AKTION T4 (German, pronounced ) was the postwar designation for a
programme of mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi
Germany . The name T4 is an abbreviation of
Tiergartenstraße 4, a
street address of the Chancellery department set up in the spring of
1940, in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten , which recruited and paid
personnel associated with T4. Under the programme certain German
physicians were authorized to select patients "deemed incurably sick,
after most critical medical examination" and then administer to them a
"mercy death" (Gnadentod). In October 1939
Reich Leader Bouhler and Dr. Brandt are entrusted with the
responsibility of extending the authority of physicians, to be
designated by name, so that patients who, after a most critical
diagnosis, on the basis of human judgment , are considered incurable,
can be granted mercy death . —
The programme ran officially from September 1939 to August 1941, during which the recorded 70,273 people were killed at various extermination centres located at psychiatric hospitals in Germany and Austria, along with those in occupied Poland . About half of the victims were from church-run asylums.
Several reasons for the programme have been offered, including eugenics , compassion, reducing suffering, racial hygiene , cost effectiveness and pressure on the welfare budget. After the nominal end of the programme, physicians in German and Austrian facilities continued many of the practices of Aktion T4, until the defeat of Germany in 1945. The unofficial continuation of the policy led to additional deaths by medicine and similar means, resulting in 93,521 beds "emptied" by the end of 1941. Technology that was developed under Aktion T4, particularly the use of lethal gas to commit mass murder, was taken over by the medical division of the Reich Interior Ministry, along with personnel who had participated in the development of the technology and later participated in Operation Reinhard . The technology, personnel and techniques developed were instrumental in the implementation of Nazi genocides .
* 1 Background * 2 Implementation * 3 Killing of children
* 4 Killing of adults
Invasion of Poland
* 5 Gassing * 6 Technology and personnel transfer to death camps * 7 Death Toll
* 8 Voices of opposition
* 8.1 Exposure * 8.2 Church protests
* 9 Suspension of T4 killings
* 10 Post-war
* 10.1 Doctors\' trial * 10.2 Others involved
* 11 Memorials * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 Footnotes * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links
This poster (from around 1938) reads: "60,000
The term "Aktion T4" came into use after the war; before that German
terminology included Euthanasie (euthanasia ) and Gnadentod (merciful
death). The T4 programme stemmed from the
The idea of sterilising those carrying hereditary defects or
exhibiting what was thought to be hereditary "antisocial" behaviour
was widely accepted.
The policy and research agenda of racial hygiene and eugenics were
The more severely burdened should not propagate themselves… If we do nothing but make mental and physical cripples capable of propagating themselves, and the healthy stocks have to limit the number of their children because so much has to be done for the maintenance of others, if natural selection is generally suppressed, then unless we will get new measures our race must rapidly deteriorate.
In July 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" prescribed compulsory sterilisation for people with conditions thought to be hereditary, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy , Huntington\'s chorea and "imbecility". Sterilisation was also legalised for chronic alcoholism and other forms of social deviance. The law was administered by the Interior Ministry under Wilhelm Frick through special Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte), which examined the inmates of nursing homes, asylums, prisons, aged-care homes and special schools, to select those to be sterilised.
It is estimated that 360,000 people were sterilised under this law
between 1933 and 1939. Within the Nazi administration, some suggested
that the programme should be extended to people with physical
disabilities but such ideas had to be expressed carefully, given that
one of the most powerful figures of the regime,
Dr. Karl Brandt, personal physician to
Although officially started in September 1939,
Aktion T4 was
initiated with a "trial" case in late 1938.
Für mich ist die Vorstellung untragbar, dass beste, blühende Jugend an der Front ihr Leben lassen muss, damit verblichene Asoziale und unverantwortliche Antisoziale ein gesichertes Dasein haben. (It is unbearable to me that the flower of our youth must lose their lives at the front, while that feeble-minded and asocial element can have a secure existence in the asylum.)
and advocated gradual decrease of the food rations rather than death
by medicine, which he believed was more merciful than poison
The German eugenics movement had an extreme wing even before the Nazis came to power. As early as 1920, Alfred Hoche and Karl Binding advocated killing people whose lives were "unworthy of life" (lebensunwertes Leben). Darwinism was interpreted by them as justification of the demand for "beneficial" genes and eradication of the "harmful" ones. Robert Lifton wrote, "The argument went that the best young men died in war, causing a loss to the Volk of the best available genes. The genes of those who did not fight (the worst genes) then proliferated freely, accelerating biological and cultural degeneration".
The advocacy of eugenics in Germany gained ground after 1930, when the Depression was used to excuse cuts in funding to state mental hospitals, creating squalor and overcrowding. Many German eugenicists were nationalists and antisemites , who embraced the Nazi regime with enthusiasm. Many were appointed to positions in the Health Ministry and German research institutes. Their ideas were gradually adopted by the majority of the German medical profession, from which Jewish and communist doctors were soon purged.
During the 1930s the
KILLING OF CHILDREN
Main article: Child euthanasia in
Extermination centres were established at six existing psychiatric hospitals: Bernburg , Brandenburg , Grafeneck , Hadamar , Hartheim , and Sonnenstein . One thousand children under the age of 17 were killed at the institutions Am Spiegelgrund and Gugging in Austria. They played a crucial role in developments leading to the Holocaust. As a related aspect of the "medical" and scientific basis of this programme, the Nazi doctors took thousands of brains from 'euthanasia' victims for research. Viktor Brack , organiser of the T4 Programme
From August 1939 the Interior Ministry began registering children with disabilities, requiring doctors and midwives to report all cases of newborns with severe disabilities; the 'guardian' consent element soon disappeared. Those to be killed were identified as "all children under three years of age in whom any of the following 'serious hereditary diseases' were 'suspected': idiocy and Down syndrome (especially when associated with blindness and deafness); microcephaly ; hydrocephaly ; malformations of all kinds, especially of limbs, head, and spinal column; and paralysis, including spastic conditions". The reports were assessed by a panel of medical experts, of whom three were required to give their approval before a child could be killed.
The Ministry used various deceptions when dealing with parents or
guardians particularly in Catholic areas, where parents were generally
uncooperative. Parents were told that their children were being sent
Once war broke out in September 1939, the programme adopted less rigorous standards of assessment and a quicker approval process. It expanded to include older children and adolescents. The conditions covered also expanded and came to include
...various borderline or limited impairments in children of different ages, culminating in the killing of those designated as juvenile delinquents. Jewish children could be placed in the net primarily because they were Jewish; and at one of the institutions, a special department was set up for 'minor Jewish- Aryan half-breeds'. — Lifton
At the same time, increased pressure was placed on parents to agree
to their children being sent away. Many parents suspected what was
really happening, especially when it became apparent that institutions
for children with disabilities were being systematically cleared of
their charges, and refused consent. The parents were warned that they
could lose custody of all their children, and if that did not suffice,
the parents could be threatened with call-up for 'labour duty'. By
1941 more than 5,000 children had been killed. The last child to be
Aktion T4 was Richard Jenne on 29 May 1945 in the
children's ward of the
Irsee state hospital in
KILLING OF ADULTS
Invasion of Poland
INVASION OF POLAND
SS-Gruppenführer Leonardo Conti
Brandt and Bouhler developed plans to expand the programme of
euthanasia to adults. In July 1939 they held a meeting attended by
Conti and Professor
Werner Heyde , head of the SS medical department.
This meeting agreed to arranging a national register of all
institutionalised people with mental illnesses or physical
disabilities. The first adults with disabilities to be killed en masse
by the Nazi regime were Poles. After the invasion on 1 September 1939,
disabled adults were shot by the SS men of
Selbstschutz and EK-Einmann under the command of SS-Sturmbannführer
Rudolf Tröger, with overall command by
Reinhard Heydrich , during the
Operation Tannenberg All hospitals and mental asylums of
Wartheland were emptied. The region was incorporated into Germany
and earmarked for resettlement by Volksdeutsche following the German
conquest of Poland. In the Danzig (now
The idea of killing adult mental patients soon spread from occupied
Poland to adjoining areas of Germany, probably because
The legal basis for the programme was a 1939 letter from Hitler, not a formal 'Führer's decree' carrying the force of law. Hitler deliberately bypassed Health Minister Conti and his department, who might have raised questions about the legality of the programme and entrusted it to Bouhler and Brandt. The programme was administered by Viktor Brack and his staff from Tiergartenstraße 4, disguised as the "Charitable Foundation for Cure and Institutional Care" offices which served as the front and was supervised by Bouhler and Brandt.
The officials in charge included Dr Herbert Linden, who had been involved in the child killing programme; Dr Ernst-Robert Grawitz , chief physician of the SS; and August Becker , an SS chemist. The officials selected the doctors who were to carry out the operational part of the programme; based on political reliability as long-term Nazis, professional reputation and sympathy for radical eugenics. The list included physicians who had proved their worth in the child-killing programme, such as Unger, Heinze and Hermann Pfannmüller. The recruits were mostly psychiatrists, notably Professor Carl Schneider of Heidelberg, Professor Max de Crinis of Berlin and Professor Paul Nitsche from the Sonnenstein state institution. Heyde became the operational leader of the programme, succeeded later by Nitsche.
LISTING OF TARGETS FROM HOSPITAL RECORDS
In early October all hospitals, nursing homes, old-age homes and sanatoria were required to report all patients who had been institutionalised for five years or more, who had been committed as "criminally insane", who were of "non- Aryan race" or who had been diagnosed with any on a list of conditions. The conditions included schizophrenia, epilepsy, Huntington\'s chorea , advanced syphilis , senile dementia , paralysis , encephalitis and "terminal neurological conditions generally". Many doctors and administrators assumed that the reports were to identify inmates who were capable of being drafted for "labour service" and tended to overstate the degree of incapacity of their patients, to protect them from labour conscription. When some institutions refused to co-operate, teams of T4 doctors (or Nazi medical students) visited and compiled the lists, sometimes in a haphazard and ideologically motivated way. During 1940 all Jewish patients were removed from institutions and killed.
As with the child inmates, the adult cases were assessed by a panel of experts, working at the Tiergartenstraße offices. The experts were required to make their judgements on the reports, not medical histories or examinations. Sometimes they dealt with hundreds of reports at a time. On each they marked a + (death), a - (life), or occasionally a ? meaning that they were unable to decide. Three "death" verdicts condemned the person and as with reviews of children, the process became less rigorous, the range of conditions considered "unsustainable" grew broader and zealous Nazis further down the chain of command increasingly made decisions on their own initiative.
The first gassings in Germany proper took place in January 1940 at
Condemned patients were 'transferred' from their institutions to newly built centres in the T4 Charitable Ambulance buses, called the Community Patients Transports Service. They were run by teams of SS men wearing white coats, to give it an air of medical care. To prevent the families and doctors of the patients from tracing them, the patients were often first sent to transit centres in major hospitals, where they were supposedly assessed. They were moved again to "special treatment" ( Sonderbehandlung ) centres. Families were sent letters explaining that owing to wartime regulations, it was not possible for them to visit relatives in these centres. Most of these patients were killed within 24 hours of arriving at the centres, and their bodies cremated. For every person killed, a death certificate was prepared, giving a false but plausible cause of death. This was sent to the family along with an urn of ashes (random ashes, since the victims were cremated en masse). The preparation of thousands of falsified death certificates took up most of the working day of the doctors who operated the centres.
During 1940 the centres at Brandenburg, Grafeneck and Hartheim killed nearly 10,000 people each, while another 6,000 were killed at Sonnenstein. In all, about 35,000 people were killed in T4 operations that year. Operations at Brandenburg and Grafeneck were wound up at the end of the year, partly because the areas they served had been cleared and partly because of public opposition. In 1941, however, the centres at Bernburg and Sonnenstein increased their operations, while Hartheim (where Wirth and Franz Stangl were successively commandants) continued as before. As a result, another 35,000 people were killed before August 1941, when the T4 programme was officially shut down by Hitler. Even after that date, however, the centres continued to be used to kill concentration camp inmates: eventually some 20,000 people in this category were killed.
In 1971, Gitta Sereny conducted a series of interviews with Stangl, who was in prison in Düsseldorf after having been convicted of co-responsibility for killing 900,000 people as commandant of the Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps in Poland. Stangl gave Sereny a detailed account of the operations of the T4 programme based on his time as commandant of the killing facility at the Hartheim institute. He described how the inmates of various asylums were removed and transported by bus to Hartheim. Some were in no mental state to know what was happening to them, but many were perfectly sane, and for them various forms of deception were used. They were told they were at a special clinic where they would receive improved treatment, and were given a brief medical examination on arrival. They were induced to enter what appeared to be a shower block, where they were gassed with carbon monoxide (the ruse was also used at extermination camps).
TECHNOLOGY AND PERSONNEL TRANSFER TO DEATH CAMPS
See also: Category:Action T4 personnel and T4-Gutachter
After the official end of the euthanasia programme in 1941, most of
the personnel and high-ranking officials, as well as gassing
technology and the techniques used to deceive victims, were
transferred under the jurisdiction of the national medical division of
the Reich Interior Ministry. Further gassing experiments with the use
of mobile gas-chambers (Einsatzwagen) were conducted at Soldau
concentration camp by
Death toll of Aktion T4 (official data), 1940 – September 1941 T4 CENTER OPERATION NUMBER OF VICTIMS
From To 1940 1941 Total
Grafeneck 20 January 1940 December 1940 9,839 — 9,839
Brandenburg 8 February 1940 October 1940 9,772 — 9,772
Bernburg 21 November 1940 30 July 1943 — 8,601 8,601
Hartheim 6 May 1940 December 1944 9,670 8,599 18,269
Sonnenstein June 1940 September 1942 5,943 7,777 13,720
Hadamar January 1941 31 July 1942 — 10,072 10,072
Total by year: 35,224 35,049 70,273
VOICES OF OPPOSITION
In January 1939 Brack commissioned a paper from Professor of Moral Theology at the University of Paderborn , Joseph Mayer, on the likely reactions of the churches in the event of a state euthanasia programme being instituted. Mayer – a longstanding euthanasia advocate – reported that the churches would not oppose such a programme if it was seen to be in the national interest. Brack showed this paper to Hitler in July, and it may have increased his confidence that the "euthanasia" programme would be acceptable to German public opinion. Notably, when Sereny interviewed Mayer shortly before his death in 1967, he denied that he formally condoned the killing of people with disabilities but no copies of this paper are known to survive.
There were those who opposed the T4 programme within the bureaucracy.
Lothar Kreyssig , a district judge and member of the Confessing Church
, wrote to Gürtner protesting that the action was illegal since no
law or formal decree from
In the towns where the killing centres were located, many people saw
the inmates arrive in buses, saw the smoke from the crematoria
chimneys and noticed that the buses were returning empty. In Hadamar,
ashes containing human hair rained down on the town. The T4 programme
was no secret. Despite the strictest orders, some of the staff at the
killing centres talked about what was going on. In some cases families
could tell that the causes of death in certificates were false, e.g.
when a patient was claimed to have died of appendicitis , even though
his appendix had been surgically removed some years earlier. In other
cases, several families in the same town would receive death
certificates on the same day. In May 1941 the
During 1940, rumours of what was taking place spread and many Germans withdrew their relatives from asylums and sanatoria to care for them at home, often with great expense and difficulty. In some places doctors and psychiatrists co-operated with families to have patients discharged or if the families could afford it, transferred them to private clinics beyond the reach of T4. Other doctors "re-diagnosed" patients so that they no longer met the T4 criteria, which risked exposure when Nazi zealots from Berlin conducted inspections. In Kiel , Professor Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt managed to save nearly all of his patients. Many doctors collaborated with the killings, either from ignorance, agreement with Nazi eugenicist policies or fear of the regime; Lifton listed a handful of psychiatrists and administrators who opposed the T4 murders.
Protest letters were sent to the
Reich Chancellery and the Ministry
of Justice, some from
For more details on this topic, see Nazi euthanasia and the Catholic Church .
The Lutheran theologian
Friedrich von Bodelschwingh (director of the
Bethel Institution for
Bielefeld ) and Pastor Paul-Gerhard
Braune (director of the Hoffnungstal Institution near Berlin)
protested privately. Both men used their connections with the regime
to negotiate exemptions for their institutions; Bodelschwingh
negotiated directly with Brandt and indirectly with
Hermann Göring ,
whose cousin was a prominent psychiatrist. Braune had meetings with
Justice Minister Gürtner, who was always dubious about the legality
of the programme. Gürtner later wrote a strongly worded letter to
During 1940 and 1941 some Protestant churchmen did protest against T4. Bishop Theophil Wurm , presiding the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg , wrote a strong letter to Interior Minister Frick in March 1940 and the same month a confidential report from the SD in Austria, warned that the killing programme must be implemented with stealth "in order to avoid a probable backlash of public opinion during the war". On 4 December 1940, Reinhold Sautter, the Supreme Church Councillor of the Württemberg State Church, reproached the Nazi Ministerial Councillor Eugen Stähle for the murders in Grafeneck Castle. Stahle retorted with the Nazi government opinion, that
The fifth commandment: Thou shalt not kill, is no commandment of God but a Jewish invention." and no longer had any validity. — Eugen Stähle
Bishop Heinrich Wienken of Berlin, a leading member of the Caritas
Association , was selected by the
Wienken seems to have gone partially native in the sense that he gradually abandoned an absolute stance based on the Fifth Commandment in favour of winning limited concessions. — Michael Burleigh August von Galen
Catholic churchmen, led by Cardinal
Michael von Faulhaber of
...the Führer to defend the people against the Gestapo. It is a terrible, unjust and catastrophic thing when man opposes his will to the will of God....We are talking about men and women, our compatriots, our brothers and sisters. Poor unproductive people if you wish, but does this mean that they have lost their right to live? — August von Galen
The Nazi leadership was angered by the sermon's wide circulation. The
text was dropped by
Royal Air Force
Nazi leaders faced the prospect of either having to imprison prominent, highly admired clergymen and other protesters – a course with consequences in terms of adverse public reaction they greatly feared – or else end the programme. — Lifton A plaque set in the pavement at No 4 Tiergartenstraße commemorates the victims of the Nazi euthanasia programme.
Later historians have deprecated the importance of the role of the Church; Burleigh dismissed assumptions that the sermon affected Hitler's decision to suspend the T4 program as "wishful thinking" and noted that the various Church hierarchies did not complain after the transfer of T4 personnel to Operation Reinhard. Henry Friedlander stated that it was not the criticism from the Church but rather the loss of secrecy and "general popular disquiet about the way euthanasia was implemented", that caused the suspension of the program.
Galen had detailed knowledge of the euthanasia program in July 1940 but did not speak out until almost a year after Protestants had begun their protests. Beth A. Griech-Polelle explained the delay by Galen and the Catholic hierarchy,
Worried lest they be classified as outsiders or internal enemies, they waited for Protestants, that is the "true Germans", to risk a confrontation with the government first. If the Protestants were able to be critical of a Nazi policy, then Catholics could function as "good" Germans and yet be critical too. — Griech-Polelle
Franz Bornewasser of
SUSPENSION OF T4 KILLINGS
On 24 August 1941,
After the war a series of trials was held in connection with the Nazi
euthanasia programme at various places including:
The indictment read in part:
14. Between September 1939 and April 1945 the defendants Karl Brandt, Blome, Brack, and Hoven unlawfully, willfully, and knowingly committed crimes against humanity, as defined by Article II of Control Council Law No. 10, in that they were principals in, accessories to, ordered, abetted, took a consenting part in, and were connected with plans and enterprises involving the execution of the so called "euthanasia" program of the German Reich, in the course of which the defendants herein murdered hundreds of thousands of human beings, including German civilians, as well as civilians of other nations. The particulars concerning such murders are set forth in paragraph 9 of count two of this indictment and are incorporated herein by reference. — International Military Tribunal
Earlier, in 1945, American forces tried seven staff members of the Hadamar killing centre for the killing of Soviet and Polish nationals, which was within their jurisdiction under international law, as these were the citizens of wartime allies. ( Hadamar was within the American Zone of Occupation in Germany. This was before the December 1945 Allied resolution supporting prosecution of "crimes against humanity" for such mass atrocities.) Alfons Klein, Karl Ruoff and Wilhelm Willig were sentenced to death and executed; the other four were given long prison sentences. In 1946, newly reconstructed German courts tried members of the Hadamar staff for the murders of nearly 15,000 German citizens at the facility. Adolf Wahlmann and Irmgard Huber , the chief physician and the head nurse, were convicted.
See also: Category:Action T4 personnel and T4-Gutachter Aktion T4 marker (2009) in Berlin
* August Becker , initially sentenced to three years after the war, in 1960 was tried again and sentenced to 10 years in prison. He was released early due to ill-health and died in 1967. * Werner Blankenburg lived under an alias and died in 1957 * Philipp Bouhler committed suicide in captivity, May 1945. * Werner Catel was cleared by a de-nazification board after World War II and was head of pediatrics at the University of Kiel. He retired early after his role in the T4 program came to light. * Leonardo Conti hanged himself in captivity, 6 October 1945 * Dr. Ernst-Robert Grawitz killed himself shortly before the fall of Berlin in April 1945 * Dr. Herbert Linden committed suicide in 1945. Overseers of the program were initially Herbert Linden and Werner Heyde. Linden was later replaced by Hermann Paul Nitsche. * Dr. Fritz Cropp d. 6 April 1984, Bremen. A Nazi official, in 1933, in Oldenburg, Cropp was appointed the country medical officer of health. Two years later, in 1935, he transferred to Berlin, where he worked as a ministerial adviser in the Division IV (health care and people care) in the Ministry of the Interior. In 1939, he became Assistant Director. Fritz Cropp was involved in the Nazi "euthanasia", the so-called action T-4, in 1940. He was Herbert Linden's superior. He was responsible for patient transfers. * Dr. Werner Heyde after having escaped detection for 18 years, killed himself in 1964 before being brought to trial. * Dr. Heinrich Gross was tried twice. One sentence was overturned and another was suspended; he died in 2005. * Lorenz Hackenholt vanished in 1945. * Erich Koch served time in prison from 1950 to his death in 1986 * Erwin Lambert died in 1976. * Dr. Friedrich Mennecke died in 1947 while awaiting trial. * Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse , the governor of Hesse-Nassau , was not tried for his part in the T4 programme; he died in 1980.
* Paul Nitsche was tried and executed by an East German court in 1948. * Professor Carl Schneider hanged himself in his prison cell in 1946, while awaiting trial. * Franz Schwede was sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1948 and was pardoned in 1956; he died in 1960. * Dr. Ernst Illing was the director of the Vienna Psychiatric-Neurological Clinic for Children Am Spielgrund , where he killed about 200 children, sentenced to death on 18 July 1946 * Dr. Marianne Türk was a doctor at Vienna Psychiatric-Neurological Clinic for Children Am Spielgrund where, together with Ernst Illing, she killed 200 children. She was sentenced to 10 years prison on 18 July 1946.
The Ministry for State Security of East Germany stored around 30,000 files of the T4 project in their archives. Those files became available to the public only after the German Reunification in 1990, leading to a new wave of research on these wartime crimes.
The German national memorial to the people with disabilities murdered by the Nazis was dedicated in 2014 in Berlin. It is located in the pavement of a site next to the Tiergarten park , the location of the former villa at Tiergartenstrasse 4 in Berlin, where more than 60 Nazi bureaucrats and doctors worked in secret under the "T4" program to organize the mass murder of sanatorium and psychiatric hospital patients deemed unworthy to live.
Nazi doctors (list)
Nazi eugenics , the racially based social policies that placed the
improvement of the
Aryan race at the heart of Nazis ideology.
Nazi medical experimentation
Operation Reinhard , men of
Aktion T4 provided expertise for
building the extermination camps during the
Am Spiegelgrund clinic
* ^ The author wrote that the term
Aktion T4 was not used by the
Nazis but was first used in post-war trials against the doctors and
later included in the historiography.
Tiergartenstraße 4 was the location of the Central Office and
administrative headquarters of the Gemeinnützige Stiftung für Heil-
und Anstaltspflege (Charitable Foundation for Curative and
Robert Lifton and
Michael Burleigh estimated that twice the
official number of T4 victims may have perished before the end of the
* ^ Estimated range between 200,000 and 250,000 unofficial victims
of policy upon the arrival of Allied troops in Germany.
* ^ This was the result either of club foot or osteomyelitis .
Goebbels is commonly said to have had club foot (talipes equinovarus),
a congenital condition.
William L. Shirer , who worked in Berlin as a
journalist in the 1930s and was acquainted with Goebbels, wrote in The
Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960) that the deformity was from a
childhood attack of osteomyelitis and a failed operation to correct
* ^ Lifton thinks this request was "encouraged"; the severely
disabled child and the agreement of the parents to his killing were
* ^ These were Professor
Werner Catel (a
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* ^ Ten Catholic Heroes-of-the
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