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Maulana Sayyid
Sayyid
Abul Kalam
Kalam
Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin AlHussaini Azad ( pronunciation (help·info); 11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
during the Indian independence movement. Following India's independence, he became the first Minister of Education in the Indian government. He is commonly remembered as Maulana Azad; the word Maulana is an honorific meaning 'Our Master', and he had adopted Azad (Free) as his pen name. His contribution to establishing the education foundation in India
India
is recognised by celebrating his birthday as "National Education Day" across India.[1][2] As a young man, Azad composed poetry in Urdu language, as well as treaties on religion and philosophy. He rose to prominence through his work as a journalist, publishing works critical of the British Raj
British Raj
and espousing the causes of Indian nationalism. Azad became the leader of the Khilafat
Khilafat
Movement, during which he came into close contact with the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. Azad became an enthusiastic supporter of Gandhi's ideas of non-violent civil disobedience, and worked to organise the non-co-operation movement in protest of the 1919 Rowlatt Acts. Azad committed himself to Gandhi's ideals, including promoting Swadeshi
Swadeshi
(indigenous) products and the cause of Swaraj
Swaraj
(Self-rule) for India. In 1923, at an age of 35, he became the youngest person to serve as the President of the Indian National Congress. In October 1920, Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad was elected as a member of foundation committee to establish Jamia Millia Islamia
Jamia Millia Islamia
at Aligarh in U. P. without taking help from British colonial government. He helped a lot in shifting of the campus of the university to New Delhi
Delhi
from Aligarh in 1934. The main gate (Gate No. 7) to main campus of the university is named after him. Azad was one of the main organizers of the Dharasana Satyagraha in 1931, and emerged as one of the most important national leaders of the time, prominently leading the causes of Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity as well as espousing secularism and socialism. He served as Congress president from 1940 to 1945, during which the Quit India
India
rebellion was launched. Azad was imprisoned, together with the entire Congress leadership. Amidst communal turmoil following the partition of India, he worked for religious harmony. As India's Education Minister, Azad oversaw the establishment of a national education system with free primary education and modern institutions of higher education. He is also credited with the establishment of the Indian Institutes of Technology and the foundation of the University Grants Commission, an important institution to supervise and advance the higher education in the nation. National Education Day (India) an annual observance in India
India
to commemorate the birth anniversary of Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, the first education minister of independent India, who served from 15 August 1947 until 2 February 1958. National Education Day of India
India
is celebrated on 11 November every year in India. He also worked for Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity through the Al-Hilal newspaper.[3]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Revolutionary and journalist 3 Literary works

3.1 Ghubar-e-Khatir

4 Non-co-operation 5 Congress leader 6 Quit India 7 Partition of India 8 Post-Independence 9 Criticism 10 Legacy and influence 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Early life[edit] Azad was born on 11 November 1888 in Mecca, then a part of the Ottoman Empire. His real name was Sayyid
Sayyid
Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin AlHussaini, but he eventually became known as Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad.[4] Azad's father was a scholar who lived in Delhi
Delhi
with his maternal grandfather, as his father had died at a very young age. During the Sepoy Mutiny, he left India
India
and settled in Mecca. His father Maulana Sayyid
Sayyid
Muhammad Khairuddin bin Ahmed AlHussaini wrote twelve books, had thousands of disciples, and claimed ancestry from Imam Hussain,[5] while his mother was Sheikha Alia bint Mohammad, the daughter of Sheikh Mohammad bin Zaher AlWatri, himself a reputed scholar from Medina
Medina
who had a reputation that extended even outside of Arabia.[4][6][7] Maulana Azad returned to Calcutta
Calcutta
with his family in 1890.[8][9] Azad began to master several languages, including Urdu, Hindi, Persian, Bengali, Arabic, and English.[4] He was also trained in the Mazahibs of Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i
Shafi'i
and Hanbali
Hanbali
fiqh, Shariat, mathematics, philosophy, world history, and science by tutors hired by his family. An avid and determined student, the precocious Azad was running a library, a reading room, and a debating society before he was twelve; wanted to write on the life of Ghazali at twelve; was contributing learned articles to Makhzan (a literary magazine) at fourteen;[10] was teaching a class of students, most of whom were twice his age, when he was fifteen; and completed the traditional course of study at the age of sixteen, nine years ahead of his contemporaries, and brought out a magazine at the same age.[11] In fact, he was publishing a poetical journal (Nairang-e-Aalam)[12] and was already an editor of a weekly (Al-Misbah) in 1900, at the age of twelve and, in 1903, brought out a monthly journal, Lissan-us-Sidq, which soon gained popularity.[13] At the age of thirteen, he was married to a young Muslim
Muslim
girl, Zulaikha Begum.[9] Azad compiled many treatises interpreting the Qur'an, the Hadis, and the principles of Fiqh
Fiqh
and Kalam.[8] Revolutionary and journalist[edit] Azad developed political views considered radical for most Muslims of the time and became a full-fledged Indian nationalist.[8] He fiercely criticised the British for racial discrimination and ignoring the needs of common people across India. He also criticised Muslim politicians for focusing on communal issues before the national interest and rejected the All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League's communal separatism. Azad developed curiosity and interest in the pan-Islamic doctrines of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
and visited Afghanistan, Iraq, Egypt, Syria
Syria
and Turkey. But his views changed considerably when he met revolutionary activists in Iraq
Iraq
and was influenced by their fervent anti-imperialism and nationalism.[8] Against common Muslim opinion of the time, Azad opposed the partition of Bengal
Bengal
in 1905 and became increasingly active in revolutionary activities, to which he was introduced by the prominent Hindu
Hindu
revolutionaries Aurobindo Ghosh and Shyam Sundar Chakravarty. Azad initially evoked surprise from other revolutionaries, but Azad won their praise and confidence by working secretly to organise revolutionaries activities and meetings in Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Bombay
Bombay
(now called Mumbai).[8] Azad's education had been shaped for him to become a cleric, but his rebellious nature and affinity for politics turned him towards journalism. Maulana Azad worked for "Vakil", a newspaper from Amritsar. As per Allama Mashriqi's book titled "Dahulbab" “[Translation] In 1903, Maulvi Shibli Nomani…sent the respected Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad…to Qibla-au-Kaaba [Khan Ata] in Amritsar
Amritsar
so that he could shape his [Azad] future. Therefore he [Azad] stayed with him [Khan Ata] for five years and was part of the editorial team of the…Vakil.” For further information, visit: https://www.facebook.com/TheVakilAmritsar

He established an Urdu weekly newspaper in 1912 called Al-Hilal,[3] and openly attacked British policies while exploring the challenges facing common people, but it was banned in 1914.[3] Espousing the ideals of Indian nationalism, Azad's publications were aimed at encouraging young Muslims into fighting for independence and Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity.[8] His work helped improve the relationship between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal, which had been soured by the controversy surrounding the partition of Bengal
Bengal
and the issue of separate communal electorates. With the onset of World War I, the British stiffened censorship and restrictions on political activity. Azad's Al-Hilal was consequently banned in 1914 under the Press Act. Azad started a new journal, the Al-Balagh, which increased its active support for nationalist causes and communal unity. In this period Azad also became active in his support for the Khilafat
Khilafat
agitation to protect the position of the Sultan
Sultan
of Ottoman Turkey, who was considered the Caliph
Caliph
or Khalifa for Muslims worldwide. The Sultan
Sultan
had sided against the British in the war and the continuity of his rule came under serious threat, causing distress amongst Muslim
Muslim
conservatives. Azad saw an opportunity to energise Indian Muslims
Indian Muslims
and achieve major political and social reform through the struggle. With his popularity increasing across India, the government outlawed Azad's second publication under the Defence of India
India
Regulations Act and arrested him. The governments of the Bombay Presidency, United Provinces, Punjab and Delhi
Delhi
prohibited his entry into the provinces and Azad was moved to a jail in Ranchi, where he was incarcerated until 1 January 1920.[14] Literary works[edit] Maulana Azad is considered one of the greatest Urdu writers of the 20th century. He has written many books including India
India
Wins Freedom, Ghubar-e-Khatir, Tazkirah, Tarjumanul Quran, etc. Ghubar-e-Khatir[edit] Ghubar-e-Khatir (Sallies of Mind), (Urdu: غُبارِخاطِر‬‎) is one of the most important works of Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, written primarily during 1942 to 1946 when he was imprisoned in Ahmednagar Fort
Ahmednagar Fort
in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
by British Raj
British Raj
while he was in Bombay
Bombay
(now Mumbai) to preside over the meeting of All India Congress Working Committee.[15] The book is basically a collection of 24 letters he wrote addressing his close friend Maulana Habibur Rahman Khan Sherwani. These letters were never sent to him because there was no permission for that during the imprisonment and after the release in 1946, he gave all these letters to his friend Ajmal Khan who let it published for the first time in 1946. Although the book is a collection of letters but except one or two letters, all other letters are unique and most of the letters deal with complex issues such as existence of God,[16] the origin of religions, the origin of music and its place in religion, etc. The book is primarily an Urdu language
Urdu language
book; however, there are over five hundred of couplets, mostly in Persian and Arabic languages. It is because, Maulana was born in a family where Arabic and Persian were used more frequently than Urdu. He was born in Mekkah, given formal education in Persian and Arabic languages but he was never taught Urdu. It is often said that his book India
India
wins Freedom is about his political life and Ghubar-e-Khatir deals with his social and spiritual life.[by whom?] Non-co-operation[edit] Main article: Non-Cooperation Movement Upon his release, Azad returned to a political atmosphere charged with sentiments of outrage and rebellion against British rule. The Indian public had been angered by the passage of the Rowlatt Acts in 1919, which severely restricted civil liberties and individual rights. Consequently, thousands of political activists had been arrested and many publications banned. The killing of unarmed civilians at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar
Amritsar
on 13 April 1919 had provoked intense outrage all over India, alienating most Indians, including long-time British supporters, from the authorities. The Khilafat
Khilafat
struggle had also peaked with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in World War I
World War I
and the raging Turkish War of Independence, which had made the caliphate's position precarious. India's main political party, the Indian National Congress came under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who had aroused excitement all over India
India
when he led the farmers of Champaran and Kheda in a successful revolt against British authorities in 1918. Gandhi
Gandhi
organised the people of the region and pioneered the art of Satyagraha— combining mass civil disobedience with complete non-violence and self-reliance. Taking charge of the Congress, Gandhi
Gandhi
also reached out to support the Khilafat
Khilafat
struggle, helping to bridge Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
political divides. Azad and the Ali brothers - Maulana Mohammad Ali
Mohammad Ali
and Shaukat Ali - warmly welcomed Congress support and began working together on a programme of non-co-operation by asking all Indians to boycott British-run schools, colleges, courts, public services, the civil service, police and military. Non-violence and Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity were universally emphasised, while the boycott of foreign goods, especially clothes were organised. Azad joined the Congress and was also elected president of the All India
India
Khilafat
Khilafat
Committee. Although Azad and other leaders were soon arrested, the movement drew out millions of people in peaceful processions, strikes and protests. This period marked a transformation in Azad's own life. Along with fellow Khilafat
Khilafat
leaders Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari, Hakim Ajmal Khan and others, Azad grew personally close to Gandhi
Gandhi
and his philosophy. The three men founded the Jamia Millia Islamia
Jamia Millia Islamia
in Delhi
Delhi
as an institution of higher education managed entirely by Indians without any British support or control. Both Azad and Gandhi
Gandhi
shared a deep passion for religion and Azad developed a close friendship with him. He adopted the Prophet Muhammad's ideas by living simply, rejecting material possessions and pleasures. He began to spin his own clothes using khadi on the charkha, and began frequently living and participating in the ashrams organised by Gandhi.[citation needed] Becoming deeply committed to ahimsa (non-violence) himself, Azad grew close to fellow nationalists like Jawaharlal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das
Chittaranjan Das
and Subhas Chandra Bose.[14] He strongly criticised the continuing suspicion of the Congress amongst the Muslim
Muslim
intellectuals from the Aligarh Muslim University and the Muslim
Muslim
League. The movement had a sudden decline with rising incidences of violence; a nationalist mob killed 22 policemen in Chauri Chaura in 1922. Fearing degeneration into violence, Gandhi
Gandhi
asked Indians to suspend the revolt and undertook a five-day fast to repent and encourage others to stop the rebellion. Although the movement stopped all over India, several Congress leaders and activists were disillusioned with Gandhi. The following year, the caliphate was overthrown by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the Ali brothers grew distant and critical of Gandhi
Gandhi
and the Congress. Azad's close friend Chittaranjan Das co-founded the Swaraj
Swaraj
Party, breaking from Gandhi's leadership. Despite the circumstances, Azad remained firmly committed to Gandhi's ideals and leadership. In 1923, he became the youngest man to be elected Congress president. Azad led efforts to organise the Flag Satyagraha
Satyagraha
in Nagpur. Azad served as president of the 1924 Unity Conference in Delhi, using his position to work to re-unite the Swarajists and the Khilafat
Khilafat
leaders under the common banner of the Congress. In the years following the movement, Azad travelled across India, working extensively to promote Gandhi's vision, education and social reform. Congress leader[edit]

At Simla Conference
Simla Conference
(1946) with Rajendra Prasad, Jinnah
Jinnah
and C. Rajagopalachari

Azad became an inspiring personality in the field of politics. Azad became an important national leader, and served on the Congress Working Committee and in the offices of general secretary and president many times. The political environment in India
India
re-energised in 1928 with nationalist outrage against the Simon Commission appointed to propose constitutional reforms. The commission included no Indian members and did not even consult Indian leaders and experts. In response, the Congress and other political parties appointed a commission under Motilal Nehru to propose constitutional reforms from Indian opinions. In 1928, Azad endorsed the Nehru Report, which was criticised by the Ali brothers and Muslim
Muslim
League politician Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Azad endorsed the ending of separate electorates based on religion, and called for an independent India
India
to be committed to secularism. At the 1928 Congress session in Guwahati, Azad endorsed Gandhi's call for dominion status for India
India
within a year. If not granted, the Congress would adopt the goal of complete political independence for India. Despite his affinity for Gandhi, Azad also drew close to the young radical leaders Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and Subhash Bose, who had criticised the delay in demanding full independence. Azad developed a close friendship with Nehru and began espousing socialism as the means to fight inequality, poverty and other national challenges. Azad decided the name of Muslim
Muslim
political party Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam. He was also a friend of Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, founder of All India
India
Majlis-e-Ahrar. When Gandhi
Gandhi
embarked on the Dandi Salt March
Dandi Salt March
that inaugurated the Salt Satyagraha
Satyagraha
in 1930, Azad organised and led the nationalist raid, albeit non-violent on the Dharasana salt works to protest the salt tax and restriction of its production and sale. The biggest nationalist upheaval in a decade, Azad was imprisoned along with millions of people, and would frequently be jailed from 1930 to 1934 for long periods of time. Following the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931, Azad was amongst millions of political prisoners released. When elections were called under the Government of India
India
Act 1935, Azad was appointed to organise the Congress election campaign, raising funds, selecting candidates and organising volunteers and rallies across India.[14] Azad had criticised the Act for including a high proportion of un-elected members in the central legislature, and did not himself contest a seat. He again declined to contest elections in 1937, and helped head the party's efforts to organise elections and preserve co-ordination and unity amongst the Congress governments elected in different provinces.[14] At the 1936 Congress session in Lucknow, Azad was drawn into a dispute with Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
and Chakravaachari regarding the espousal of socialism as the Congress goal. Azad had backed the election of Nehru as Congress president, and supported the resolution endorsing socialism. In doing so, he aligned with Congress socialists like Nehru, Subhash Bose
Subhash Bose
and Jayaprakash Narayan. Azad also supported Nehru's re-election in 1937, at the consternation of many conservative Congressmen. Azad supported dialogue with Jinnah
Jinnah
and the Muslim
Muslim
League between 1935 and 1937 over a Congress-League coalition and broader political co-operation. Less inclined to brand the League as obstructive, Azad nevertheless joined the Congress's vehement rejection of Jinnah's demand that the League be seen exclusively as the representative of Indian Muslims. Quit India[edit] Main article: Quit India
India
Movement In 1938, Azad served as an intermediary between the supporters of and the Congress faction led by Congress president
Congress president
Subhash Bose, who criticised Gandhi
Gandhi
for not launching another rebellion against the British and sought to move the Congress away from Gandhi's leadership. Azad stood by Gandhi
Gandhi
with most other Congress leaders, but reluctantly endorsed the Congress's exit from the assemblies in 1939 following the inclusion of India
India
in World War II. Nationalists were infuriated that Viceroy Lord Linlithgow had entered India
India
into the war without consulting national leaders. Although willing to support the British effort in return for independence, Azad sided with Gandhi
Gandhi
when the British ignored the Congress overtures. Azad's criticism of Jinnah
Jinnah
and the League intensified as Jinnah
Jinnah
called Congress rule in the provinces as " Hindu
Hindu
Raj", calling the resignation of the Congress ministries as a "Day of Deliverance" for Muslims. Jinnah
Jinnah
and the League's separatist agenda was gaining popular support amongst Muslims. Muslim
Muslim
religious and political leaders criticised Azad as being too close to the Congress and placing politics before Muslim
Muslim
welfare.[14] As the Muslim League adopted a resolution calling for a separate Muslim
Muslim
state (Pakistan) in its session in Lahore
Lahore
in 1940, Azad was elected Congress president in its session in Ramgarh. Speaking vehemently against Jinnah's Two-Nation Theory—the notion that Hindus and Muslims were distinct nations—Azad lambasted religious separatism and exhorted all Muslims to preserve a united India, as all Hindus and Muslims were Indians who shared deep bonds of brotherhood and nationhood. In his presidential address, Azad said:

"... Full eleven centuries have passed by since then. Islam
Islam
has now as great a claim on the soil of India
India
as Hinduism. If Hinduism
Hinduism
has been the religion of the people here for several thousands of years Islam also has been their religion for a thousand years. Just as a Hindu
Hindu
can say with pride that he is an Indian and follows Hinduism, so also we can say with equal pride that we are Indians and follow Islam. I shall enlarge this orbit still further. The Indian Christian
Christian
is equally entitled to say with pride that he is an Indian and is following a religion of India, namely Christianity."[14]

Azad, Patel and Gandhi
Gandhi
at an AICC meeting in Bombay, 1940.

In face of increasing popular disenchantment with the British across India, Gandhi
Gandhi
and Patel advocated an all-out rebellion demanding immediate independence. Azad was wary and sceptical of the idea, aware that India's Muslims were increasingly looking to Jinnah
Jinnah
and had supported the war. Feeling that a struggle would not force a British exit, Azad and Nehru warned that such a campaign would divide India and make the war situation even more precarious. Intensive and emotional debates took place between Azad, Nehru, Gandhi
Gandhi
and Patel in the Congress Working Committee's meetings in May and June 1942. In the end, Azad became convinced that decisive action in one form or another had to be taken, as the Congress had to provide leadership to India's people and would lose its standing if it did not. Supporting the call for the British to "Quit India", Azad began exhorting thousands of people in rallies across the nation to prepare for a definitive, all-out struggle. As Congress president, Azad travelled across India
India
and met with local and provincial Congress leaders and grass-roots activists, delivering speeches and planning the rebellion. Despite their previous differences, Azad worked closely with Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
to make the rebellion as effective as possible. On 7 August 1942 at the Gowalia Tank
Gowalia Tank
in Mumbai, Congress president Azad inaugurated the struggle with a vociferous speech exhorting Indians into action. Just two days later, the British arrested Azad and the entire Congress leadership. While Gandhi
Gandhi
was incarcerated at the Aga Khan Palace
Aga Khan Palace
in Pune, Azad and the Congress Working Committee were imprisoned at a fort in Ahmednagar, where they would remain under isolation and intense security for nearly four years. Outside news and communication had been largely prohibited and completely censored. Although frustrated at their incarceration and isolation, Azad and his companions attested to feeling a deep satisfaction at having done their duty to their country and people.[17] Azad occupied the time playing bridge and acting as the referee in tennis matches played by his colleagues. In the early mornings, Azad began working on his classic Urdu work, the Ghubhar-i-Khatir. Sharing daily chores, Azad also taught the Persian and Urdu languages, as well as Indian and world history to several of his companions. The leaders would generally avoid talking of politics, unwilling to cause any arguments that could exacerbate the pain of their imprisonment. However, each year on 26 January, which was then considered Poorna Swaraj
Swaraj
(Complete Independence) Day, the leaders would gather to remember their cause and pray together. Azad, Nehru and Patel would briefly speak about the nation and the future. Azad and Nehru proposed an initiative to forge an agreement with the British in 1943. Arguing that the rebellion had been mistimed, Azad attempted to convince his colleagues that the Congress should agree to negotiate with the British and call for the suspension of disobedience if the British agreed to transfer power. Although his proposal was overwhelmingly rejected, Azad and a few others agreed that Gandhi
Gandhi
and the Congress had not done enough. When they learnt of Gandhi
Gandhi
holding talks with Jinnah
Jinnah
in Mumbai
Mumbai
in 1944, Azad criticised Gandhi's move as counter-productive and ill-advised.[18] Partition of India[edit]

At Wardha Railway Station: Maulana Azad, Acharya Kripalani, Sardar Patel, Subhash Bose

. With the end of the war, the British agreed to transfer power to Indian hands. All political prisoners were released in 1946 and Azad led the Congress in the elections for the new Constituent Assembly of India, which would draft India's constitution. He headed the delegation to negotiate with the British Cabinet Mission, in his sixth year as Congress president. While attacking Jinnah's demand for Pakistan
Pakistan
and the mission's proposal of 16 June 1946 that envisaged the partition of India, Azad became a strong proponent of the mission's earlier proposal of 16 May. The proposal advocated a federal system with a limited central government and autonomy for the provinces. The central government would have Defence, Foreign Affairs and Communication while the provinces would win all other subjects unless they voluntarily relinquished selected subjects to the Central Government. Additionally, the proposal called for the "grouping" of provinces on religious lines, which would informally band together the Muslim-majority province in the West as Group B, Muslim-majority provinces of Bengal
Bengal
and Assam as Group C and the rest of India
India
as Group A. While Gandhi
Gandhi
and others expressed scepticism of this clause, Azad argued that Jinnah's demand for Pakistan
Pakistan
would be buried and the concerns of the Muslim
Muslim
community would be assuaged.[19] Under Azad and Patel's backing,[citation needed] the Working Committee approved the resolution against Gandhi's advice. Azad also managed to win Jinnah's agreement to the proposal citing the greater good of all Indian Muslims.[20][page needed] Azad had been the Congress president
Congress president
since 1939, so he volunteered to resign in 1946. He nominated Nehru, who replaced him as Congress president and led the Congress into the interim government. Azad was appointed to head the Department of Education. However, Jinnah's Direct Action Day
Direct Action Day
agitation for Pakistan, launched on 16 August sparked communal violence across India. Thousands of people were killed as Azad travelled across Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar
Bihar
to calm the tensions and heal relations between Muslims and Hindus. Despite Azad's call for Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity, Jinnah's popularity amongst Muslims soared and the League entered a coalition with the Congress in December, but continued to boycott the constituent assembly. Later in his autobiography, Azad indicated Patel having become more pro-partition than the Muslim
Muslim
League, largely due to the League's not co-operating with the Congress in the provisional government on any issue.[20] Azad had grown increasingly hostile to Jinnah, who had described him as the " Muslim
Muslim
Lord Haw-Haw" and a "Congress Showboy."[21][22] Muslim League politicians accused Azad of allowing Muslims to be culturally and politically dominated by the Hindu
Hindu
community. Azad continued to proclaim his faith in Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity:[23]

"I am proud of being an Indian. I am part of the indivisible unity that is Indian nationality. I am indispensable to this noble edifice and without me this splendid structure is incomplete. I am an essential element, which has gone to build India. I can never surrender this claim."

Amidst more incidences of violence in early 1947, the Congress-League coalition struggled to function. The provinces of Bengal
Bengal
and Punjab were to be partitioned on religious lines, and on 3 June 1947 the British announced a proposal to partition India
India
on religious lines, with the princely states free to choose between either dominion. The proposal was hotly debated in the All India
India
Congress Committee, with Muslim
Muslim
leaders Saifuddin Kitchlew and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan expressing fierce opposition. Azad privately discussed the proposal with Gandhi, Patel and Nehru, but despite his opposition was unable to deny the popularity of the League and the unworkability of any coalition with the League. Faced with the serious possibility of a civil war, Azad abstained from voting on the resolution, remaining silent and not speaking throughout the AICC session, which ultimately approved the plan.[24] Post-Independence[edit] India's partition and independence on 15 August 1947 brought with it a scourge of violence that swept the Punjab, Bihar, Bengal, Delhi
Delhi
and many other parts of India. Millions of Hindus and Sikhs fled the newly created Pakistan
Pakistan
for India, and millions of Muslims fled for West Pakistan
Pakistan
and East Pakistan, created out of East Bengal. Violence claimed the lives of an estimated one million people, almost entirely in Punjab. Azad took up responsibility for the safety of Muslims in India, touring affected areas in Bengal, Bihar, Assam and the Punjab, guiding the organisation of refugee camps, supplies and security. Azad gave speeches to large crowds encouraging peace and calm in the border areas and encouraging Muslims across the country to remain in India and not fear for their safety and security. Focusing on bringing the capital of Delhi
Delhi
back to peace, Azad organised security and relief efforts, but was drawn into a dispute with the Deputy prime minister and Home Minister
Home Minister
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
when he demanded the dismissal of Delhi's police commissioner, who was a Sikh
Sikh
accused by Muslims of overlooking attacks and neglecting their safety.[25] Patel argued that the commissioner was not biased, and if his dismissal was forced it would provoke anger amongst Hindus and Sikhs and divide the city police. In Cabinet meetings and discussions with Gandhi, Patel and Azad clashed over security issues in Delhi
Delhi
and Punjab, as well as the allocation of resources for relief and rehabilitation. Patel opposed Azad and Nehru's proposal to reserve the houses vacated by Muslims who had departed for Pakistan
Pakistan
for Muslims in India
India
displaced by the violence.[25] Patel argued that a secular government could not offer preferential treatment for any religious community, while Azad remained anxious to assure the rehabilitation of Muslims in India, secularism, religious freedom and equality for all Indians. He supported provisions for Muslim
Muslim
citizens to make avail of Muslim personal law in courts.[26] Azad remained a close confidante, supporter and advisor to prime minister Nehru, and played an important role in framing national policies. Azad masterminded the creation of national programmes of school and college construction and spreading the enrolment of children and young adults into schools, to promote universal primary education. Elected to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
in 1952 and again in 1957, Azad supported Nehru's socialist economic and industrial policies, as well as the advancing social rights and economic opportunities for women and underprivileged Indians. In 1956, he served as president of the UNESCO
UNESCO
General Conference held in Delhi. Azad spent the final years of his life focusing on writing his book India
India
Wins Freedom, an exhaustive account of India's freedom struggle and its leaders, which was published in 1959. As India's first Minister of Education, he emphasised on educating the rural poor and girls. As Chairman of the Central Advisory Board of Education, he gave thrust to adult literacy, universal primary education, free and compulsory for all children up to the age of 14, girls education, and diversification of secondary education and vocational training.[27] Addressing the conference on All India Education on 16 January 1948, Maulana Azad emphasised,[27]

We must not for a moment forget, it is a birthright of every individual to receive at least the basic education without which he cannot fully discharge his duties as a citizen.

He oversaw the setting up of the Central Institute of Education, Delhi, which later became the Department of Education of the University of Delhi
Delhi
as "a research centre for solving new educational problems of the country".[28] Under his leadership, the Ministry of Education established the first Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology
in 1951 and the University Grants Commission in 1953.,[29][30] He also laid emphasis on the development of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Faculty of Technology of the Delhi
Delhi
University.[31] He foresaw a great future in the IITs for India:[31]

I have no doubt that the establishment of this Institute will form a landmark in the progress of higher technological education and research in the country.

Criticism[edit] During his life and in contemporary times, Maulana Azad has been criticised for not doing enough to prevent the partition of India although he was committed to united India
India
till his last attempt. He was condemned by the advocates of Pakistan, especially Muslim League.[15] Legacy and influence[edit] Azad is remembered as one of the leading Indian nationalists of his time. His firm belief in Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
unity earned him the respect of the Hindu
Hindu
community and he still remains one of the most important symbols of communal harmony in modern India. His work for education and social uplift in India
India
made him an important influence in guiding India's economic and social development.

Abulkalam Azad tomb

The Ministry of Minority Affairs of the central Government of India set up the Maulana Azad Education Foundation in 1989 on the occasion of his birth centenary to promote education amongst educationally backward sections of the Society.[32] The Ministry also provides the Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad National Fellowship, an integrated five-year fellowship in the form of financial assistance to students from minority communities to pursue higher studies such as M. Phil and PhD[33] Numerous institutions across India
India
have also been named in his honour. Some of them are the Maulana Azad Medical College in New Delhi, the Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology in Bhopal, the Maulana Azad National Urdu University in Hyderabad, Maulana Azad Centre for Elementary and Social Education (MACESE Delhi
Delhi
University), the Maulana Azad College, Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad Institute of Asian Studies, and Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad University of Technology, in Kolkata, Bab - e - Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad (Gate No. 7), Jamia Millia Islamia, A Central (Minority) University in New Delhi, the Maulana Azad library in the Aligarh Muslim
Muslim
University in Aligarh and Maulana Azad Stadium in Jammu. His home housed the Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad Institute of Asian Studies earlier, and is now the Maulana Azad Museum.[34] He is celebrated as one of the founders and greatest patrons of the Jamia Millia Islamia. Azad's tomb is located next to the Jama Masjid in Delhi. In recent years great concern has been expressed by many in India
India
over the poor maintenance of the tomb.[15] On 16 November 2005 the Delhi
Delhi
High Court ordered that the tomb of Maulana Azad in New Delhi
Delhi
be renovated and restored as a major national monument. Azad's tomb is a major landmark and receives large numbers of visitors annually.[35] Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
referred to him as Mir-i- Karawan (the caravan leader), "a very brave and gallant gentleman, a finished product of the culture that, in these days, pertains to few".[15]Mahatma Gandhi remarked about Azad by counting him as "a person of the calibre of Plato, Aristotle and Pythagorus".[27] Azad was portrayed by actor Virendra Razdan in the 1982 biographical film, Gandhi, directed by Richard Attenborough.[36] His birthday, 11 November is celebrated as National Education Day in India.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Cyrus the Great as Dhul-Qarnayn, a theory first proposed by Azad

Notes[edit]

^ "International Urdu conference from Nov. 10". The Hindu. 7 November 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ Muhammad Chawla, " Maulana Azad and the Demand for Pakistan: A Reappraisal," Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society (July-Sept 2016) 64#3 pp 7-24. ^ a b c " Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad Biography - Maulana Azad Indian Freedom Fighter - Information on Maulana Azad - History of Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad". www.iloveindia.com. Retrieved 3 November 2015.  ^ a b c "Remembering Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad: A Short Biography". Institute of Asian Studies. Retrieved 1 January 2013. Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad was born on November 11, 1888, in Mecca. He came back to Calcutta
Calcutta
with his family in 1890.  ^ BIOGRAPHY OF MAULANA AZAD ^ Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, India
India
Wins Freedom, Orient Blackswan (2003), pp. 1-2 ^ Azad, Abul Kalam
Kalam
(2003) [First published 1959]. India
India
Wins Freedom: An Autobiographical Narrative. New Delhi: Orient Longman. pp. 1–2. ISBN 81-250-0514-5.  ^ a b c d e f Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ a b Gandhi, Rajmohan (1986). Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
Encounter. USA: State University of New York Press. p. 219. ISBN 0-88706-196-6.  ^ S. M. Ikram
S. M. Ikram
(1995). Indian Muslims
Indian Muslims
and Partition of India. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 139. ^ Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad – The Builder of Modern India ^ K.R. Gupta, Amita Gupta (2006). Concise Encyclopaedia of India, Vol# 3. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 1040 ^ Various. Encyclopaedia of Indian literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 315 ^ a b c d e f Huq, Mushirul (23 July 2006). "President Azad". Archived from the original (PHP) on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2006.  ^ a b c d Azad, Abul Kalam
Kalam
(2010). Ghubar-e-Khatir. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 5,7. ISBN 81-260-0132-1.  ^ Azad, Abul Kalam
Kalam
(2010). Ghubar-e-Khatir. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 106. ISBN 81-260-0132-1.  ^ Nandurkar. Sardarshri Ke Patra (2). p. 390.  ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. pp. 330–32.  ^ Menon, V. P. Transfer of Power in India. p. 235.  ^ a b Azad (2003). India
India
Wins Freedom: the Complete Version. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 9788125005148.  ^ Azad (2007). The Elephant, the Tiger and the Cellphone: Reflections on India
India
in the Twenty-first Century. PENGUIN INDIA. ISBN 9780670081455.  ^ "The man who stayed behind". The Hindu. 11 November 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2015.  ^ Mushirul Hasan (January 2000). "One hundred people who shaped India in the 20th century, Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad – II". India
India
Today, special millennium issue, January 2000. Archived from the original (PHP) on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2007.  ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. p. 402.  ^ a b Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. pp. 432–33.  ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. pp. 502–05.  ^ a b c Speech of Hon’ble Human Resource Minister on National Education Day 2009, Ministry of HRD, Government of India
India
Archived 7 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ About us Central Institute of Education ^ UGC Genesis Archived 6 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ IIT Kharagpur, History Archived 13 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Proceedings of the 19th meeting of The Central Advisory Board of Education, New Delhi
Delhi
on 15 and 16 March 1952 Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Maulana Azad Education Foundation website ^ Shri Salman Khurshid Launches Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad National Fellowship, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Tuesday, 22 December 2009 ^ "VISIT MAULANA AZAD MUSEUM". makaias.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-04-21.  ^ "Restore Maulana Azad's grave: HC" (PHP). Express News Service, Expressindia.com. 17 November 2005. Retrieved 6 November 2006.  ^ " Virendra Razdan dead". The Deccan Herald, The Free Press Journal. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India) Bulletin on Film Volume XLVII No. 6. 15 June 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 

References[edit]

Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan. Why Partition of India?: Gandhi, Jinnah, Nehru, Azad - Congress and Muslim
Muslim
League (2016) online , 20pp Chawla, Muhammad, " Maulana Azad and the Demand for Pakistan: A Reappraisal," Journal of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Historical Society (July-Sept 2016) 64#3 pp 7–24. Maulana Azad's commentary on the Holy Qur'an
Qur'an
– Tarjuman al-Quran Ghubar-e-Khatir (Sallies of the Mind) Tazkirah Die politische Willensbildung in Indien 1900–1960; 1965 von Dietmar Rothermund Life and Works of Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, from Ravindra Kumar, published by Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1991 Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, by Mahadev Haribhai Desai The Educational Ideas of Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, by G. Rasool Abduhu, published by Sterling Publishers, 1973 India's Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, by Abulkalam Azad, Syeda Saiyidain Hameed, Mujib Rizvi, Sughra Mahdi, published by Indian Council for Cultural Relations, 1990 Maulana Azad ek Muttala by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Jawahar aur Azad, Edited by Professor Abdul Qavi Desnavi, Saifia College, Bhopal, 1990. Maulana Azad Aur Bhopal
Bhopal
by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Fikro Nazar ( Maulana Azad Number), Aligarh Muslim
Muslim
University, Aligarh, 1989, p. 107–112. Gandhi, R (1990). Patel: A Life. Navajivan, Ahmedabad.  Pattabhi, Sitaramayya (1946). Feathers & Stones "my study windows". Padma Publications,.  Azad, Abul Kalam
Kalam
(2003) [First published 1959]. India
India
Wins Freedom: An Autobiographical Narrative. New Delhi: Orient Longman. ISBN 81-250-0514-5.  Nandurkar, G. M. (1981). Sardar's letters, mostly unknown. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
Smarak Bhavan,.  "Brief sketch of life and thinking of Maulana Azad". Liveindia.com.  "Life of Azad". CIS-CA.  " Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad: The Odd Secularist". India
India
Today. 

External links[edit]

Find more about Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azadat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad.

Azad's Careers – Roads taken and roads not taken – Lineages of the Present: Ideology and Politics in Contemporary South Asia By Aijaz Ahmad An Introduction to Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad & collection of his quotes – Eminent Indian freedom fighters Vol2 Chapter 11 Pg 310 By S.K. Sharma Abu'l Kalam
Kalam
Azad, Chapter 44, Pg 325–333, Modernist Islam, 1840–1940: a sourcebook By Charles Kurzman Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, Chapter 9, Pg 138- Pg 153, Indian Muslims
Indian Muslims
and partition of India
India
By S.M. Ikram National Education Day 2012 Celebrated at Sangam University Bhilwara Rajasthan Web Portal
Portal
dedicated to Maulana Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad

v t e

First Cabinet of Independent India

Nehru (Prime Minister, External Affairs) Patel (Deputy Prime Minister, Home Affairs) Baldev Singh (Defence) Chetty (Finance) Maulana Azad (Education) Jagjivan Ram
Jagjivan Ram
(Labour) Ambedkar (Law) Gadgil (Public Works, Power) R. A. Kidwai (Communications) S. P. Mookerjee (Industry) Amrit Kaur
Amrit Kaur
(Health) Mathai (Railways)

v t e

Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress

Seva Dal Minority Congress Youth Congress National Students Union of India
India
(NSUI) Indian National Trade Union Congress
Indian National Trade Union Congress
(INTUC)

History

Statewise Election history of Congress Party Nehru– Gandhi
Gandhi
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(Organisation) Breakaway parties Congress Karma Parishad Congress core group

Internal Organisations

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PCC Mizoram PCC Mumbai
Mumbai
PCC Punjab PCC Tamil Nadu PCC Telangana PCC Uttarakhand PCC West Bengal
Bengal
PCC

Presidents

Banerjee Naoroji Tyabji Yule Wedderburn Mehta Charlappa Banerjee Naoroji Webb Banerjee Sayani Nair A. M. Bose Dutt Chandavarkar Wacha Banerjee L. Ghosh H. Cotton Gokhale Naoroji R. Ghosh (1907–1908) Malaviya Wedderburn Dar Mudholkar Bahadur B. N. Bose Sinha Mazumdar Besant Malaviya Imam M. Nehru Rai C. Vijayaraghavachariar Khan Das M. Ali A. K. Azad Mahatma Gandhi Naidu Iyengar Ansari Motilal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru S. V. Patel Malaviya (1932–1933) Nellie Sengupta Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1934–1935) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1936–1937) S. C. Bose (1938–1939) A. K. Azad (1940–1946) J. B. Kripalani Sitaramayya (1948–1949) Tandon Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1951–1954) Dhebar (1955–1959) Indira Gandhi Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1960–1963) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1964–1967) S. Nijalingappa
S. Nijalingappa
(1968–1969) Jagjivan Ram
Jagjivan Ram
(1970–1971) S. D. Sharma (1972–1974) Baruah (1975–1977) Indira Gandhi
Gandhi
(1978–1984) Rajiv Gandhi
Gandhi
(1985–1991) Narasimha Rao (1992–1996) Kesri (1996–1998) Sonia Gandhi
Gandhi
(1998–2017) Rahul Gandhi
Gandhi
(2017-present)

Leaders in the Lok Sabha

Gandhi Rao Pawar S. Gandhi Mukherjee Shinde Kharge

Leaders in the Rajya Sabha

Manmohan Singh Vora Patel Sharma Azad Ramesh Antony Digvijay Chidambaram Singhvi Sibal

Category

v t e

Indian Independence Movement

History

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India
Company British Raj French India Portuguese India Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Anglo-Mysore Wars

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First Second Third

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Philosophies and ideologies

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Movement Muslim
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nationalism in South Asia Satyagraha Socialism Swadeshi
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Events and movements

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Organisations

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Party more

Social reformers

A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B. R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J. B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda

Independence activists

Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A. K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M. N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit‎ Muhammad Ali Jauhar Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja-ud-Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud-Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi V O Chidamabaram V. K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more

British leaders

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Independence

Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integration Simla Conference

v t e

Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
laureates

1954–1960

C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
(1954) Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1955) Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
(1957) Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve
(1958)

1961–1980

Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy
and Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
(1961) Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1962) Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane
Pandurang Vaman Kane
(1963) Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
(1966) Indira Gandhi
Gandhi
(1971) V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(1975) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1976) Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
(1980)

1981–2000

Vinoba Bhave
Vinoba Bhave
(1983) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(1987) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1988) B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(1990) Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
(1991) Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1992) Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Kalam
(1997) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
and Chidambaram Subramaniam
Chidambaram Subramaniam
(1998) Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999)

2001–present

Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
and Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(2001) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(2008) C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
and Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
(2014) Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(2015)

v t e

Muslim
Muslim
scholars of the Hanbali
Hanbali
School

by century (AH CE)

3rd/9th

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(founder of the school) Abu Dawood Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub al-Juzajani

4th/10th

Abu Bakr al-Ajurri Abu Bakr al-Khallal Al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Barbahari Ibn Battah Ibn Manda

5th/11th

Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi Al-Qadi Abu Ya'la Ibn Aqil Khwaja Abdullah Ansari

6th/12th

Abdul-Razzaq Gilani Abdul-Qadir Gilani Awn ad-Din ibn Hubayra Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi Hammad al-Harrani Ibn al-Jawzi

7th/13th

Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi Ibn Qudamah Zayn al-Din al-Amidi

8th/14th

Ibn Abd al-Hadi Ibn Muflih Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Ibn Rajab Ibn Taymiyyah

11th/17th

Al-Bahūtī

12th/18th

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

14th/20th

Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais Abdullah Ibn Jibreen Abul Kalam
Kalam
Azad Ibn Humaid Jonathan A.C. Brown Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen Saeed Abubakr Zakaria Saleh Al-Fawzan Saud Al-Shuraim

Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Maliki Shafi'i Zahiri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71439924 LCCN: n50038846 ISNI: 0000 0003 6855 6649 GND: 118896814 SUDOC: 050153315 BNF: cb122131527 (data) BIBSYS: 9601

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