Abscam—sometimes written ABSCAM—was a Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) sting operation that took place in the late 1970s
and early 1980s. The two-year investigation was directed from the
FBI's office in Hauppauge, New York, and was under the supervision of
Assistant Director Neil J. Welch, who headed the bureau's New York
division, and Thomas P. Puccio, head of the Justice Department's
Organized Crime Strike Force for the Eastern District of New York. The
operation initially targeted trafficking in stolen property and
corruption of prestigious businessmen, but was later converted to a
public corruption investigation. The FBI, aided by the Justice
Department and a convicted con-man, videotaped politicians accepting
bribes from a fraudulent Arabian company in return for various
More than 30 political figures were investigated and among those a
total of seven Congressmen—six members of the United States House of
Representatives and one United States senator—were convicted. Not
only were members of Congress convicted, but also one member of the
New Jersey State Senate, members of the Philadelphia City Council, the
Mayor of Camden, New Jersey, and an inspector for the United States
Immigration and Naturalization Service. In all, 10 Democrats and 1
Republican were convicted.
"Abscam" was the FBI codename for the operation. When law enforcement
authorities announced the operation, they said that "Abscam" was a
contraction of "Arab scam". After complaints from the American-Arab
Relations Committee, officials revised the contraction as "Abdul scam"
after the name of its fictitious company.
2.1 Angelo Errichetti
2.2 Harrison A. Williams
2.3 Frank Thompson
2.4 John M. Murphy
2.5 Richard Kelly
2.6 John Jenrette
3 Also approached by the FBI
3.1 John Murtha
3.2 Larry Pressler
3.3 Bob Guccione
3.4 Joseph A. Maressa
5 In popular culture
6 See also
8 External links
In March 1978,
John F. Good of the FBI's office in suburban Long
Island created and oversaw a sting operation called "Abscam", which
was initially intended to investigate theft, forgery and stolen
art. The FBI employed Melvin Weinberg, a convicted
swindler, international con artist and informant, and his girlfriend
Evelyn Knight, to help plan and conduct the operation. They were
facing a prison sentence at the time and in exchange for their help,
the FBI agreed to let them out on probation. Weinberg, supervised
by the FBI, created a fake company called Abdul Enterprises in which
FBI employees posed as fictional Arab sheikhs led by owners Kambir
Abdul Rahman and Yassir Habib, who had millions of dollars to invest
in the United States. Weinberg instructed the FBI to fund a $1
million-account with the Chase Manhattan Bank in the name of the
fictional company, Abdul Enterprises, giving the company the
credibility it needed to further its operation.
When a forger who was under investigation suggested to the sheikhs
that they invest in casinos in New Jersey and that licensing could be
obtained for a price, the
Abscam operation was retargeted toward
political corruption. Each congressman who was approached would be
given a large sum of money in exchange for "private immigration bills"
to allow foreigners associated with Abdul Enterprises into the country
and for building permits and licenses for casinos in Atlantic City,
among other investment arrangements. Among the casino projects
involved were the Ritz-Carlton Atlantic City, the Dunes Hotel and
Casino (Atlantic City), the Penthouse Boardwalk Hotel and Casino,
and the sheikh's fictional casino. The first political figure
ensnared in the phony investment scheme was Camden mayor Angelo
Errichetti. In exchange for monetary kickbacks, Errichetti told the
sheikhs' representatives "I'll give you Atlantic City." Errichetti
helped to recruit several government officials and United States
congressmen who were willing to grant political favors in exchange for
monetary bribes (originally $100,000 but then reduced to $50,000).
The FBI recorded each of the money exchanges and, for the first time
in American history, surreptitiously videotaped government officials
accepting bribes. The meeting places included a townhouse in the
Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., which was owned by Lee
Lescaze, a yacht in Florida, and hotel rooms in Pennsylvania and
New Jersey.
Each convicted politician was given a separate trial. During these
trials, much controversy arose regarding the ethics of Operation
Abscam. Many lawyers defending their guilty clients accused the FBI of
entrapment. Every judge overruled this claim and each politician was
Harrison A. "Pete" Williams
Of the 31 targeted officials, convicted of bribery and conspiracy in
Harrison A. Williams (D-NJ)
US House of Representatives
Frank Thompson (D-NJ)
US House of Representatives
John Jenrette (D-SC)
US House of Representatives Richard Kelly (R-FL)
US House of Representatives
Raymond Lederer (D-PA)
US House of Representatives Michael "Ozzie" Myers (D-PA)
US House of Representatives
John M. Murphy
John M. Murphy (D-NY)
Five other government officials were convicted, including:
Mayor of Camden, New Jersey,
Angelo Errichetti (D)
Philadelphia, PA City Council President
George X. Schwartz (D)
Philadelphia, PA City Councilman
Harry Jannotti (D)
Philadelphia, PA City Councilman
Louis Johanson (D)
An inspector for the US
Immigration and Naturalization Service
Immigration and Naturalization Service was
Angelo Errichetti, mayor of Camden, New Jersey, was the first
government official to be caught in Operation Abscam. Errichetti
first accepted the bribe in exchange for obtaining a casino license in
Atlantic City for Abdul Enterprises. He then introduced Abdul to
Senator Harrison Williams, who also took the bait. Errichetti also
introduced Michael Myers and
Raymond Lederer to the company, and
arranged meetings for them with the undercover agents. He also
introduced the "Arab businessmen" to
Frank Thompson Jr. By the middle
of 1979, Errichetti had arranged meetings with an entire list of state
and federal politicians who were willing to go in on the operation.
The FBI set up video cameras in a hotel suite near New York's John F.
Kennedy Airport to record the transactions between the undercover
agents and Errichetti. He was convicted on the federal bribery
charges, for which he served about three years in prison.
Harrison A. Williams
Senator Harrison "Pete" Williams (D-N.J.) was indicted on October 30,
1980, and convicted on May 1, 1981, on nine counts of bribery
and conspiracy to use his office to aid in business ventures.
Williams repeatedly met with the FBI agents and had worked out a deal
where he would become involved in a titanium mining operation by way
of having 18% of the company's shares issued to his lawyer, Alexander
Feinberg. Williams then promised to steer government contracts to the
venture by using his position in the Senate.
At his trial, lawyers for Williams argued that the Senator had not
actually been bribed because the stock in the titanium mining company
was worthless. Other defenses attempting to have the charges dismissed
included that he was a victim of selective prosecution by the Justice
Department because he had supported the presidential bid of Ted
Jimmy Carter in the Democratic primary. These
premises were not accepted by the jury, who convicted Williams after
28 hours of deliberation on May 1, 1981. Later appeals made by
Williams included arguments that a main prosecution witness had
perjured himself and that Williams had been a victim of entrapment.
The guilty verdict was upheld, and Williams was sentenced to three
years in prison.
Because of the convictions, the
Senate Ethics Committee voted to
censure Senator Williams and put a motion to the floor to expel him
for charges of bringing dishonor upon the Senate and his "ethically
repugnant behavior". Supporters of Williams moved that the censure was
enough, and that the expulsion was unnecessary. The Senate voted to
censure Williams, but before the vote on his expulsion could occur,
Senator Williams resigned his seat. In his resignation speech,
Williams proclaimed his innocence and argued that the investigation
into his activities was a grievous assault on the rights of the
Senate, and that other senators should be wary of unchecked
investigations into their activities by other branches of the
Williams served two years of his three-year sentence at a federal
penitentiary in Newark, New Jersey. He served the remainder of his
term at the Integrity House halfway house, where he became a member of
the board of directors until his death by cancer on November 17, 2001.
He also attempted to receive a presidential pardon from President Bill
Clinton but his request was denied. Williams was the first Senator to
be imprisoned in almost 80 years and, had the expulsion motion been
approved, would have been the first Senator to be expelled from the
Senate since the Civil War.
Roger Shuy is convinced of Senator Williams'
innocence. In a recording of Williams' encounter with an agent
disguised as a sheikh, "At one point, the sheikh put the bribe
directly to Williams: 'I would like to give you...some money for, for
permanent residence.' The first four words of Williams's reply were
'No, no, no, no.'" A prosecution memo at the time stated that
there was no case against Williams but the judge, who in his ruling
decried 'the cynicism and hypocrisy of corrupt government officials,'
set it aside. After trial, the lead juror said that had he known all
the facts he would not have found Williams guilty.
Frank Thompson (D-NJ) was a member of the House from Trenton, New
Jersey, who was indicted and convicted of accepting a bribe from an
FBI agent posing as an Arab sheik. Thompson was offered money in
exchange for helping the Arabs overcome certain immigration laws.
Well-loved by his constituents, he was the longest-serving member of
Congress convicted in Operation Abscam.
Thompson abstained on the vote to expel Representative Myers, the
first Congressman to be indicted. While most of the politicians
resigned, Myers was expelled from the House, and Williams did not
resign until the vote on his expulsion was almost to take place.
Thompson himself was not expelled from the House of Representatives
because he lost his re-election campaign in 1980 to Republican Chris
Smith, a relatively unknown GOP candidate who in 1978 had run against
Thompson as a sacrificial lamb candidate. Smith won the 1980 election
by a margin of 20,000 votes. On December 29, 1980, Thompson resigned
his seat in the US House of Representatives. Smith has since
represented Thompson's former district continuously through the 115th
United States Congress.
On December 2, 1980, Thompson was indicted on bribery charges.
Thompson spent $24,000 of campaign funds fighting the charges and
appealing his conviction on grounds of entrapment. Thompson was
convicted of bribery and conspiracy charges and served three years in
prison as his sentence starting in 1983. He served two years before
being released, and worked as a consultant in Washington until his
death in 1989.
John M. Murphy
Frank Thompson was the one who introduced John Murphy to the
operation. Murphy is from Staten Island, New York. He was chairman for
the Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries. He accepted
monetary bribes in exchange for his resources. Murphy's conviction
differed from the other Congressmen. His conviction was considered
"receiving an unlawful gratuity" instead of bribery but he served
three years in prison for conspiracy charges only. Murphy was not
filmed taking the $50,000 that most other participants took that day,
instead arguing on tape with attorney Howard Criden about who would
pick up Murphy's money for him, which Criden did pick up at a John F.
Kennedy airport hotel.
In 1982 the conviction of Richard Kelly was overturned on the grounds
of entrapment. Kelly, the sole Republican, said that he was only
pretending to be involved with the bribery from Abdul Enterprises. He
claimed that he was conducting his own operation dealing with
corruption and that the FBI was ruining his own investigation.
However, an appeals court upheld the conviction and Kelly served 13
months in prison.
John Jenrette was one of the few who resigned before they were
expelled from the House. During the operation, Jenrette was asked
by an undercover FBI agent if he would take the bribe from the Sheikh.
He replied, "I've got larceny in my blood. I'd take it in a goddamn
Also approached by the FBI
John Murtha (D-PA) was one of the Congressmen who refused to take the
bribe from the undercover agents. He too was videotaped in his
encounter with undercover FBI operatives. Although he was never
convicted or prosecuted, he was named an unindicted co-conspirator in
the scandal. As such, he testified against
Frank Thompson (D-NJ)
and John Murphy (D-NY), the two Congressmen mentioned as participants
in the deal at the same meeting. A short clip from the videotape shows
Murtha stating "I'm not interested, I'm sorry. At this point..." in
direct response to an offer of $50,000 in cash.
In November 1980, the Justice Department announced that Murtha would
not face prosecution for his part in the scandal. The U.S. Attorney's
Office reasoned that Murtha's intent was to obtain investment in his
district. Full length viewing of the tape shows Murtha citing
prospective investment opportunities that could return "500 or 1000"
miners to work. In July 1981, the House Ethics Committee also chose
not to file charges against Murtha following a mostly party line vote.
The resignation later that day of attorney E. Barrett Prettyman Jr.,
the panel's special counsel and a Democrat, has been interpreted as an
act of protest.
Murtha remained prominent in Congress, and was re-elected by his
constituency 19 times over the course of 36 years before his death on
February 8, 2010.
Larry Pressler (R-SD) refused to take the bribe, saying at the
time, "Wait a minute, what you are suggesting may be illegal." He
immediately reported the incident to the FBI. When Senator Pressler
Walter Cronkite referred to him on the evening news as a
"hero" he stated, "I do not consider myself a hero... what have we
come to if turning down a bribe is 'heroic'?"
Bob Guccione, publisher of Penthouse, was also approached with a bribe
from the undercover FBI agents. Guccione was in the process of
Penthouse Boardwalk Hotel and Casino
Penthouse Boardwalk Hotel and Casino in Atlantic City and
needed financing. Guccione was associated with the Abscams interest in
Atlantic City, so Weinberg approached Guccione and told him that an
Arab sheikh wanted to invest $150 million in the casino project, but
only if the casino had obtained a gaming license. Weinberg wanted
Guccione to pay a $300,000 bribe to New Jersey gaming officials to get
the license. Guccione refused and responded by saying "Are you out of
your mind?" After the
Abscam scandal came to light, Guccione sued
the federal government but lost.
Joseph A. Maressa
In 1980, New Jersey State Senator
Joseph A. Maressa accepted $10,000
from a group of FBI agents who were part of the
operation. The money was given to Maressa to obtain his support on
behalf of a fictional Arab sheikh in exchange for Maressa's efforts to
get legislative support to obtain a gambling license for a casino in
Atlantic City. Maressa justified accepting what he described as legal
fees, saying that "I felt like it would be patriotic to take some of
this OPEC oil money and get it back to the United States." Maressa
wasn't prosecuted for his actions.
When the investigation became public in the early 1980s, ethical
controversy focused on the use of the "sting" technique and Weinberg's
involvement in selecting targets. Although Weinberg was a previously
convicted criminal and had been involved in previous scams, he avoided
a three-year prison sentence and was paid $150,000 in concurrence with
the operation. Ultimately, all of the
Abscam convictions were upheld
on appeal, although some judges criticized the tactics used by the
FBI and lapses in FBI and DOJ supervision.
In the wake of Abscam, Attorney General
Benjamin Civiletti issued "The
Attorney General Guidelines for FBI
Undercover Operations" ("Civiletti
Undercover Guidelines") on January 5, 1981. These were the first
Attorney General Guidelines for undercover operations and formalized
procedures necessary to conduct undercover operations to avoid future
controversy. Following the initial press accounts about the Abscam
investigation, Congress held a series of hearings to examine FBI
undercover operations and the new Civiletti
Undercover Guidelines. The
House Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights began hearings
on FBI undercover operations in March 1980 and concluded with a report
in April 1984. Among the concerns expressed during the hearings were
the undercover agents' involvement in illegal activity, the
possibility of entrapping individuals, the prospect of damaging the
reputations of innocent civilians, and the opportunity to undermine
legitimate rights to privacy.
In March 1982, after the Senate debated a resolution to expel Senator
Williams for his conduct in Abscam, the Senate established the Select
Committee to Study
Undercover Activities. In December 1982, the
Committee issued its final report, which was generally supportive of
the undercover technique but observed that its use "creates serious
risks to citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may
compromise law enforcement itself".
FBI documents later disclosed in accordance with the Freedom of
Information Act, consisting of newspaper clippings and letters written
to the FBI, revealed a mixed response of the American public. Some
Americans supported the FBI, but others argued that
Abscam was an
entrapment scenario ordered by a revenge-minded FBI, which earlier had
been stung by Congressional inquiries into acts of police brutality
and similar widespread abuses. Congressional concern about sting
operations persisted, creating numerous additional guidelines in the
The Civiletti Guidelines – 1980–1981
The Smith Guidelines – 1983
The Thornburgh Guidelines – 1989
The Reno Guidelines – 2001
During the course of Abscam, the FBI handed out more than $400,000 in
"bribes" to Congressmen and middlemen.
In his book, The Dangers of Dissent, historian Ivan Greenberg suggests
that the FBI's aggressive investigation of political corruption might
have been a response to the years of criticism the agency had received
from Congressional investigations: "Was this [ABSCAM] payback for the
Church Committee hearings? The FBI wanted to punish the Congress for
exposing its past corruption." Greenberg cites FBI Director William
Webster's 1980 speech to the Atlanta Bar Association as evidence, in
which Webster stated that "In the FBI we've been under attack for past
incidents and circumstances. It's quite understandable for those in
Congress who love their institution, who are trying to rebuild its
reputation and the confidence of the American people, to have an
encounter and deal with a situation of this kind, and emotions run
high. It's my sense that the good sense of the Congress, similar to
the emotions in the Bureau when they had their times, that now people
are saying, well, let's wait and see what the facts are..." However,
Greenberg does not provide evidence beyond this public comparison for
In popular culture
Louis Malle adapted the
Abscam story into a film
script titled Moon Over Miami, with
Dan Aykroyd and
John Belushi set
to star, with Belushi playing a fictionalized version of Weinberg.
Belushi's death in March 1982 scuttled plans for the film.
Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live parodied the scandal in a skit titled "The
Bel-Airabs" (a spoof of The Beverly Hillbillies), February 9, 1980.
Fridays parodied the scandal in a skit titled "
Abscam Camera" (a spoof
of Candid Camera). The incident was also referenced in the Seinfeld
episode "The Sniffing Accountant". In music, artist Prince refers to
Abscam story in the track "Annie Christian" from his 1981 album
Abscam was also mentioned in the film Donnie Brasco when
an agent suggests that a boat used in the operation be used undercover
to impress Mafia kingpin Santo Trafficante, Jr.. A 1981 Bloom County
comic strip in which
Milo Bloom envisions himself as a senator on
trial has him accused of (among many things) "taking money from FBI
agents posing as Arab camel scalpers". Members of the
Abscam team were
involved in the investigation into Jordan Belfort, as depicted in The
Wolf of Wall Street.
Abscam was also mentioned as an insult to an FBI
agent on an episode of Simon & Simon. The
Doonesbury comics also
parody the investigation; they show congressmen claiming that they
were doing the sting operation to bust FBI agents who were bribing
elected officials and working for foreign organizations hostile to the
United States. In 1980 Folksinger
Tom Paxton wrote and recorded the
song "I Thought You Were an Arab" (pronounced Ay'-rab) on his album
The Paxton Report.
Abscam operation is dramatized in the 2013 feature film American
Hustle, directed by David O. Russell. The film is described as a
"fictionalization" rather than a straight adaptation. The opening
screen states, "Some of this actually happened."
Operation Tennessee Waltz
^ "The Investigations at a Glance; Origin Disclosure Results Inquiries
Under Way". The New York Times. February 10, 1980.
^ a b c d e f Salinger, Lawrence M. Encyclopedia of White-collar &
Corporate Crime. (Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications), 2005.
eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed February 19, 2014).
^ a b c d e f Jensen, Eric L., and Jurg Gerber. 2007. Encyclopedia of
White-collar Crime. (Westport. Conn: Greenwood Press), 2007. eBook
Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed February 19, 2014).
^ Maitland, Leslie (February 3, 1980). "High Officials Are Termed
Subjects Of a Bribery Investigation by F.B.I." The New York Times.
p. 1. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
^ "Etymology of "Abscam" Undergoes Revision". The New York Times.
August 21, 1980. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
^ United States of America v. Michael O. Myers, et. al., Federal
Bureau of Investigation. Accessed October 19, 2016. "'Abscam' is the
code word given by the
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation to an
undercover 'sting' operation conducted out of the FBI office at
Hauppauge, Long Island, New York, under the supervision of agent John
^ Gates, Anita. "John Good, Architect of F.B.I.'s
Operation, Dies at 80", The New York Times, October 18, 2016. Accessed
October 19, 2016. "John F. Good, who developed and directed the
Abscam investigation, resulting in grainy black-and-white
videotapes on the evening news that showed elected officials accepting
bags and envelopes of cash from what appeared to be an Arab sheikh,
died on Sept. 28 at his home in Island Park, N.Y."
^ a b c Noonan, John T. (1987). Bribes: The Intellectual History of a
Moral Idea. University of California Press. pp. 604–11.
^ Leiby, Richard (December 26, 2013). "To the players in Abscam, the
real-life 'American Hustle,' the bribes now seem quaint". Washington
Post. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
^ Tolchin, Martin, and Susan J. Tolchin. Glass Houses. Boulder:
Westview Press, 2001.
^ Tale of Atlantic City Hotel That Tried to be a Casino by Donald
Janson New York Times May 31, 1981 
^ The Sting Man: Inside
Abscam By Robert W. Greene
^ 'Abscam' fallout: Atlantic City casinos By Ward Morehouse III, The
Christian Science Monitor February 6, 1980 
^ a b Yates, Clinton (December 26, 2013). "American Hustle's fun D.C.
connection". Washington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
^ "A Byte Out of History: Remembering the Lessons of ABSCAM.", Federal
Bureau of Investigation, February 7, 2005. Accessed October 19, 2016.
^ Maitland, Leslie (October 31, 1980). "Williams Is Indicted With 3
For Bribery In New
Abscam Case; Jersey Senator Denies Guilt Accused of
Pledging to Use Office to Obtain Federal Contracts in a Deal for Mine
Shares Other Charges in Indictment Jersey's Senator Williams and 3 Are
Indicted for Bribery in
Abscam Case 2 Representatives Convicted Boast
on Casino Alleged A Promise on Immigration". The New York Times.
^ Fried, Joseph P. (May 2, 1981). "Williams Is Guilty On All Nine
Abscam Inquiry". The New York Times.
^ "CNN.com – Former N.J. Sen. Harrison Williams dead at 81 –
November 19, 2001". Archived from the original on March 23,
^ Fried, Joseph P. (December 20, 1980). "Williams Seeking the
Abscam Charges". The New York Times.
^ Sullivan, Joseph F. (March 12, 1982). "Williams Quits Senate Seat As
Vote To Expel Him Nears; Still Asserts He Is Innocent". The New York
Times. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
^ Mercer, Neil (2000). Words and Minds: How We Use Language to Think
Together. Routledge. p. 36.
^ Hitt, Jack (July 23, 2012). "Words on Trial" (PDF). The New Yorker.
Retrieved December 25, 2013.
Abscam (cont.)". Time. December 15, 1980.
^ Saxon, Wolfgang (August 26, 2005). "Richard Kelly, 81, Congressman
Who Went to Prison in Scandal, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved
December 11, 2013.
Abscam Video part 1". YouTube. Retrieved September 22,
^ "The American Spectator". Archived from the original on October 5,
2006. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
^ Katz, Neil (February 8, 2010). "
Abscam Scandal Lingers as Jack
Murtha, Dead Congressman, is Remembered". CBS News. Retrieved May 10,
^ "Surveillance video". Mfile.akamai.com. Retrieved September 28,
^ Rabkin, Jeremy (September 17, 2012). "The American Spectator".
Spectator.org. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008.
Retrieved September 22, 2012.
^ Jackson, Peter (February 9, 2010). "Pa. Dem Murtha remembered as
military advocate". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on
February 11, 2010.
^ "Pressler, Senator Larry: Biography 2007". Larrypressler.com. March
12, 1999. Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved
September 22, 2012.
^ Heidentry, John. 'What Wild Ecstasy'. Simon & Schuster 2007
ISBN 978-0-7432-4184-7 
^ "847 F.2d 1031". Ftp.resource.org. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
^ Morehouse III, Ward. "'Abscam' fallout: Atlantic City casinos", The
Christian Science Monitor, February 6, 1980. Accessed October 5, 2016.
"Mr. Maressa has admitted to several newspapers that he received
$10,000 in 'legal fees' from FBI undercover agents acting in behalf of
a nonexistent Arab businessman seeking help in obtaining a casino
license. The New York Daily News Feb. 5 quoted Mr. Maressa as saying,
'the Arabian Nights portrait these two agents painted was such that I
felt like it would be patriotic to take some of this OPEC oil money
and get it back to the United States.'"
^ Tinney, Kathleen. "Joseph A. Maressa, 89, former state Senator", The
Philadelphia Inquirer, November 1, 2012. Accessed October 5, 2016. "He
took $10,000 from FBI agents purporting to represent Arab sheikhs
seeking a casino license in Atlantic City. In rejecting allegations
that the money was a bribe - he adamantly said it was a legal fee -
Mr. Maressa memorably reasoned that he was being patriotic by taking
OPEC money and putting it back into American hands. The Abscam
investigation did not produce any criminal charges against him."
Special Report". Usdoj.gov. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
Special Report". Usdoj.gov. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation – Freedom of Information Privacy
Act". Archived from the original on August 10, 2004. Retrieved
^ Greenberg, Ivan. 'The Dangers of Dissent: The FBI and Civil
Liberties Since 1965' (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2010), p.
^ Plunka, Gene A. (January 1, 2002). The black comedy of John Guare.
University of Delaware Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-87413-763-7.
Retrieved March 3, 2012.
^ "First Trailer for David O. Russell's 'American Hustle' Cuts Loose".
iamrogue.com. July 31, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
FBI files on ABSCAM
FBI Records: The Vault - ABSCAM at vault.fbi.gov
Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines, September 2005
full, unedited 53:41 FBI Abscam/
John Murtha video from Jan 7, 1980
Federal prosecution of public corruption in the United States
Mail and wire fraud (Honest services fraud)
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
United States v. Germaine (1879)
Burton v. United States
Burton v. United States (1905, 1906)
Glasser v. United States
Glasser v. United States (1942)
United States v. Hood (1952)
United States v. Johnson (1966)
United States v. Nardello (1969)
United States v. Brewster (1972)
United States v. Helstoski (1979)
United States v. Gillock (1980)
Dixson v. United States (1984)
McNally v. United States
McNally v. United States (1987)
McCormick v. United States (1991)
Evans v. United States (1992)
Salinas v. United States (1997)
United States v. Sun-Diamond Growers of California (1999)
Fischer v. United States (2000)
Sabri v. United States (2004)
Skilling v. United States
Skilling v. United States (2010)
McDonnell v. United States
McDonnell v. United States (2016)
Unincorporated territory officials
Alaska political corruption probe
Operation Bid Rig
Operation Board Games
Operation Mississippi Hustle
Operation Plunder Dome
Operation Rocky Top
Operation Silver Shovel
Operation Tennessee Waltz
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Jack Abramoff CNMI
James A. Kelly, Jr.
Oregon land fraud
William J. Jefferson
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U.S. v. Scheinberg et al. (10 Cr. 336)
A. Bruce Bielaski
William E. Allen
William J. Flynn
William J. Burns
J. Edgar Hoover
J. Edgar Hoover
L. Patrick Gray
Clarence M. Kelley
James B. Adams
William H. Webster
John E. Otto
William S. Sessions
Floyd I. Clarke
Thomas J. Pickard
Christopher A. Wray
Harry "Skip" Brandon
Joseph L. Gormley
Child Abduction and Serial Murder Center
FBI portrayal in media
FBI–Apple encryption dispute
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
1 In order of service. Italics indicate