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The ACADEMY AWARDS, now known officially as THE OSCARS, is a set of twenty-four awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", which has become commonly known by its nickname "Oscar". The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel , are overseen by AMPAS.
The awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony. Its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards.
89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016 ,
were held on February 26, 2017, at the
Dolby Theatre , in Los Angeles
* 1 History
* 1.1 Institutions
* 2 Oscar statuette
* 2.1 Other awards presented by the Academy * 2.2 Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette) * 2.3 Naming * 2.4 Engraving * 2.5 Ownership of Oscar statuettes
* 3 Nomination
* 3.1 Voters * 3.2 Rules
* 4 Awards ceremonies
* 4.1 Telecast * 4.2 TV ratings
* 5 Venues
* 6 Awards of Merit categories
* 6.1 Current categories * 6.2 Discontinued categories * 6.3 Proposed categories
* 7.1 Current special categories * 7.2 Discontinued special categories
* 8 Criticism
* 8.1 Accusations of commercialism * 8.2 Accusations of bias * 8.3 Allegations of a lack of diversity * 8.4 Symbolism or sentimentalization * 8.5 Refusing the award
* 9 Associated events * 10 Presenter and performer gifts * 11 Television ratings and advertisement prices * 12 Trademark * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links
Winners were announced to media three months earlier. That was
changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of
the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication
at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards. This method was used until an
occasion when the _
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings , for his performances in _The Last Command _ and _The Way of All Flesh _. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period; for example, Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period, and Janet Gaynor later won a single Oscar for performances in three films. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years.
At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27, 1957, the Best Foreign
Language Film category was introduced. Until then, foreign-language
films had been honored with the
The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature .
Since 1973, all
Traditionally, The actors present the awards for actresses and the actresses present the awards for actors.
OTHER AWARDS PRESENTED BY THE ACADEMY
_See also §
In addition to the Academy Award of Merit (Oscar award), there are nine honorary (non-competitive) awards presented by the Academy from time to time (except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually):
* Governors Awards :
* The Academy Honorary Award (annual) (which may or may not be in the form of an Oscar statuette); * The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award (since 1938) (in the form of a bust of Thalberg); * The Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award (since 1957) (in the form of an Oscar statuette);
* The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards :
* Academy Award of Merit (non-competitive) (in the form of an Oscar statuette); * Scientific and Engineering Award (in the form of a bronze tablet); * Technical Achievement Award (annual) (in the form of a certificate); * The John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation (since 1978) (in the form of a medal); * The Gordon E. Sawyer Award (since 1982); and
* The Academy Student Academy Awards (annual).
The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting .
ACADEMY AWARD OF MERIT (OSCAR STATUETTE)
_See also § Awards of Merit categories (below)_
The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly
known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated britannium on a
black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34.3 cm) tall, the award weighs 8.5
lb (3.856 kg) and depicts a knight rendered in
The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández . Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl ) sculpted Cedric Gibbons ' design. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois , which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award 's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015, approximately 50 Oscars were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens ">
While the Oscar is owned by the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market. Michael Todd\'s grandson tried to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector in 1989, but the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.
Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in late January. Prior to that, the results were announced in early February.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of 5,783 as of 2012 .
Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse ) for the past 83 annual awards ceremonies.
All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures.
New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.
In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the _
In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013.
According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official
The Best Foreign Language Film award does not require a U.S. release.
The Best Documentary Feature award requires week-long releases in
The Best Documentary Short Subject award has noticeably different
eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. First, the
qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year,
instead covering a one-year period starting on September 1 and ending
on the August 31 of the calendar year before the ceremony. Second,
there are multiple methods of qualification. The main method is a
week-long theatrical release in _either_
For example, the 2009 Best Picture winner, _ The Hurt Locker _, was actually first released in 2008, but did not qualify for the 2008 awards as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009, thus qualifying for the 2009 awards . Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film per year.
Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a
minimum of 40 minutes, except for short-subject awards, and it must
exist either on a 35 mm or
70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48
frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with a minimum
projector resolution of 2048 by 1080 pixels. Effective with the 90th
Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before
the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the
film will be ineligible for
In late December ballots and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6,000 active members. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i.e. only directors vote for directors, writers for writers, actors for actors, etc.). In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees (ten for Best Picture) ranked preferentially. In certain categories, including Foreign Film, Documentary and Animated Feature Film, nominees are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches.
In most categories the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members. Since 2009, the Best Picture winner has been chosen by instant runoff voting . Since 2013, re-weighted range voting has been used to select the nominees for the Best Visual Effects .
Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season . The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members so as to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified. It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders. For example, a producer of the 2009 Best Picture nominee _ The Hurt Locker _ was disqualified as a producer in the category when he contacted associates urging them to vote for his film and not another that was seen as the front-runner (_The Hurt Locker_ eventually won).
See also: List of Academy Awards ceremonies
The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, most commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie , and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.)
The ceremonies were moved up from late March or early April to late
February or early March starting in 2004 to help disrupt and shorten
the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with
Oscar season in
the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV
ratings success of the NCAA Division I Men\'s Basketball Tournament ,
which would cut into the
After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern /6:00
p.m Pacific , in 1999 the ceremonies were moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm
Eastern/5:30 pm Pacific. The reasons given for the move were that
more viewers would tune in on Sundays, that
Originally scheduled for April 8, 1968, the 40th Academy Awards
ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. . On March 30, 1981, the 53rd Academy
Awards was postponed for one day, after the shooting of President
In 1993, an _In Memoriam_ segment was introduced, honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members. This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. Criticism was also levied for many years regarding another aspect, with the segment having a "popularity contest " feel as the audience varied their applause to those who had died by the subject's cultural impact; the applause has since been muted during the telecast, and the audience is discouraged from clapping during the segment and giving silent reflection instead.
In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. The first Oscars, in 1929, lasted 15 minutes. At the other end of the spectrum, the 2002 ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes. In 2010, the organizers of the Academy Awards announced that winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion. In 2016, in a further effort to streamline speeches, winners' dedications were displayed on an on-screen ticker .
Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards have steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards were the lowest-rated in the past eight years (although with increases in male and 18-49 viewership), while the show itself also faced mixed reception. Following the show, _Variety _ reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself. Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions. In August 2016, AMPAS extended its contract with ABC through 2028: the contract does not contain any notable changes, nor gives ABC any further creative control over the telecast.
Historically, the "Oscarcast" has pulled in a bigger haul when
box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. More than
57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy
Awards in 1998, the year of _Titanic _, which generated close to
US$600 million at the North American box office pre-Oscars. The 76th
By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budgeted, independent film _Crash _ (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%. In 2008, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest rated and least watched ceremony to date, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards. The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independently financed film (_No Country for Old Men _).
In 1929, the first
Grauman\'s Chinese Theatre in Hollywood then hosted the awards from
1944 to 1946, followed by the
Shrine Auditorium in
From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages
Theatre . With the advent of television, the awards from 1953 to 1957
took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York, first at the NBC
International Theatre (1953) and then at the
In 2002, the Dolby Theatre (previously known as the Kodak Theatre) became the presentation's current venue.
AWARDS OF MERIT CATEGORIES
* Best Picture : since 1928. * Best Director : since 1928 * Best Actor in a Leading Role : since 1928 * Best Actor in a Supporting Role : since 1936 * Best Actress in a Leading Role : since 1928 * Best Actress in a Supporting Role : since 1936 * Best Animated Feature : since 2001 * Best Animated Short Film : since 1931 * Best Cinematography : since 1928 * Best Costume Design : since 1948 * Best Documentary Feature : since 1943 * Best Documentary Short Subject : since 1941 * Best Film Editing : since 1934 * Best Foreign Language Film : since 1947 * Best Live Action Short Film : since 1931 * Best Makeup and Hairstyling : since 1981 * Best Original Score : since 1934 * Best Original Song : since 1934 * Best Production Design : since 1928 * Best Sound Editing : since 1963 * Best Sound Mixing : since 1930 * Best Visual Effects : since 1939 * Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) : since 1928 * Best Writing (Original Screenplay) : since 1940
In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction (now Production Design), Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories (black-and-white films and color films). Prior to 2012, the Production Design award was called Art Direction, while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup.
Another award, entitled the Academy Award for Best Original Musical , is still in the Academy rulebooks and has yet to be discontinued. However, due to continuous insufficient eligibility each year, it has not been awarded since 1984 (when _Purple Rain _ won).
* Best Assistant Director : 1933 to 1937 * Best Director, Comedy Picture : 1928 * Best Dance Direction : 1935 to 1937 * Best Engineering Effects : 1928 * Best Original Musical or Comedy Score : 1995 to 1998 * Best Original Story : 1928 to 1956 * Best Score – Adaptation or Treatment : 1962 to 1969; 1973 * Best Short Film – Color : 1936 and 1937 * Best Short Film – Live Action – 2 Reels : 1936 to 1956 * Best Short Film – Novelty : 1932 to 1935 * Best Title Writing : 1928 * Best Unique and Artistic Picture : 1928
The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. To date, the following proposed categories have been rejected:
* Best Casting: rejected in 1999 * Best Stunt Coordination: rejected every year from 1991 to 2012 * Best Title Design: rejected in 1999
CURRENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES
_For a list of all nine awards, see § Other awards presented by the Academy (above)_
* Academy Honorary Award : since 1929 * Academy Scientific and Technical Award (three different awards): since 1931 * Gordon E. Sawyer Award : since 1981 * Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award : since 1957 * Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award : since 1938
DISCONTINUED SPECIAL CATEGORIES
_ This section may LEND UNDUE WEIGHT TO CERTAIN IDEAS, INCIDENTS, OR CONTROVERSIES. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (April 2016)_
ACCUSATIONS OF COMMERCIALISM
Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards,
studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to
promote their films during what is typically called the "Oscar season
". This has generated accusations of the
Tim Dirks, editor of AMC\'s filmsite.org , has written of the Academy Awards,
Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 1980s, moneymaking "formula-made" blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure.
ACCUSATIONS OF BIAS
Further information: Oscar bait
Typical criticism of the
ALLEGATIONS OF A LACK OF DIVERSITY
The Academic Awards have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees. The 88th awards ceremony became the target of a boycott, based on critics' perception that its all-white acting nominee list reflected bias. In response, the Academy initiated "historic" changes in membership by the year 2020.
SYMBOLISM OR SENTIMENTALIZATION
Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for personal popularity or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.
REFUSING THE AWARD
Some winners critical of the
The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards:
* Nominees luncheon
* The 25th
Independent Spirit Awards
PRESENTER AND PERFORMER GIFTS
It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners. The value of each of these gift bags can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. In 2014 the value was reported to be as high as US$80,000. The value has risen to the point where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status. Oscar gift bags have included vacation packages to Hawaii and Mexico and Japan, a private dinner party for the recipient and friends at a restaurant, videophones , a four-night stay at a hotel, watches, bracelets, vacation packages, spa treatments, bottles of vodka, maple salad dressing, and weight-loss gummie candy. Some of the gifts have even had a "risque" element to them; in 2014 the adult products retailer Adam however, in the Italian language , it is used generically to refer to any award or award ceremony, regardless of which field.
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