Aktion T4 (German, pronounced [akˈtsi̯oːn teː fiːɐ]) was a
postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi
Germany.[b] The name T4 is an abbreviation of
a street address of the Chancellery department set up in the spring of
1940, in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, which recruited and paid
personnel associated with T4.[c] Certain German
physicians were authorized to select patients "deemed incurably sick,
after most critical medical examination" and then administer to them a
"mercy death" (Gnadentod). In October 1939
Adolf Hitler signed a
"euthanasia note" backdated to 1 September 1939, that authorized his
Karl Brandt and
Philipp Bouhler to implement
The killings took place from September 1939 until the end of the war
in 1945, during which 275,000 to 300,000[a] people were killed at
various extermination centres located at psychiatric hospitals in
Germany and Austria, along with those in occupied Poland and the
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (now the Czech
Republic). The number of victims recorded originally as the
dauntingly exacting total of 70,273 people has been revised
considerably upward by the discovery of additional victims listed in
the archives of the former East Germany.[d] About half of those
killed were taken from church-run asylums, often with the approval of
the Protestant or Catholic authorities of the institutions.
Holy See announcing on 2 December 1940 that the policy was
contrary to the natural and positive Divine law and that "The direct
killing of an innocent person because of mental or physical defects is
not allowed", the declaration was not upheld by some Catholic
authorities in Germany. On the other hand, in the summer of 1941,
protests were led in Germany by Bishop von Galen, whose intervention,
according to Richard J. Evans, led to "the strongest, most explicit
and most widespread protest movement against any policy since the
beginning of the Third Reich."
Several reasons for the programme have been offered, including
eugenics, compassion, reducing suffering, racial hygiene, cost
effectiveness and pressure on the welfare budget. After the
nominal end of the programme, physicians in German and Austrian
facilities continued many of the practices of Aktion T4, until the
defeat of Germany in 1945. The unofficial continuation of the
policy led to additional deaths by medicine and similar means,
resulting in 93,521 beds "emptied" by the end of 1941.[e][f]
Technology that was developed under Aktion T4, particularly the use of
lethal gas to kill large numbers of people, was taken over by the
medical division of the Reich Interior Ministry, along with personnel
who had participated in the development of the technology and later
participated in Operation Reinhard.
The technology, personnel and techniques developed were instrumental
in the implementation of Nazi genocides. Although the programme
was authorized by Hitler, the killings have since come to be viewed as
murders in Germany. The number killed was about 200,000[d] in Germany
and Austria, while in other European countries about 100,000 persons
were also victims.
3 Killing of children
4 Killing of adults
4.1 Invasion of Poland
4.2 Listing of targets from hospital records
6 Number of euthanasia victims
7 Technology and personnel transfer to death camps
8.2 Church protests
9 Suspension of T4 killings
10.1 Doctors' trial
10.2 Other perpetrators
12 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
This poster (from around 1938) reads: "60,000
Reichsmark is what this
person suffering from a hereditary defect costs the People's community
during his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read '[A]
New People', the monthly magazine of the Bureau for Race Politics of
The term "Aktion T4" came into use after the war; before that German
terminology included Euthanasie (euthanasia) and Gnadentod (merciful
death). The T4 programme stemmed from the
Nazi Party policy of
"racial hygiene", a belief that the German people needed to be
cleansed of racial enemies, which included people with disabilities as
well as anyone who was confined to a mental health facility. The
euthanasia programme was part of the evolution of the policy of
administrative killings that culminated in the extermination of Jews
of Europe during the Nazi genocides. In his book
Mein Kampf (1924),
Hitler wrote that one day racial hygiene, "will appear as a deed
greater than the most victorious wars of our present bourgeois
The idea of sterilising those carrying hereditary defects or
exhibiting what was thought to be hereditary "antisocial" behaviour
was widely accepted. Canada, Denmark,
Switzerland and the US had
passed laws for the coerced sterilisation of people before Germany.
Studies conducted in the 1920s ranked Germany as a country that was
unusually reluctant to introduce sterilisation legislation.
The policy and research agenda of racial hygiene and eugenics were
promoted by Emil Kraepelin. The eugenic sterilization of persons
diagnosed with (and viewed as predisposed to) schizophrenia was
advocated by Eugen Bleuler, who presumed racial deterioration because
of “mental and physical cripples” in his Textbook of Psychiatry:
The more severely burdened should not propagate themselves… If we do
nothing but make mental and physical cripples capable of propagating
themselves, and the healthy stocks have to limit the number of their
children because so much has to be done for the maintenance of others,
if natural selection is generally suppressed, then unless we will get
new measures our race must rapidly deteriorate.
In July 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased
Offspring" prescribed compulsory sterilisation for people with
conditions thought to be hereditary, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy,
Huntington's chorea and "imbecility". Sterilisation was also legalised
for chronic alcoholism and other forms of social deviance. The law was
administered by the Interior Ministry under
Wilhelm Frick through
special Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte), which
examined the inmates of nursing homes, asylums, prisons, aged-care
homes and special schools, to select those to be sterilised.
It is estimated that 360,000 people were sterilised under this law
between 1933 and 1939. Within the Nazi administration, some
suggested that the programme should be extended to people with
physical disabilities but such ideas had to be expressed carefully,
given that one of the most powerful figures of the regime, Joseph
Goebbels, had a deformed right leg.[g] After 1937 the acute shortage
of labour in Germany, arising from rearmament, meant that anyone
capable of work was deemed to be "useful" and thus exempted from the
law and the rate of sterilisation declined.
Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler, Head of the T4 programme
Dr. Karl Brandt, personal physician to
Hitler and Hans Lammers, the
head of the Reich Chancellery, testified after the war that
told them as early as 1933—when the sterilisation law was
passed—that he favoured the killing of the incurably ill but
recognised that public opinion would not accept this. In 1935,
Hitler told the Leader of Reich Doctors, Gerhard Wagner, that the
question could not be taken up in peacetime, "Such a problem could be
more smoothly and easily carried out in war". He wrote that he
intended to "radically solve" the problem of the mental asylums in
such an event.
Aktion T4 began with a "trial" case in late
Hitler instructed Brandt to evaluate a family's petition for
the "mercy killing" of their son who was blind, had physical and
developmental disabilities.[h] The child, born near
eventually identified as Gerhard Kretschmar, was killed in July
Hitler instructed Brandt to proceed in the same manner
in all similar cases.
On 18 August 1939, three weeks after the killing of the boy, the Reich
Committee for the Scientific Registering of Hereditary and Congenital
Illnesses was established. It was to prepare and proceed with the
registration of sick children or newborns identified as defective.
Secret killing of infants began in 1939 and increased after the war
started. By 1941 more than 5,000 children had been killed.
Hitler was in favour of killing those whom he judged to be
lebensunwertes Leben (Life unworthy of life). In a 1939 conference
with Leonardo Conti, Reich Health Leader and state secretary for
health in the Interior Ministry and Hans Lammers, Chief of the Reich
Chancellery—a few months before the "euthanasia" decree—Hitler
gave as examples the mentally ill who he said could only be "bedded on
sawdust or sand" because they "perpetually dirtied themselves" and
"put their own excrement into their mouths". This issue, according to
the Nazi regime, assumed new urgency in wartime.
After the invasion of Poland, Dr. Hermann Pfannmüller said
Für mich ist die Vorstellung untragbar, dass beste, blühende Jugend
an der Front ihr Leben lassen muss, damit verblichene Asoziale und
unverantwortliche Antisoziale ein gesichertes Dasein haben. (It is
unbearable to me that the flower of our youth must lose their lives at
the front, while that feeble-minded and asocial element can have a
secure existence in the asylum.)
Pfannmüller advocated killing by a gradual decrease of food, which he
believed was more merciful than poison injections.
Dr. Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician and organiser of Aktion
The German eugenics movement had an extreme wing even before the Nazis
came to power. As early as 1920,
Alfred Hoche and Karl Binding
advocated killing people whose lives were "unworthy of life"
(lebensunwertes Leben). Darwinism was interpreted by them as
justification of the demand for "beneficial" genes and eradication of
the "harmful" ones.
Robert Lifton wrote, "The argument went that the
best young men died in war, causing a loss to the Volk of the best
available genes. The genes of those who did not fight (the worst
genes) then proliferated freely, accelerating biological and cultural
degeneration". The advocacy of eugenics in Germany gained ground
after 1930, when the Depression was used to excuse cuts in funding to
state mental hospitals, creating squalor and overcrowding.
Many German eugenicists were nationalists and antisemites, who
embraced the Nazi regime with enthusiasm. Many were appointed to
positions in the Health Ministry and German research institutes. Their
ideas were gradually adopted by the majority of the German medical
profession, from which Jewish and communist doctors were soon
purged. During the 1930s the
Nazi Party had carried out a campaign
of propaganda in favour of euthanasia. The National Socialist Racial
and Political Office (NSRPA) produced leaflets, posters and short
films to be shown in cinemas, pointing out to Germans the cost of
maintaining asylums for the incurably ill and insane. These films
included The Inheritance (Das Erbe, 1935), The Victim of the Past
(Opfer der Vergangenheit, 1937), which was given a major première in
Berlin and was shown in all German cinemas, and I Accuse (Ich klage
an, 1941), which was based on a novel by Hellmuth Unger, a consultant
for "child euthanasia".
Killing of children
Main article: Child euthanasia in Nazi Germany
Schönbrunn Psychiatric Hospital, 1934 (Photo by SS photographer
Friedrich Franz Bauer.)
Hitler authorized the creation of the Reich Committee for
the Scientific Registering of Serious Hereditary and Congenital
Illnesses (Reichsausschuss zur wissenschaftlichen Erfassung erb- und
anlagebedingter schwerer Leiden), headed by Dr. Karl Brandt, his
physician, and administered by Herbert Linden of the Interior Ministry
as well as SS-
Oberführer Viktor Brack. Brandt and Bouhler were
authorized to approve applications to kill children in relevant
circumstances, though Bouhler left the details to subordinates
such as Brack and SA-
Oberführer Werner Blankenburg.
Extermination centres were established at six existing psychiatric
hospitals: Bernburg, Brandenburg, Grafeneck, Hadamar, Hartheim, and
Sonnenstein. One thousand children under the age of 17 were
killed at the institutions
Am Spiegelgrund and
Austria. They played a crucial role in developments leading to
the Holocaust. As a related aspect of the "medical" and scientific
basis of this programme, the
Nazi doctors took thousands of brains
from 'euthanasia' victims for research.
Viktor Brack, organiser of the T4 Programme
From August 1939 the Interior Ministry began registering children with
disabilities, requiring doctors and midwives to report all cases of
newborns with severe disabilities; the 'guardian' consent element soon
disappeared. Those to be killed were identified as "all children under
three years of age in whom any of the following 'serious hereditary
diseases' were 'suspected': idiocy and
Down syndrome (especially when
associated with blindness and deafness); microcephaly; hydrocephaly;
malformations of all kinds, especially of limbs, head, and spinal
column; and paralysis, including spastic conditions". The reports
were assessed by a panel of medical experts, of whom three were
required to give their approval before a child could be killed.[i]
The Ministry used deceit when dealing with parents or guardians,
particularly in Catholic areas where parents were generally
uncooperative. Parents were told that their children were being sent
Special Sections" for children, where they would receive improved
treatment. The children sent to these centres were kept for
"assessment" for a few weeks and then killed by injection of toxic
chemicals, typically phenol; their deaths were recorded as
"pneumonia". Autopsies were usually performed, and brain samples were
taken to be used for "medical research". Post mortem examinations
apparently helped to ease the consciences of many of those involved,
giving them the feeling that there was a genuine medical purpose to
the killings. The most notorious of these institutions in Austria
was Am Spiegelgrund, where from 1940 to 1945, 789 children were killed
by lethal injection, gas poisoning and physical abuse. Children's
brains were preserved in jars of formaldehyde and stored in the
basement of the clinic and in the private collection of Heinrich Gross
one of the institution's directors, until 2001.
Once war broke out in September 1939, less rigorous standards of
assessment and a quicker approval process were adopted. Older children
and adolescents were included and the conditions covered came to
...various borderline or limited impairments in children of different
ages, culminating in the killing of those designated as juvenile
delinquents. Jewish children could be placed in the net primarily
because they were Jewish; and at one of the institutions, a special
department was set up for 'minor Jewish-
At the same time, increased pressure was placed on parents to agree to
their children being sent away. Many parents suspected what was really
happening, especially when it became apparent that institutions for
children with disabilities were being systematically cleared of their
charges, and refused consent. The parents were warned that they could
lose custody of all their children, and if that did not suffice, the
parents could be threatened with call-up for 'labour duty'. By
1941, more than 5,000 children had been killed.[j] The last child
to be killed under
Aktion T4 was Richard Jenne on 29 May 1945 in the
children's ward of the Kaufbeuren-
Irsee state hospital in Bavaria,
Germany, more than three weeks after U.S. Army troops had occupied the
Killing of adults
Invasion of Poland
Invasion of Poland and Soldau concentration camp
Invasion of Poland
SS-Gruppenführer Leonardo Conti
Brandt and Bouhler developed plans to expand the programme of
euthanasia to adults. In July 1939 they held a meeting attended by
Conti and Professor Werner Heyde, head of the SS medical department.
This meeting agreed to arrange a national register of all
institutionalised people with mental illnesses or physical
disabilities. The first adults with disabilities to be killed en masse
by the Nazi regime were Poles. After the invasion on 1 September 1939,
adults with disabilities were shot by the SS men of Einsatzkommando
Selbstschutz and EK-Einmann under the command of
SS-Sturmbannführer Rudolf Tröger, with overall command by Reinhard
Heydrich, during the genocidal Operation Tannenberg[k] All
hospitals and mental asylums of the
Wartheland were emptied. The
region was incorporated into Germany and earmarked for resettlement by
Volksdeutsche following the German conquest of Poland. In the
Danzig (now Gdańsk) area, some 7,000 Polish patients of various
institutions were shot and 10,000 were killed in the
Similar measures were taken in other areas of Poland destined for
incorporation into Germany. The first experiments with the gassing
of patients were conducted in October 1939 at
Fort VII in Posen
(occupied Poznań), where hundreds of prisoners were killed by means
of carbon monoxide poisoning, in an improvised gas chamber developed
by Dr Albert Widmann, chief chemist of the German Criminal Police
(Kripo). In December 1939,
Heinrich Himmler witnessed
one of these gassings, ensuring that this invention would later be put
to much wider uses.
Bunker No. 17 in artillery wall of
Fort VII in Poznań, used as
improvised gas chamber for early experiments
The idea of killing adult mental patients soon spread from occupied
Poland to adjoining areas of Germany, probably because
Nazi Party and
SS officers in these areas were most familiar with what was happening
in Poland. These were also the areas where Germans wounded from the
Polish campaign were expected to be accommodated, which created a
demand for hospital space. The
Gauleiter of Pomerania, Franz
Schwede-Coburg, sent 1,400 patients from five Pomeranian hospitals to
undisclosed locations in occupied Poland, where they were shot. The
Gauleiter of East Prussia, Erich Koch, had 1,600 patients killed out
of sight. More than 8,000 Germans were killed in this initial wave of
killings carried out on the orders of local officials, although
Himmler certainly knew and approved of them.
The legal basis for the programme was a 1939 letter from Hitler, not a
formal "Führer's decree" with the force of law.
Conti, the Health Minister and his department, who might have raised
questions about the legality of the programme and entrusted it to
Bouhler and Brandt.[l]
Reich Leader Bouhler and Dr. Brandt are entrusted with the
responsibility of extending the authority of physicians, to be
designated by name, so that patients who, after a most critical
diagnosis, on the basis of human judgment [menschlichem Ermessen], are
considered incurable, can be granted mercy death [Gnadentod].
— Adolf Hitler, 1 September 1939
The killings were administered by
Viktor Brack and his staff from
Tiergartenstraße 4, disguised as the "Charitable Foundation for Cure
and Institutional Care" offices which served as the front and was
supervised by Bouhler and Brandt. The officials in charge
included Dr Herbert Linden, who had been involved in the child killing
programme; Dr Ernst-Robert Grawitz, chief physician of the SS; and
August Becker, an SS chemist. The officials selected the doctors who
were to carry out the operational part of the programme; based on
political reliability as long-term Nazis, professional reputation and
sympathy for radical eugenics. The list included physicians who had
proved their worth in the child-killing programme, such as Unger,
Heinze and Hermann Pfannmüller. The recruits were mostly
psychiatrists, notably Professor
Carl Schneider of Heidelberg,
Max de Crinis of Berlin and Professor
Paul Nitsche from the
Sonnenstein state institution. Heyde became the operational leader of
the programme, succeeded later by Nitsche.
Listing of targets from hospital records
Euthanasia Centre, where over 18,000 people were killed.
In early October, all hospitals, nursing homes, old-age homes and
sanatoria were required to report all patients who had been
institutionalised for five years or more, who had been committed as
"criminally insane", who were of "non-
Aryan race" or who had been
diagnosed with any on a list of conditions. The conditions included
schizophrenia, epilepsy, Huntington's chorea, advanced syphilis,
senile dementia, paralysis, encephalitis and "terminal neurological
conditions generally". Many doctors and administrators assumed that
the reports were to identify inmates who were capable of being drafted
for "labour service" and tended to overstate the degree of incapacity
of their patients, to protect them from labour conscription. When some
institutions refused to co-operate, teams of T4 doctors (or Nazi
medical students) visited and compiled the lists, sometimes in a
haphazard and ideologically motivated way. During 1940, all Jewish
patients were removed from institutions and killed.[m]
As with child inmates, adults were assessed by a panel of experts,
working at the
Tiergartenstraße offices. The experts were required to
make their judgements on the reports, not medical histories or
examinations. Sometimes they dealt with hundreds of reports at a time.
On each they marked a + (death), a - (life), or occasionally a ?
meaning that they were unable to decide. Three "death" verdicts
condemned the person and as with reviews of children, the process
became less rigorous, the range of conditions considered
"unsustainable" grew broader and zealous Nazis further down the chain
of command increasingly made decisions on their own initiative.
The first gassings in Germany proper took place in January 1940 at the
Euthanasia Centre. The operation was headed by Brack, who
said "the needle belongs in the hand of the doctor." Bottled pure
carbon monoxide gas was used. At trials, Brandt described the process
as a "major advance in medical history". Once the efficacy of the
method was confirmed, it became standardised, and instituted at a
number of centres across Germany under the supervision of Widmann,
Christian Wirth – a
Kripo officer who later played a
prominent role in the extermination of the
Jews as commandant of newly
built death camps in occupied Poland. In addition to Brandenburg, the
killing centres included
Grafeneck Castle in Baden-Württemberg
Schloss Hartheim near
Linz in Austria (over 18,000
Euthanasia Centre in Saxony (15,000 dead), Bernburg
Euthanasia Centre in Saxony-Anhalt and
Euthanasia Centre in
Hesse (14,494 dead). The same facilities were also used to kill
mentally sound prisoners transferred from concentration camps in
Germany, Austria and occupied parts of Poland.
Bishop Jan Maria Michał Kowalski, killed at Hartheim Euthanasia
Condemned patients were transferred from their institutions to newly
built centres in the T4
Charitable Ambulance buses, called the
Community Patients Transports Service. They were run by teams of SS
men wearing white coats, to give it an air of medical care. To
prevent the families and doctors of the patients from tracing them,
the patients were often first sent to transit centres in major
hospitals, where they were supposedly assessed. They were moved again
to special treatment (Sonderbehandlung) centres. Families were sent
letters explaining that owing to wartime regulations, it was not
possible for them to visit relatives in these centres. Most of these
patients were killed within 24 hours of arriving at the centres, and
their bodies cremated. For every person killed, a death
certificate was prepared, giving a false but plausible cause of death.
This was sent to the family along with an urn of ashes (random ashes,
since the victims were cremated en masse). The preparation of
thousands of falsified death certificates took up most of the working
day of the doctors who operated the centres.
During 1940, the centres at Brandenburg, Grafeneck and Hartheim killed
nearly 10,000 people each, while another 6,000 were killed at
Sonnenstein. In all, about 35,000 people were killed in T4 operations
that year. Operations at Brandenburg and Grafeneck were wound up at
the end of the year, partly because the areas they served had been
cleared and partly because of public opposition. In 1941, however, the
centres at Bernburg and Sonnenstein increased their operations, while
Hartheim (where Wirth and
Franz Stangl were successively commandants)
continued as before. As a result, another 35,000 people were killed
before August 1941, when the T4 programme was officially shut down by
Hitler. Even after that date, however, the centres continued to be
used to kill concentration camp inmates: eventually some 20,000 people
in this category were killed.[n]
Gitta Sereny conducted a series of interviews with Stangl,
who was in prison in
Düsseldorf after having been convicted of
co-responsibility for killing 900,000 people as commandant of the
Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps in Poland. Stangl gave
Sereny a detailed account of the operations of the T4 programme based
on his time as commandant of the killing facility at the Hartheim
institute. He described how the inmates of various asylums were
removed and transported by bus to Hartheim. Some were in no mental
state to know what was happening to them, but many were perfectly
sane, and for them various forms of deception were used. They were
told they were at a special clinic where they would receive improved
treatment, and were given a brief medical examination on arrival. They
were induced to enter what appeared to be a shower block, where they
were gassed with carbon monoxide (the ruse was also used at
Number of euthanasia victims
The SS functionaries and hospital staff associated with the Action T4
in the German Reich were paid from the central office at
Tiergartenstrasse 4 in Berlin, beginning in spring 1940. The SS and
police from the SS-Sonderkommando Lange responsible for murdering
majority of patients in the annexed territories of Poland since
October 1939 took their salaries from the normal police fund,
supervised by the administration of the newly formed Wartheland
district. The programme both in Germany and occupied Poland was
overseen personally by Heinrich Himmler. Previously it was
believed that 70,000 persons were murdered in the euthanasia
German Federal Archives
German Federal Archives in 2013 reported that recent
research in the archives of the former East Germany indicate that the
number of victims,from 1939 to 1945,in Germany and Austria was
actually about 200,000 persons, an additional 100,000 persons were
victims in other European countries.
Aktion T4 (official data from 1985), 1940 – September
Number of victims
Until (officially and unofficially)
20 January 1940
8 February 1940
21 November 1940
30 July 1943
6 May 1940
31 July 1942
Total by year 
Territories of occupied Poland 
Extermination of mentally ill
Number of victims
November 1939 – March 1940 
October–November 1939 
22 Sep 1939 – Jan 1940 (1941–44) 
7 Dec 1939 – 12 Jan 1940 (July 1941) 
12 January 1940
31 March 1940 (16 June 1941) 
21 May – 8 July 1940
13 March 1940 – August 1941
(minimum of) 850
Helenówek (et al.)
Total by number 
There were notable differences between the two countries. In the
German T4 centres there was at least the semblance of legality in
keeping records and writing letters. In the Polish psychiatric
hospitals no one was left behind. The methods of killing included
gas-vans, sealed army bunkers and machine guns. Families were not
informed about the murdered relatives and the wards, once cleared of
patients, were handed over to the SS.
Technology and personnel transfer to death camps
See also: Category:Action T4 personnel and T4-Gutachter
After the official end of the euthanasia programme in 1941, most of
the personnel and high-ranking officials, as well as gassing
technology and the techniques used to deceive victims, were
transferred under the jurisdiction of the national medical division of
the Reich Interior Ministry. Further gassing experiments with the use
of mobile gas chambers (Einsatzwagen) were conducted at Soldau
concentration camp by
Herbert Lange following Operation Barbarossa.
Lange was appointed commander of the
Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp in
December 1941. He was given three gas vans by the RSHA, converted by
the Gaubschat GmbH in Berlin and before February 1942, killed
Jews and around 4,000 Romani, under the guise of
"resettlement". After the Wannsee conference, implementation of
gassing technology was accelerated by Heydrich. Beginning in the
spring of 1942, three killing factories were built secretly in
east-central Poland. The SS officers responsible for the earlier
Aktion T4, including Wirth, Stangl and Irmfried Eberl, had important
roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution" for the next two
years.[o] The first killing centre equipped with stationary gas
chambers modelled on technology developed under
Aktion T4 was
established at Bełżec in the
General Government territory of
occupied Poland; the decision preceded the
Wannsee Conference of
January 1942 by three months.
Gas chamber in Hadamar
In January 1939, Brack commissioned a paper from Professor of Moral
Theology at the University of Paderborn, Joseph Mayer, on the likely
reactions of the churches in the event of a state euthanasia programme
being instituted. Mayer – a longstanding euthanasia
advocate – reported that the churches would not oppose such a
programme if it was seen to be in the national interest. Brack showed
this paper to
Hitler in July, and it may have increased his confidence
that the "euthanasia" programme would be acceptable to German public
opinion. Notably, when Sereny interviewed Mayer shortly before his
death in 1967, he denied that he formally condoned the killing of
people with disabilities but no copies of this paper are known to
There were those who opposed the T4 programme within the bureaucracy.
Lothar Kreyssig, a district judge and member of the Confessing Church,
wrote to Gürtner protesting that the action was illegal since no law
or formal decree from
Hitler had authorised it. Gürtner replied, "If
you cannot recognise the will of the Führer as a source of law, then
you cannot remain a judge", and had Kreyssig dismissed.
a fixed policy of not issuing written instructions for policies
relating to what could later be condemned by international community,
but made an exception when he provided Bouhler and Brack with written
authority for the T4 programme in his confidential letter of October
1939 in order to overcome opposition within the German state
Hitler told Bouhler that, "the Führer's Chancellery must
under no circumstances be seen to be active in this matter." The
Justice Minister, Franz Gürtner, had to be shown Hitler's letter in
August 1940 to gain his cooperation.
In the towns where the killing centres were located, many people saw
the inmates arrive in buses, saw the smoke from the crematoria
chimneys and noticed that the buses were returning empty. In Hadamar,
ashes containing human hair rained down on the town. The T4 programme
was no secret. Despite the strictest orders, some of the staff at the
killing centres talked about what was going on. In some cases families
could tell that the causes of death in certificates were false, e.g.
when a patient was claimed to have died of appendicitis, even though
his appendix had been surgically removed some years earlier. In other
cases, several families in the same town would receive death
certificates on the same day. In May 1941, the
Court wrote to Gürtner describing scenes in
Hadamar where children
shouted in the streets that people were being taken away in buses to
Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt
Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt in 1920
During 1940, rumours of what was taking place spread and many Germans
withdrew their relatives from asylums and sanatoria to care for them
at home, often with great expense and difficulty. In some places
doctors and psychiatrists co-operated with families to have patients
discharged or if the families could afford it, transferred them to
private clinics beyond the reach of T4. Other doctors "re-diagnosed"
patients so that they no longer met the T4 criteria, which risked
exposure when Nazi zealots from Berlin conducted inspections. In Kiel,
Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt
Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt managed to save nearly all of his
patients. Lifton listed a handful of psychiatrists and
administrators who opposed the killings; many doctors collaborated,
either through ignorance, agreement with Nazi eugenicist policies or
fear of the regime.
Protest letters were sent to the Reich Chancellery and the Ministry of
Justice, some from
Nazi Party members. The first open protest against
the removal of people from asylums took place at
Absberg in Franconia
in February 1941 and others followed. The SD report on the incident at
Absberg noted that "the removal of residents from the Ottilien Home
has caused a great deal of unpleasantness" and described large crowds
of Catholic townspeople, among them Party members, protesting against
the action. Similar petitions and protests occurred throughout
Austria as rumors spread of mass killings at the Hartheim Euthanasia
Centre and of mysterious deaths at the children's clinic, Am
Spiegelgrund in Vienna. Anna Wödl, a nurse and mother of child with a
disability, vehemently petitioned to Hermann Linden at the Reich
Ministry of the Interior in Berlin to prevent her son, Alfred, from
being transferred from Gugging, where he lived and which also became a
euthanasia center. Wödl failed and Alfred was sent to Am
Spiegelgrund, where he was killed on February 22, 1941. His brain was
preserved in formaldehyde for "research" and stored in the clinic for
Main article: Nazi euthanasia and the Catholic Church
The Lutheran theologian
Friedrich von Bodelschwingh
Friedrich von Bodelschwingh (director of the
Bethel Institution for
Epilepsy at Bielefeld) and Pastor Paul-Gerhard
Braune (director of the Hoffnungstal Institution near Berlin)
protested. Bodelschwingh negotiated directly with Brandt and
indirectly with Hermann Göring, whose cousin was a prominent
psychiatrist. Braune had meetings with Justice Minister Gürtner, who
was always dubious about the legality of the programme. Gürtner later
wrote a strongly worded letter to
Hitler protesting against it; Hitler
did not read it but was told about it by Lammers. Bishop Theophil
Wurm, presiding the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg, wrote
to Interior Minister Frick in March 1940 and the same month a
confidential report from the
Sicherheitsdienst (SD) in Austria, warned
that the killing programme must be implemented with stealth "in order
to avoid a probable backlash of public opinion during the war".
On 4 December 1940, Reinhold Sautter, the Supreme Church Councillor of
the Württemberg State Church, complained to the Nazi Ministerial
Councillor Eugen Stähle for the murders in Grafeneck Castle. Stahle
said "The fifth commandment Thou shalt not kill, is no commandment of
God but a Jewish invention".
Bishop Heinrich Wienken of Berlin, a leading member of the Caritas
Association, was selected by the
Fulda episcopal synod to represent
the views of the Catholic Church in meetings with T4 operatives. In
Michael Burleigh wrote
August von Galen
Wienken seems to have gone partially native in the sense that he
gradually abandoned an absolute stance based on the Fifth Commandment
in favour of winning limited concessions regarding the restriction of
killing to 'complete idiots', access to the sacraments and the
exclusion of ill Roman Catholic priests from these policies.
Despite a decree issued by the Vatican on 2 December 1940 stating that
the T4 policy was "against natural and positive Divine law" and that
"The direct killing of an innocent person because of mental or
physical defects is not allowed", the Catholic Church hierarchy in
Germany decided to take no further action. Incensed by the Nazi
appropriation of Church property in
Münster to accommodate people
made homeless by an air raid, in July and August 1941 the Bishop of
Münster, August von Galen, gave four sermons criticizing the Nazis
for arresting Jesuits, confiscating church property and for the
euthanasia program. Galen sent the text to
telegram, calling on
.... the Führer to defend the people against the Gestapo. It is a
terrible, unjust and catastrophic thing when man opposes his will to
the will of God.... We are talking about men and women, our
compatriots, our brothers and sisters. Poor unproductive people if you
wish, but does this mean that they have lost their right to live?
Galen's sermons were not reported in the German press but were
circulated illegally as leaflets. The text was dropped by the Royal
Air Force over German troops. In 2009,
Richard J. Evans
Richard J. Evans wrote
that "This was the strongest, most explicit and most widespread
protest movement against any policy since the beginning of the Third
Reich". Local Nazis asked for Galen to be arrested but Goebbels
Hitler that such action would provoke a revolt in Westphalia and
Hitler decided to wait until after the war to take revenge.
A plaque set in the pavement at No 4
the victims of the Nazi euthanasia programme.
Commemorative plaque on wall on bunker No. 17 in Fort VII.
In 1986, Lifton wrote, "Nazi leaders faced the prospect of either
having to imprison prominent, highly admired clergymen and other
protesters – a course with consequences in terms of adverse public
reaction they greatly feared – or else end the programme".
Evans considered it "at least possible, even indeed probable" that the
T4 programme would have continued beyond Hitler's initial quota of
70,000 deaths but for the public reaction to Galen's sermon.
Burleigh called assumptions that the sermon affected Hitler's decision
to suspend the T4 program "wishful thinking" and noted that the
various Church hierarchies did not complain after the transfer of T4
personnel to Aktion Reinhard.
Henry Friedlander wrote that it was
not the criticism from the Church but rather the loss of secrecy and
"general popular disquiet about the way euthanasia was implemented"
that caused the killing to be suspended.
Galen had detailed knowledge of the euthanasia program by July 1940
but did not speak out until almost a year after Protestants had begun
to protest. In 2002, Beth A. Griech-Polelle wrote that,
Worried lest they be classified as outsiders or internal enemies, they
waited for Protestants, that is the "true Germans", to risk a
confrontation with the government first. If the Protestants were able
to be critical of a Nazi policy, then Catholics could function as
"good" Germans and yet be critical too.
On 29 June 1943, Pope Pius XII issued the encyclical Mystici corporis
Christi, in which he condemned the fact that "physically deformed
people, mentally disturbed people and hereditarily ill people have at
times been robbed of their lives" in Germany. Following this, in
September 1943, a bold but ineffectual condemnation was read by
bishops from pulpits across Germany, denouncing the killing of "the
innocent and defenceless mentally handicapped and mentally ill, the
incurably infirm and fatally wounded, innocent hostages and disarmed
prisoners of war and criminal offenders, people of a foreign race or
Suspension of T4 killings
On 24 August 1941,
Hitler ordered the suspension of the T4 killings.
After the invasion of the Soviet Union in June, many T4 personnel were
transferred to the east to begin work on the final solution to the
Jewish question. The projected death total for the T4 program of
70,000 deaths had been reached by August 1941. The termination of
the T4 programme did not end the killing of people with disabilities;
from the end of 1941, the killing of adults and children continued
less systematically to the end of the war on the local initiative of
institute directors and party leaders. After the bombing of Hamburg in
July 1943, occupants of old age homes were killed. In the post-war
trial of Dr. Hilda Wernicke, Berlin, August, 1946, testimony was given
that "500 old, broken women" who had survived the bombing of Stettin
in June 1944 were euthanized at the Meseritz-Oberwalde Asylum.
The Hartheim, Bernberg, Sonnenstein and Hardamar centres continued in
use as "wild euthanasia" centres to kill people sent from all over
Germany, until 1945. The methods were lethal injection or
starvation, those employed before use of gas chambers. By the end
of 1941, about 100,000 people had been killed in the T4
programme. From mid-1941, concentration camp prisoners too feeble
or too much trouble to keep alive were murdered after a cursory
psychiatric examination under Action 14f13.
Euthanasia trials and Doctors' trial
After the war a series of trials was held in connection with the Nazi
euthanasia programme at various places including: Dresden, Frankfurt,
Nuremberg and Tübingen. In December 1946 an American military
tribunal (commonly called the Doctors' trial) prosecuted 23 doctors
and administrators for their roles in war crimes and crimes against
humanity. These crimes included the systematic killing of those deemed
"unworthy of life", including people with mental disabilities, the
people who were institutionalized mentally ill, and people with
physical impairments. After 140 days of proceedings, including the
testimony of 85 witnesses and the submission of 1,500 documents, in
August 1947 the court pronounced 16 of the defendants guilty. Seven
were sentenced to death and executed on 2 June 1948, including Brandt
The indictment read in part:
14. Between September 1939 and April 1945 the defendants Karl Brandt,
Blome, Brack, and Hoven unlawfully, wilfully, and knowingly committed
crimes against humanity, as defined by Article II of Control Council
Law No. 10, in that they were principals in, accessories to, ordered,
abetted, took a consenting part in, and were connected with plans and
enterprises involving the execution of the so called "euthanasia"
program of the German Reich, in the course of which the defendants
herein murdered hundreds of thousands of human beings, including
German civilians, as well as civilians of other nations. The
particulars concerning such murders are set forth in paragraph 9 of
count two of this indictment and are incorporated herein by reference.
— International Military Tribunal
Earlier, in 1945, American forces tried seven staff members of the
Hadamar killing centre for the killing of Soviet and Polish nationals,
which was within their jurisdiction under international law, as these
were the citizens of wartime allies. (
Hadamar was within the American
Zone of Occupation in Germany. This was before the Allied resolution
of December 1945, to prosecute individuals for "crimes against
humanity" for such mass atrocities.) Alfons Klein, Karl Ruoff and
Wilhelm Willig were sentenced to death and executed; the other four
were given long prison sentences. In 1946, newly reconstructed
German courts tried members of the
Hadamar staff for the murders of
nearly 15,000 German citizens at the facility. Adolf Wahlmann and
Irmgard Huber, the chief physician and the head nurse, were convicted.
See also: Category:Action T4 personnel and T4-Gutachter
Aktion T4 marker (2009) in Berlin
August Becker, initially sentenced to three years after the war, in
1960 was tried again and sentenced to 10 years in prison. He was
released early due to ill health and died in 1967.
Werner Blankenburg lived under an alias and died in 1957
Philipp Bouhler committed suicide in captivity, May 1945.
Werner Catel was cleared by a de-nazification board after World War II
and was head of pediatrics at the University of Kiel. He retired early
after his role in the T4 program was exposed.
Leonardo Conti hanged himself in captivity, 6 October 1945
Ernst-Robert Grawitz killed himself shortly before the fall of
Berlin in April 1945
Dr. Herbert Linden committed suicide in 1945. Overseers of the program
were initially Herbert Linden and Werner Heyde. Linden was later
replaced by Hermann Paul Nitsche.
Dr. Fritz Cropp d. 6 April 1984, Bremen. A Nazi official in Oldenburg,
Cropp was appointed the country medical officer of health in 1933. In
1935 he transferred to Berlin, where he worked as a ministerial
adviser in the Division IV (health care and people care) in the
Ministry of the Interior. In 1939, he became Assistant Director. Cropp
was involved in the Nazi "euthanasia" Action T4, in 1940. He was
Herbert Linden's superior and was responsible for patient
Dr. Werner Heyde after escaping detection for 18 years, killed
himself in 1964 before being brought to trial.
Heinrich Gross was tried twice. One sentence was overturned and
another was suspended; he died in 2005.
Lorenz Hackenholt vanished in 1945.
Erich Koch served time in prison from 1950 to his death in 1986
Erwin Lambert died in 1976.
Dr. Friedrich Mennecke died in 1947 while awaiting trial.
Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse, the governor of Hesse-Nassau, was not
tried for his part in Aktion T4; died in 1980.
Aktion T4 memorial at
Tiergartenstraße 4, Berlin
Paul Nitsche was tried and executed by an East German court in 1948.
Carl Schneider hanged himself in his prison cell in 1946,
while awaiting trial.
Franz Schwede was sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1948 and was
released in 1956; he died in 1960.
Ernst Illing was the director of the Vienna
Psychiatric-Neurological Clinic for Children Am Spielgrund, where he
killed about 200 children, sentenced to death on 18 July 1946
Dr. Marianne Türk was a doctor at Vienna Psychiatric-Neurological
Clinic for Children Am Spielgrund where, together with Ernst Illing,
she killed 200 children. She was sentenced to 10 years prison on 18
The Ministry for State Security of East Germany stored around 30,000
Aktion T4 in their archives. Those files became available to
the public only after the
German Reunification in 1990, leading to a
new wave of research on these wartime crimes.
The German national memorial to the people with disabilities murdered
by the Nazis was dedicated in 2014 in Berlin. It is located
in the pavement of a site next to the Tiergarten park, the location of
the former villa at Tiergartenstrasse 4 in Berlin, where more than 60
Nazi bureaucrats and doctors worked in secret under the "T4" program
to organize the mass murder of sanatorium and psychiatric hospital
patients deemed unworthy to live.
Nazi doctors (list)
Nazi eugenics, the racially based social policies that placed the
improvement of the
Aryan race at the heart of Nazis ideology.
Nazi medical experimentation
Operation Reinhard, men of
Aktion T4 provided expertise for building
the extermination camps during the Holocaust.
Aktion 14f13 (1941–44), a Nazi extermination operation that killed
prisoners who were sick, elderly, or deemed no longer fit for work
T4-Gutachter experts selecting victims killed by gas in "euthanasia"
Ich klage an, Nazi pro-euthanasia propaganda film
Life unworthy of life
Am Spiegelgrund clinic
Soldau concentration camp
Jewish skeleton collection
Nazi euthanasia and the Catholic Church
^ a b As many as 100,000 people may have been killed directly as part
of Action T-4. Mass euthanasia killings were also carried out in the
Eastern European countries and territories
Nazi Germany conquered
during the war. Categories are fluid, and no definitive figure can be
assigned but historians put the total number of victims at around
^ Sandner wrote that the term
Aktion T4 was first used in post-war
trials against doctors involved in the killings and later included in
Tiergartenstraße 4 was the location of the Central Office and
administrative headquarters of the Gemeinnützige Stiftung für Heil-
und Anstalts- pflege (Charitable Foundation for Curative and
^ a b Notes on patient records from the archive "R 179" of the
Chancellery of the Fuehrer Main Office II b. Between 1939 and 1945,
about 200,000 women, men and children from psychiatric institutions of
the German Reich were murdered in several covert actions by
gasification, medication or inadequate nutrition. Original: Zwischen
1939 und 1945 wurden ca. 200.000 Frauen, Männer und Kinder aus
psychiatrischen Einrichtungen des Deutschen Reichs im mehreren
verdeckten Aktionen durch Vergasung, Medikamente oder unzureichende
Robert Lifton and
Michael Burleigh estimated that twice the official
number of T4 victims may have perished before the end of the
^ Estimated range of 200,000 and 250,000 informal victims of policy
upon the arrival of Allied troops in Germany.
^ This was the result either of club foot or osteomyelitis. Goebbels
is commonly said to have had club foot (talipes equinovarus), a
congenital condition. William L. Shirer, who worked in Berlin as a
journalist in the 1930s and was acquainted with Goebbels, wrote in The
Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960) that the deformity was from a
childhood attack of osteomyelitis and a failed operation to correct
^ Lifton thinks this request was "encouraged"; the severely disabled
child and the agreement of the parents to his killing were apparently
^ These were Professor
Werner Catel (a
Professor Hans Heinze, head of a state institution for children with
intellectual disabilities at Görden near Brandenburg; Ernst Wentzler
a Berlin pediatric psychiatrist and the author Dr. Helmut Unger.
^ Lifton concurs with this figure, but notes that the killing of
children continued even after the T4 programme was formally ended in
^ The second phase of
Operation Tannenberg referred to as the
Unternehmen Tannenberg by Heydrich's Sonderreferat began in late 1939
under the codename
Intelligenzaktion and lasted until January 1940, in
which 36,000–42,000 people, including Polish children, died before
the end of 1939 in Pomerania.
^ Several drafts of a formal euthanasia law were prepared but Hitler
refused to authorise them. The senior participants in the programme
always knew that it was not a law, even by the loose definition of
legality prevailing in Nazi Germany.
^ According to Lifton, most Jewish inmates of German mental
institutions were dispatched to Lublin in Poland in 1940 and killed
^ These figures come from the article
Aktion T4 on the German
Wikipedia, which sources them to Ernst Klee.
^ Role of T4 "Inspector"
Christian Wirth in the Holocaust.
^ a b "Exhibition catalogue in German and English" (PDF). Berlin,
Germany: Memorial for the Victims of National Socialist
›Euthanasia‹ Killings. 2018.
Euthanasia Program" (PDF). Yad Vashem. 2018.
^ a b Chase, Jefferson (January 26, 2017). "Remembering the 'forgotten
victims' of Nazi 'euthanasia' murders". Deutsche Welle.
^ a b Sandner 1999, p. 385.
^ Hojan & Munro 2015.
^ Bialas & Fritze 2014, pp. 263, 281.
^ a b Sereny 1983, p. 48.
^ Proctor 1988, p. 177.
^ Longerich 2010, p. 477.
^ Browning 2005, p. 193.
^ Proctor 1988, p. 191.
^ a b c d German Federal Archive (2013). "
Euthanasia in the Third
Reich" [Euthanasie im Dritten Reich]. Bundesarchiv. German Federal
^ Evans 2009, p. 107.
^ a b c Burleigh 2008, p. 262.
^ a b Evans 2009, p. 98.
^ Burleigh & Wippermann 2014.
^ Adams 1990, pp. 40, 84, 191.
^ Ryan & Schuchman 2002, p. 25.
^ a b Lifton 1986, p. 142.
^ a b Ryan & Schuchman 2002, p. 62.
^ Burleigh 1995.
^ Lifton 2000, p. 102.
^ a b c Sereny 1983, p. 54.
^ a b "Sources on the History of the "Euthanasia" crimes 1939-1945 in
German and Austrian Archives" [Quellen zur Geschichte der
“Euthanasie”-Verbrechen 1939-1945 in deutschen und
österreichischen Archiven] (PDF). Bundesarchiv. 2018. The
number murdered is calculated at 200,000. Original: "der Zahl von
200.000 Ermordungen zu rechnen ist."
^ "Euthanasie«-Morde" (PDF). Foundation the Monument for the murdered
Jews of Europe. 2018.
^ a b Miller 2006, p. 160.
^ a b c Breggin 1993, pp. 133–148.
^ Hitler, p. 447.
^ Padfield 1990, p. 260.
^ Hansen & King 2013, p. 141.
^ Engstrom, Weber & Burgmair 2006, p. 1710.
^ Joseph 2004, p. 160.
^ Bleuler 1924, p. 214.
^ Read 2004, p. 36.
^ Evans 2005, pp. 507–508.
^ "Forced Sterilization".
^ Evans 2005, p. 508.
^ a b Kershaw 2000, p. 256.
^ Friedman 2011, p. 146.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 50.
^ Schmidt 2007, p. 118.
^ Cina & Perper 2012, p. 59.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 50–51.
^ Proctor 1988, p. 10.
^ a b c Browning 2005, p. 190.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 62.
^ Baader 2009, pp. 18–27.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 62–63.
^ Schmitt 1965, pp. 34–35.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 47.
^ a b Kershaw 2000, p. 254.
^ Evans 2005, p. 444.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 48–49.
^ Browning 2005, p. 185.
^ a b Kershaw 2000, p. 259.
^ Miller 2006, p. 158.
^ Torrey & Yolken 2010, pp. 26–32.
^ Local 2014.
^ a b Kaelber 2015.
^ Weindling 2006, p. 6.
^ a b Lifton 1986, p. 52.
^ Sereny 1983, p. 55.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 60.
^ "The war against the "inferior". On the History of Nazi Medicine in
Vienna - Chronology". A project by the Documentation Center of
^ Lifton 1986, p. 56.
^ a b Lifton 1986, p. 55.
^ Friedlander 1995, p. 163.
^ Evans 2004, p. 93.
^ Semków 2006, pp. 46–48.
^ Semków 2006, pp. 42–50.
^ Friedlander 1995, p. 87.
^ Browning 2005, pp. 186–187.
^ Browning 2005, p. 188.
^ Kershaw 2000, p. 261.
^ a b c Lifton 1986, pp. 63–64.
^ a b Padfield 1990, p. 261.
^ a b Kershaw 2000, p. 253.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 64.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 66–67.
^ Browning 2005, p. 191.
^ Padfield 1990, p. 261, 303.
^ a b Lifton 1986, p. 77.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 67.
^ Annas & Grodin 1992, p. 25.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 71–72.
^ Burleigh 2000, p. 54.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 71.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 74.
^ Klee 1983.
^ a b Sereny 1983, pp. 41–90.
^ a b c Hojan & Munro 2013.
^ "Euthanasie«-Morde". Foundation the Monument for the murdered Jews
of Europe. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
^ a b Klee 1985, p. 232.
^ a b c d e f Jaroszewski 1993.
^ WNSP State Hospital 2013.
^ Beer 2015, pp. 403–417.
^ Ringelblum 2013, p. 20.
^ Joniec 2016, pp. 1–39.
^ Sereny 1983, p. 71.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 75.
^ Sereny 1983, p. 58.
^ a b Lifton 1986, pp. 80, 82.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 90.
^ NEP 2017.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 90–92.
^ Padfield 1990, p. 304.
^ Schmuhl 1987, p. 321.
^ Burleigh 2008, p. 261.
^ Ericksen 2012, p. 111.
^ Evans 2009, p. 110.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 93.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 94.
^ Kershaw 2000, pp. 427, 429.
^ Lifton 1986, p. 95.
^ Evans 2009, p. 112.
^ Burleigh 2008, p. 26.
^ Friedlander 1997, p. 111.
^ Griech-Polelle 2002, p. 76.
^ Evans 2009, pp. 529–530.
^ a b Burleigh 2008, p. 263.
^ Aly & Chroust 1994, p. 88.
^ Lifton 1986, pp. 96–102.
^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1,066.
^ a b Hilberg 2003, p. 932.
^ Taylor 1949.
^ NARA 1980, pp. 1–12.
^ a b Hilberg 2003, p. 1,175.
^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1,176.
^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1,179.
^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1,003.
^ a b Berenbaum & Peck 2002, p. 247.
^ Hilberg 2003, p. 1,182.
^ a b Totten & Parsons 2009, p. 181.
^ Buttlar 2003.
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Holocaust Memorial for Disabled - Global
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