Abundance of elements in Earth's crust
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The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each
chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nu ...
shown as mg/kg, or
parts per million In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictio ...
(ppm) by
mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a measure (mathematics), measure of the body's ''inertia'', the resistance to acceleration (change of velocity) when a net force is applied. An object's mass ...
(10,000 ppm = 1%). Estimates of elemental abundance are difficult because (a) the composition of the upper and lower crust are quite different, and (b) the composition of the continental crust can vary drastically by locality. David Kring
Composition of Earth's continental crust as inferred from the compositions of impact melt sheets
Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII


See also

*
Abundances of the elements (data page) Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust *C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook *C2 — Crust: Kaye and Laby *C3 — Crust: Greenwood *C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor) *C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke) *C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver) *U1 — Upper ...
*
Atmospheric chemistry Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere and its various inner-working physical processes. Meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which inc ...
*
Clarke number Clarke number or clarke is the relative abundance of a chemical element, typically Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, in Earth's crust. The technical definition of "Earth's crust" varies among authors, and the actual numbers also vary signific ...
— lists of historical data and terminology *
List of chemical elements This is a list of the 118 chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have th ...
*
Primordial nuclide In geochemistry, geophysics and nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied. Nuclear physics should not be confuse ...


References

{{Reflist * BookRags
Periodic Table
* World Book Encyclopedia
Exploring Earth
* HyperPhysics, Georgia State University

* Data Series 140, Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, Version 2011, USG

* Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2007 Structure of the Earth Properties of chemical elements Lists of chemical elements