
^ a b c d Pritchard, Stephen (24 September 2011). "The readers' editor
Actor or actress?". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 22 October
^ Goodman, Lizbeth; Holledge, Julie (1998). The Routledge reader in
gender and performance. New York: Routledge. pp. 8; 93.
^ Linden, Sheri (18 January 2009). "From actor to actress and back
again". Entertainment. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-03-14. It
would be several decades before the word "actress" appeared – 1700,
according to the Oxford English Dictionary, more than a century after
the word "actor" was first used to denote a theatrical performer,
supplanting the less professional-sounding "player."
^ Spolin, Viola (1999). Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of
Teaching and Directing Techniques (3rd ed.). Evanston, Ill:
Northwestern Univ Press. pp. Introduction to the 3rd Edition.
^ Brockett and Hildy (2003, 15–19).
^ Brockett and Hildy (2003, 75)
^ Brockett and Hildy (2003, 86)
^ Wilmeth, Don B.; Bigsby, C.W.E. (1998). The Cambridge history of
American theatre. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
pp. 449–450. ISBN 978-0-521-65179-0.
^ James Eli Adams, ed., Encyclopedia of the Victorian era (2004)
^ George Rowell,
Theatre in the Age of Irving (Rowman &
^ Jeffrey Richards (2007). Sir Henry Irving: A Victorian
Actor and His
World. A&C Black. p. 109.
^ Foster Hirsch, The Boys from Syracuse: The Shuberts' Theatrical
Empire (Cooper Square Press, 2000).
^ Guerrasio, Jason. (2014-12-19) What It Means To Be ‘Method’.
Tribecafilminstitute.org. Retrieved on 2016-02-10.
Radio 4 - Woman's Hour -Women Actors in Ancient Rome".
Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
^ Smallweed (23 July 2005). "Smallweed". The Guardian. Archived from
the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-14. "Whereas women's
parts in plays have hitherto been acted by men in the habits of women
... we do permit and give leave for the time to come that all women's
parts be acted by women," Charles II ordained in 1662. According to
Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the first actress to exploit
this new freedom was Margaret Hughes, as Desdemona in Othello on
December 8, 1660.
^ "Women as actresses" (PDF). Notes and Queries. The New York Times.
18 October 1885. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved
2009-03-14. There seems no doubt that actresses did not perform on the
stage till the Restoration, in the earliest years of which Pepys says
for the first time he saw an actress upon the stage. Charles II, must
have brought the usage from the Continent, where women had long been
employed instead of boys or youths in the representation of female
^ ‘Studies in hysteria’: actress and courtesan, Sarah Bernhardt
and Mrs Patrick Campbell
^ a b c d e f "Industry Tips". Archived from the original on March 26,
2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
^ Lewis, John (2008). American Film: A History (First ed.). New York,
NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-97922-0.
^ brownlow 1968, pp. 344-353.
^ a b c d "Movies and Film". infoplease.com.
^ Brownlow 1968, pp. 344–353.
^ Kaes, Anton (1990). "Silent Cinema". Monatshefte.
^ "Auditions for Film: Movie
Acting Tips and Techniques".
Ace-your-audition.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
^ a b Jennifer Lawrence Speaks Out On Making Less Than Male Co-Stars.
Forbes.com (2015-10-13). Retrieved on 2016-02-10.
^ Woodruff, Betsy. (2015-02-23) Gender wage gap in Hollywood: It's
very, very wide. Slate.com. Retrieved on 2016-02-10.
^ "How much do Hollywood campaigns for an Oscar cost?".
Stephenfollows.com. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
^ Female Movie Stars Experience Earnings Plunge After Age 34. Variety
(2014-02-07). Retrieved on 2016-02-10.
^ Tim Crook:
Radio drama. Theory and practice Archived July 1, 2014,
at the Wayback Machine.. London; New York: Routledge, 1999, p. 8.
^ Compare the entry to Hörspiel e.g. in: dict.cc –
^ Newman, Barry (2010-02-25). "Return With Us to the Thrilling Days Of
Yesteryear — Via the Internet". Wall Street Journal.
Csapo, Eric, and William J. Slater. 1994. The Context of Ancient
Drama. Ann Arbor: The U of Michigan P. ISBN 0-472-08275-2.
Elam, Keir. 1980. The
Theatre and Drama. New Accents Ser.
London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-416-72060-9.
Weimann, Robert. 1978. Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition in the
Theater: Studies in the Social Dimension of Dramatic Form and
Function. Ed. Robert Schwartz. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins
University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3506-2.
An Actor's Work by Constantin Stanislavski
A Dream of Passion: The Development of the Method by Lee Strasberg
(Plume Books, ISBN 0-452-26198-8, 1990)
Sanford Meisner on
Sanford Meisner (Vintage,
ISBN 0-394-75059-4, 1987)
Letters to a Young
Robert Brustein (Basic Books,
ISBN 0-465-00806-2, 2005).
The Empty Space by Peter Brook
The Technique of
Acting by Stella Adler
Look up actor, actress, or player in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Screen Actors Guild (SAG): a union representing U. S. film and TV
Actors' Equity Association (AEA): a union representing U. S. theatre
actors and stage managers.
American Federation of
Radio Artists (AFTRA): a union
representing U. S. television and radio actors and broadcasters
(on-air journalists, etc.).
British Actors' Equity: a trade union representing UK artists,
including actors, singers, dancers, choreographers, stage managers,
theatre directors and designers, variety and circus artists,
television and radio presenters, walk-on and supporting artists, stunt
performers and directors and theatre fight directors.
Media Entertainment & Arts Alliance: an Australian/New Zealand
trade union representing everyone in the media, entertainment, sports,
and arts industries.
6 qualities you must have to be a good actor
Film crew (filmmaking)
Above the line
Below the line
Unit production manager
Property master / mistress ("props")
Cinematographer / Director of photography
Best boy (electrical)
Best boy (grip)
Director of audiography
Production sound mixer
Utility sound technician
Special effects supervisor
Visual effects supervisor
Visual effects editor
Access related topics
BNF: cb133184428 (d