Abu Bakr II (fl. 14th century), also spelled Abubakri and known as
Mansa Qu, may have been the ninth mansa of the Mali Empire. He
succeeded his nephew Mansa
Mohammed ibn Gao and preceded Mansa Musa.
Abu Bakr II abdicated his throne in order to explore "the limits of
2.1 Atlantic Expeditions
2.2 Trans-Atlantic travel
3 See also
6 External links
Abu Bakar was one of two sons of Kolonkan, a sister of the founding
emperor Sundiata Keita. He was the last of a
mini-dynasty within the Keita clan of emperors descending from
Kolonkan. After his abdication in 1311, the Faga Laye mini-dynasty
would control the empire.
Virtually all that is known of
Abu Bakr II is from the account of
Chihab al-Umari. Al-Umari visited Cairo after
Mansa Musa stopped
there during his historic hajj to Mecca, and recorded a conversation
between Musa and his host, Abu'l Hasan Ali ibn Amir Habib. According
to Musa, Abu Bakr became convinced that he could find the edge of the
Atlantic Ocean, and outfitted two expeditions to find it.
Following Abu Bakr II's failure to return from the second of those
expeditions, Mansa Musa] acceded to the throne.
Mansa Musa as follows:
The ruler who preceded me (that is, Abu Bakr II) did not believe that
it was impossible to reach the extremity of the ocean that encircles
the earth (the Atlantic Ocean). He wanted to reach that (end) and was
determined to pursue his plan. So he equipped two hundred boats full
of men, and many others full of gold, water and provisions sufficient
for several years. He ordered the captain not to return until they had
reached the other end of the ocean, or until he had exhausted the
provisions and water. So they set out on their journey. They were
absent for a long period, and, at last just one boat returned. When
questioned the captain replied: "O Prince, we navigated for a long
period, until we saw in the midst of the ocean a great river which was
flowing massively. My boat was the last one; others were ahead of me,
and they were drowned in the great whirlpool and never came out again.
I sailed back to escape this current." But the Sultan would not
believe him. He ordered two thousand boats to be equipped for him and
his men, and one thousand more for water and provisions. Then he
conferred the regency on me for the term of his absence, and departed
with his men, never to return nor to give a sign of life.
Ivan van Sertima formerly of Rutgers University, and Malian researcher
Gaoussou Diawara, proposed that
Abu Bakr II traveled to the New
Most archaeologists, anthropologists, ethnohistorians, linguists, and
other modern pre-Columbian scholars say that there is no evidence of
any such voyage reaching the Americas, and that there are insufficient
evidential grounds to suppose there has been contact between Africa
New World at any point in the pre-Columbian era. For views
representative of this point of view, see the considerations on the
question advanced in Haslip-Viera et al. (1997), who for example note
"no genuine African artifact has ever been found in a controlled
archaeological excavation in the New World". See also the supporting
responses in peer-review printed in the article, by David Browman,
Michael D. Coe, Ann Cyphers, Peter Furst, and other academics active
in the field. Ortiz de Montellano et al. (1997, passim.) continues the
case against Africa-Americas contacts. Other prominent Mesoamerican
specialists such as UCR Riverside anthropology professor Karl Taube
are confident that "There simply is no material evidence of any
Pre-Hispanic contact between the Old World and Mesoamerica before the
arrival of the Spanish in the sixteenth century".
BBC article titled "Africa's greatest explorer", summarizes the
controversy from the perspectives of the scholars and historians in
Pre-Columbian Africa-Americas contact theories
^ a b Al-Umari 1927, Masalik al Absar fi Mamalik el-Amsar, French
translation by Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Paris, Paul Geuthner, 1927, pp.
59, 74-75. See also Qalqashandi, Subh al-A'sha, V, 294.
^ "The Legend of How Mansa
Abu Bakr II of Mali Gave up the Throne to
Explore the Atlantic Ocean", Ancient Origins, 21 Feb. 2016.
^ "Abbas Hamdani, An Islamic Background to the Voyages of Discovery.
Language and Literature" in The Legacy of Muslim Spain (Studien Und
Texte Zur Geistesgeschichte Des Mittelalters), 1994, ed. Salma Khadra
^ Thornton, 9, 13.
^ Hussain Bukhari, Zahid (1 Jan 2004). Muslims' Place in the American
Public Square: Hope, Fears, and Aspirations. Rowman Altamira.
pp. xvi of 396. ISBN 0759106134.
^ Garifuna Foundation Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b Africa's Greatest Explorer -
^ Haslip-Viera, Gabriel; Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard; Barbour, Warren
(1997). "Robbing Native American Cultures: Van Sertima's
Afrocentricity and the Olmecs". Current Anthropology. 38 (3):
^ (Taube 2004, p. 1)
Austen, Ralph A.; Jan A. M. M. Jansen (1996). "History, Oral
Transmission and Structure in Ibn Khaldun's Chronology of Mali Rulers"
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doi:10.2307/3171932. ISSN 0361-5413. JSTOR 3171932.
OCLC 2246846. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
Baxter, Joan (2000-12-13). Written at Mali. "Africa's 'greatest
BBC News Online. London: BBC. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
Bell, Nawal Morcos (1972). "The Age of
Mansa Musa of Mali: Problems in
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Cooley, William Desborough (1841). The Negroland of the Arabs Examined
and Explained; or, An Inquiry into the Early History and Geography of
Central Africa. London: J. Arrowsmith. OCLC 4760870.
Haslip-Viera, Gabriel; Bernard Ortiz de Montellano; Warren Barbour
(June 1997). "Robbing Native American Cultures: Van Sertima's
Afrocentricity and the Olmecs" (Reproduced online). Current
Anthropology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, sponsored by
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Kings of Mali". Journal of African History. Cambridge: Cambridge
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ISSN 0021-8537. OCLC 1783006.
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Anthony Oliver (volume ed.). The Cambridge History of Africa: Vol. 3,
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Mohammed ibn Gao
Mansa of the Mali Empire
Kankan Musa I
Malian praise singer Sadio Diabate, singing about Abubakar II - BBC
World Service Audio