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CHARLES is a masculine given name from the French form Charles
Charles
of a Germanic name Karl. The original Anglo-Saxon was Ċearl or Ċeorl, as the name of King Cearl of Mercia , that disappeared after the Norman conquest of England .

The corresponding Old Norse form is Karl , and the German form is also Karl. The name was notably borne by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
( Charles
Charles
the Great), and was at the time Latinized as Karolus (as in Vita Karoli Magni ), later also as Carolus .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early Middle Ages * 2.2 Later Middle Ages and Early Modern history * 2.3 Modern history

* 3 Derived feminine names * 4 Regional forms of the name

* 5 List of notable people

* 5.1 Media, arts and entertainment * 5.2 Athletes * 5.3 In politics

* 5.4 In religion

* 5.4.1 church leaders

* 5.5 Nobility * 5.6 Scientists * 5.7 Other

* 6 Other uses of the name * 7 See also * 8 References

ETYMOLOGY

The name's etymology is a Common Germanic noun *karlaz meaning "free man", which survives in English as churl (< Old English ċeorl), which developed its deprecating sense in the Middle English period.

In the form Charles, the initial spelling ch- corresponds to the palatalization of the Latin group ca- to in Central Old French ( Francien ) and the final -s to the former subjective case (cas sujet) of masculine names in Old French like in Giles or James (< Latin -us, see Spanish/ Portuguese Carlos).

According to Julius Pokorny , the historical linguist and Indo-Europeanist , the root meaning of Karl is "old man", from Indo-European *ĝer-, where the ĝ is a palatal consonant , meaning "to rub; to be old; grain." An old man has been worn away and is now grey with age.

HISTORY

EARLY MIDDLE AGES

The name is atypical for Germanic names as it is not composed of two elements, but simply a noun meaning "(free) man". This meaning of ceorl contrasts with eorl (Old Norse jarl) "nobleman" on one hand and with þeow (Old Norse þræll ) "bondsman, slave" on the other. As such it would not seem a likely candidate for the name of a Germanic king , but it is attested as such with Cearl of Mercia (fl. 620), the first Mercian king mentioned by Bede
Bede
in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum . It is a peculiarity of the Anglo-Saxon royal names that many of the rulers of the earliest period (6th to 7th centuries) have monothematic (simplex) names, while the standard dithematic (compounded) names become almost universal from the 8th century. Compare the name of king Mul of Kent (7th century) which simply translates to "mule".

Charles Martel (686–741) was an illegitimate son of Pepin of Herstal , and therefore indeed a "free man", but not of noble rank. After his victory at the Battle of Soissons (718) , Charles
Charles
Martel styled himself Duke of the Franks . Charles' eldest son was named Carloman (c. 710–754), a rare example of the element carl- occurring in a compound name. The Chronicle of Fredegar
Chronicle of Fredegar
names an earlier Carloman as the father of Pepin of Landen , and thus the great-great-grandfather of the Charles
Charles
Martel. This would place the name Carloman in the 6th century, and open the possibility that the Frankish name Carl may originate as a short form of Carloman. The only other compound name with the Carl- prefix is Carlofred (Carlefred), attested in the 7th century; as a suffix, it occurs in the rare names Altcarl and Gundecarl (9th and 11th centuries, respectively).

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(742–814) was Charles
Charles
Martel's grandson. After Charlemagne's reign, the name became irrevocably connected with him and his Carolingian dynasty . After Charlemagne, the name Charles (Karol) became even the standard word for "king" in Slavic (Czech and Slovak král, Polish król; South Slavic kral крал, krȃlj краљ; Russian король), Baltic (Latvian karalis, Lithuanian karalius) and Hungarian (király).

Charlemagne's son Charles the Younger died without issue, but the name resurfaces repeatedly within the 9th-century Carolingian family tree, so with Charles the Bald (823–877), Charles
Charles
the Fat (839–888) Charles of Provence (845–863), Charles
Charles
the Child (847/848–866) and Charles the Simple (879–929).

LATER MIDDLE AGES AND EARLY MODERN HISTORY

The name survives into the High Middle Ages (Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine ; Charles, Count of Valois
Charles, Count of Valois
; Charles
Charles
I, Count of Flanders ( Charles
Charles
the Good, beatified in 1882); Charles I of Naples
Charles I of Naples
; Charles
Charles
I of Hungary ). Karl Sverkersson was a king of Sweden in the 12th century, counted as " Charles
Charles
VII" due to a genealogical fiction of the 17th century by Charles
Charles
"IX" , but actually the first king of Sweden with this name.

Charles
Charles
resurfaces as a royal name in Germany with Charles
Charles
IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378, counted as "the fourth" after Charlemagne, Charles the Bald and Charles
Charles
the Fat) and in France with Charles
Charles
IV of France (1294–1328, "the fourth" after Charlemagne, Charles
Charles
the Bald and Charles
Charles
the Simple), and becomes comparatively widespread in the Late Middle Ages ( Charles I, Duke of Savoy , Charles
Charles
III, Duke of Savoy ).

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558) gives rise to a tradition of Charlses in Habsburg Spain
Spain
( Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
, Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
, Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain
, Charles IV of Spain .

The numbering scheme for the kings of Sweden was continued in modern times with Charles
Charles
X , Charles
Charles
XI , Charles
Charles
XII , Charles
Charles
XIII , Charles
Charles
XIV and Charles
Charles
XV .

Charles I of England
Charles I of England
(1600–1649) is followed by Charles
Charles
II of England (1630–1685). The Province of Carolina is named during the rule of Charles
Charles
II, after Charles
Charles
I.

Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine (1661–1742);

MODERN HISTORY

Carlism is a political movement in Spain
Spain
seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon family on the Spanish throne . This line descended from Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
(1788–1855), and was founded due to dispute over the succession laws and widespread dissatisfaction with the Alfonsine line of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
. The movement was at its strongest in the 1830s, causing the Carlist Wars , and had a revival following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, and lasted until the end of the Franco regime in 1975 as a social and political force

Charles
Charles
Floyd (1782–1804) was the only casualty in the Lewis and Clark Expedition . Charles DeRudio (1832–1910) was an Italian aristocrat, would-be assassin of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
, and later a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the 7th U.S. Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn . Charles Albert Varnum (1849–1936) was the commander of the scouts in the Little Bighorn Campaign and received the Medal of Honor for his actions in a conflict following the Battle of Wounded Knee . "Lonesome" Charley Reynolds (1842–1876) was a scout in the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment who was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Carl has been a very popular male given name in the United States during the late 19th to early 20th centuries, consistently ranking in the top 30 male given names in the US from 1887 to 1938, and remaining among the top 100 until the 1980s, but since declining below rank 500. Charles
Charles
has been among the top 400 male given names in the United States in the 1880s and again in the 1930s, but since then it has declined steadily, dropping out of the top 1,000 by the 1970s. By contrast, it remains among the top 100 names given in England and Wales.

The heir-apparent of the British throne, Charles, Prince of Wales , would become Charles
Charles
III upon accession if he decided to keep his given name.

DERIVED FEMININE NAMES

Caroline and CHARLOTTE are feminine given names derived from Carl.

Charlotte
Charlotte
is late medieval, e.g. Charlotte
Charlotte
of Savoy (1441–1483), Charlotte
Charlotte
of Cyprus (1444–1487). It was introduced to Britain in the 17th century, and gave rise to hypocorisms such as Lottie, Tottie, Totty.

Caroline is early modern, e.g. Caroline of Ansbach
Caroline of Ansbach
(1683–1737). It has given rise to numerous variations, such as Carlyn, Carolina, Carolyn, Karolyn, Carolin, Karolina, Karoline, Karolina, Carolien, as well as hypocorisms, such as Callie, Carol, Carrie, etc.

Another derived feminine name is CARLA (Bulgarian , Dutch , English , German , Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , Catalan ), a name which dates from early Italy.

Regional forms:

*

* Carolina (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Bulgarian) * Caroline (English, French, Swedish, Danish) * Carolyn (English) * Carlijn (Dutch) * Karoliina (Finnish) * Karolina (Bulgarian, Polish, Swedish) * Karolína (Czech) * Karoline (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) * Karolina (Каролина) (Russian) * Keraleyn (קעראַליין) (Yiddish) * Carly (American) * Carol (English)

* Carola
Carola
(German, Swedish)

* Carole (English, French, Portuguese) * Karol (קאַראָל) (Yiddish ) * Kyārōla (क्यारोल) (Nepali ) * Kerol (Керол) (Serbian), (Russian)

* Charlotte
Charlotte
(English, French, German, Swedish, Danish)

* Carlota (Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan) * Carlotta (Italian) * Charlotta (Swedish)

* Carla
Carla

* Charla (English) * Karla (Bulgarian, German, Scandinavian, Serbian, Czech, Croatian) * Карла (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian)

* Charlene (given name) , Charlène

REGIONAL FORMS OF THE NAME

LANGUAGE FORMAL NAME INFORMAL NAME

Armenian Կարլոս (Karlos)

Basque Karlos

Bulgarian Карл (Karl)

Catalan Carles

Croatian Karlo

Czech Karel

Danish Karl, Carl

Dutch Karel

English Charles Chaz, Chad, Chip, Chuck , Charlie

Estonian Kaarel , Kaarli, Kaaro, Kalle

Faroese Karl

Finnish Kaarlo, Kaarle, Kalle , Karl

French Charles Charlot

German Karl, Carl

Georgian კარლო (Karlo)

Greek Κάρολος (Károlos)

Hungarian Károly , Karcsi

Hawaiian Kale

Icelandic Karl

Irish Carlus, Séarlas

Italian Carlo

Latin Carolus

Latvian Kārlis

Limburgish Sjarel

Lithuanian Karolis

Norwegian Karl, Carl

Polish Karol

Portuguese Carlos Carlinhos

Romanian Carol

Russian Карл (Karl)

Scottish Gaelic Teàrlach

Serbian Карло (Karlo)

Slovak Karol

Slovene Karel

Spanish Carlos Carlito, Carlitos

Swedish Karl, Carl, Kalle

Tagalog Carlos

Welsh Siarl

LIST OF NOTABLE PEOPLE

MEDIA, ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT

In literature

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charles Bukowski
Charles Bukowski
American poet and novelist

Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
English novelist

Charles
Charles
Dodgson (pen-name Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
) English clergyman, writer and mathematician

Charles Henri Ford American poet, photographer and writer

Charles Fort
Charles Fort
American writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena

Charles L. Grant American science-fiction author

Charles
Charles
Roger Hargreaves Children's author who wrote the Mr. Men and Little Miss series.

Charles Lewinsky Swiss screenwriter, dramatist and playwright

Charles Lummis American journalist, poet and historian

Charles Olson American poet

Charles G.D. Roberts Canadian poet

Charles Webb (author) American author of The Graduate

In music

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charles Aznavour French-Armenian singer

Chuck Berry American guitarist, singer and composer

Charlie Daniels American country music figure

Charles Gavin
Charles Gavin
Brazilian rock drummer/producer

Charlie Haden
Charlie Haden
American Jazz bassist and composer

Charles Ives
Charles Ives
American composer

Chuck Mangione American jazz artist

Charles Mingus American Jazz bassist and composer

Charles E. Moody American gospel songwriter and performer

Charlie Parker American Jazz saxophonist

Charlie Simpson British musician and singer

Charles Davis Tillman (1861–1943) pioneer of southern gospel music

Charlie Watts English drummer for the rock group The Rolling Stones

In film

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charles Bowers American cartoonist and early film-maker

Charles Boyer French-American actor

Charles Bronson
Charles Bronson
American actor

Sebastian Cabot (born Charles
Charles
Sebastian Thomas Cabot) English actor

Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
English comedy actor, famous for silent film acting

Charley Chase American silent film comedian and writer

Charles Dance
Charles Dance
English actor

Charles Durning American actor

Charles Gray (actor) English actor

Charles Grodin American actor and cable talk show host

Charles Herbert American child actor of the '50s and '60s

Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(born John Charles
Charles
Carter) American actor

Lionel Jeffries (born Lionel Charles
Charles
Jeffries) English actor

Charles Laughton English actor

Chas Licciardello Australian comedian and a member of The Chaser

Charles Stanton Ogle silent film actor

Charles Nelson Reilly
Charles Nelson Reilly
American comic actor and game show regular

Charles Reisner American actor and film director

In television

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charles Gibson
Charles Gibson
American television journalist

Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
American television journalist

Charlie Rose
Charlie Rose
American host of a television interview show

In visual arts

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charles Addams
Charles Addams
American cartoonist known for his particularly black humor and macabre characters

Chuck Jones American animator

Charles Martinet
Charles Martinet
American actor known for playing the voice as Mario
Mario
and other characters

Charles R. Knight
Charles R. Knight
wildlife artist, known for prehistoric restorations

Charles Prendergast Canadian-American artist

Charles Schulz
Charles Schulz
creator of the comic strip Peanuts

ATHLETES

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charlie Austin English footballer

Charles Barkley former NBA forward and a current NBA color commentator for TNT

Chuck Bednarik
Chuck Bednarik
NFL player, 1967, Philadelphia Eagles

Charles
Charles
Cornelius NFL and CFL player

Charles Daniels (swimmer) (1885–1973) American freestyle swimmer

Charley Diamond American football player

Charlie Fleming Scottish footballer

Charles
Charles
"Buckets" Goldenberg American All-Pro football player

Charles Green (other) multiple people

Chuck Hayes American basketball player who currently plays for the Houston Rockets

Charles Horton American football player

Charles Jenkins (other) multiple people

Charles Lefrançois Canadian high jumper

Charles
Charles
Madrid "Dr. Charles" one of the founding fathers of sport compact racing

Charlie McCarthy (hurler) Irish hurler

Charles Myer
Charles Myer
American major league baseball All Star second baseman

Charles Oakley American basketball forward

Charles Radbourn early Major League Baseball pitcher

Charles Ramsdell (basketball) Malagasy athlete

Charlie Reiter American professional soccer player

Charles Fernando Basílio da Silva Brazilian midfielder

Charles Sifford first African American golfer to play in a PGA tour

Charles
Charles
Washington American football player

IN POLITICS

NAME DESCRIPTION

Charles "Bubba" Chaney Louisiana
Louisiana
politician

Charles Francis Adams, Sr.
Charles Francis Adams, Sr.
American congressman and ambassador, grandson of John Adams

Charles Edward Bennett
Charles Edward Bennett
Democratic U.S. Congressman from Florida

Charles Bent first Governor of New Mexico Territory, assassinated in 1847

Charles Joseph Bonaparte former U. S. Attorney General

Charles Bradlaugh
Charles Bradlaugh
British political activist and militant atheist, founder of the National Secular Society

Charles Carroll of Carrollton last living signer of the Declaration of Independence (died 1832)

Charles Colson U.S. President Nixon's Chief Counsel, involved in the Watergate scandal

Charles Magill Conrad
Charles Magill Conrad
former American Secretary of War

Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
31st American Vice President, under Herbert Hoover

Charles G. Dawes 30th American Vice President, under Calvin Coolidge

Charles Devens former U.S. Attorney General

Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
French military leader and statesman

James Charles Evers
Charles Evers
civil rights activist, older brother of Medgar Evers

Charles W. Fairbanks 26th American Vice President, under Theodore Roosevelt

Charles A. Ford
Charles A. Ford
American diplomat

Charles B. Peatross
Charles B. Peatross
politician and judge of the state circuit court in Shreveport , Louisiana
Louisiana

Charles Gibbs (Alberta politician) Canadian politician

Charles Harper (Mayor) Australian politician

Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes
former U.S. Secretary of State

Charles Humphreys Pennsylvania delegate to Continental Congress; refused to sign Declaration of Independence due to his Quaker beliefs

Chuck Larson current (2008) U.S. ambassador to Latvia

Charles Lee (Attorney General) former U. S. Attorney General

Charles Mathias (1922–2010) American politician

Karolos Papoulias
Karolos Papoulias
President of the Hellenic Republic (Greece)

Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell
Irish political leader

Charles Pearson former Solicitor for The City of London and early railway advocate

Chuck Robb former Governor of Virginia ">SEE ALSO

* Carl (name) * Charley (other) * Charlie (other) * Charly (other) * Chuck (other) * Charleston (other) * Charlestown (other) * Saint Charles (other) * Chas (other)

REFERENCES

* ^ T. F. Hoad, English Etymology, Oxford University Press, 1993 (ISBN 0-19-283098-8 ). p. 76. * ^ Pokorny, Julius; G. Starotsin; A. Lubotsky (2007). Proto-Indo-European Etymological Dictionary: a Revised Edition of Julius Pokorny's Indogermanicshes Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Indo-European Language Association. pp. 1192–1193. * ^ E. Förstemann, Altdeutsches Namenbuch (1856), s.v. 'Carl' (303). * ^ "Caroline". Behind the Name. Retrieved 12 April 2017. * ^ "Charlotte". Behind the Name. Retrieved 12 April 2017. * ^ "Caroline". Oxford Reference. Oxford. Retrieved 12 April 2017. * ^ "Carla". Behind the Name. Retrieved 12 April 2017.

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Charles
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