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Abruzzo
Abruzzo
(pronounced [aˈbruttso]) is a region of Central Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million. Its western border lies 80 km (50 mi) east of Rome. The region is divided into the four provinces of L'Aquila, Teramo, Pescara, and Chieti. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
borders the region of Marche
Marche
to the north, Lazio
Lazio
to the west and south-west, Molise
Molise
to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is divided into a mountainous area to the west, which includes the Gran Sasso D'italia, and a coastal area to the east with beaches on the Adriatic sea. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is partially considered culturally, linguistically, historically, and economically a region of Southern Italy, although geographically it may also be considered central.[3] The Italian Statistical Authority (ISTAT) deems it to be part of Southern Italy, partially because of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.[3] Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is known as "the greenest region in Europe" as almost half of its territory, the largest in Europe,[4] is set aside as national parks and protected nature reserves: there are three national parks, one regional park, and 38 protected nature reserves. These ensure the survival of 75% of Europe's living species including rare species, such as the small wading dotterel, golden eagle, the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
(or Abruzzese) chamois, Apennine wolf, and Marsican brown bear.[5] Abruzzo is also home to Calderone, Europe's southernmost glacier.[6] Visiting nineteenth-century Italian diplomat and journalist Primo Levi said that "forte e gentile" (strong and gentle) best describes the beauty of the region and the character of its people. "Forte e gentile" has since become the motto of the region and its inhabitants.[7]

Contents

1 Provinces and politics

1.1 Provinces 1.2 Politics

2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Flora and fauna 5 Economy 6 Demographics

6.1 Main settlements

7 Transport

7.1 Airports 7.2 Ports 7.3 Railways 7.4 Highways

8 Culture

8.1 Medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
hill towns 8.2 Universities 8.3 Dialects

9 Cuisine

9.1 Popular dishes 9.2 Sweets 9.3 Olive
Olive
oil 9.4 Wines
Wines
and liquors

10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Provinces and politics[edit]

Abruzzo
Abruzzo
provinces

Provinces[edit] Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is divided into four administrative provinces:

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)

Chieti 2,588 396,190 153.1

L'Aquila 5,034 308,876 61.3

Pescara 1,225 318,701 260.1

Teramo 1,948 308,769 158.5

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Abruzzo

History[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
and Abruzzi e Molise

The church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio
Santa Maria di Collemaggio
in L'Aquila, as it was before the devastating earthquake of 6 April 2009.

Cathedral of Madonna del Ponte, Lanciano

The Roman site Amiternum

Castello Caldora, Vasto

View of Pacentro

Humans have inhabited Abruzzo
Abruzzo
since Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti
Chieti
has been radiometrically dated to 6,540 bp.[8] The name Abruzzo
Abruzzo
appears to derive from the Latin
Latin
"Aprutium", although in Roman times the region was known at various times as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
and Campania
Campania
et Samnium.[9] This region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages arising from four possible sources: it is a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, Interamnaes, the old Teramo.[10] Until 1963 it was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise. The term Abruzzi derives from the time when the region was part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore (Nearer Abruzzo) and Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Ulteriore I and II (Farther Abruzzo
Abruzzo
I and II), that being nearer and farther from Naples, the capital of the kingdom.[9] Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Citeriore is present day Chieti province. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Ulteriore I comprised the Teramo
Teramo
and Pescara provinces; Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Ulteriore II is now the Province of L'Aquila. In this province is found the city of Corfinio
Corfinio
(known as Corfinium in ancient Italy), the chief city of the Paeligni, 7 m. N. of Sulmona
Sulmona
in the valley of the Aternus. The site of the original town is occupied by the village of Pentima. It probably became subject to Rome in the 4th century BC, though it does not appear in Roman history before the Social War, in which it was at first adopted by the allies as the capital and seat of government. It appears also as a fortress of importance in the Civil War, though it resisted Caesar's attack for a week (49 BC). These people were honored by Caesar
Caesar
as citizens of Rome. It is said that the name "Italia" came from this region because of ancient coins that have been found here that date from about the 1st century BC. These coins have the name "Italia" on them and are apparently proof of this fact. This theory of the origin of the name "Italia" is debated by scholars, archaeologists and history itself. There is much consensus however that the name "Italia" was originally given to the region of modern Calabria
Calabria
by the ancient Greeks
Greeks
during their foundation of Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(Greater Greece) in southern Italy around the 8th century BC. It is also said by the Italian Government that Calabria
Calabria
was once called "Italia" by the ancient Greeks
Greeks
in honour of its inhabitants who were known as the "Itali". This occurred hundreds of years before the coins of Corfinio
Corfinio
(Corfinium) were apparently minted. The late archaeologist Massimo Pallottino also claimed that the name was derived from the Italic tribes that settled in modern Calabria. But it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula. Geography[edit] Geographically, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is located in central Italy
Italy
and southern Italy, stretching from the heart of the Apennines to the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, and includes mainly mountainous and wild land. The mountainous inland is occupied by a vast plateau including Gran Sasso, at 2,912 metres (9,554 ft) the highest peak of the Apennines, and Mount Majella 2,793 metres (9,163 ft). The Adriatic
Adriatic
coastline is characterized by long sandy beaches to the north and pebbly beaches to the south. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is well known for its landscapes and natural beauties, parks and nature reserves, characteristic hillside areas rich in vineyards and olive groves, and one of the highest densities of Blue Flag beaches.[11] Climate[edit]

Giulianova
Giulianova
seaside

The Abruzzo
Abruzzo
region has two types of climate that are strongly influenced by the Apennine Mountains, dividing the climate of the coastal and sub-Apennine hills from the interior's high mountain ranges. Coastal areas have a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate with hot dry summers and mild winters and rainy hills with a sublittoral climate where temperatures progressively decrease with increasing altitude and precipitation with altitude.[12] Precipitation is also strongly affected by the presence of the Apennines mountain ridges of the region increases with the proportion being more abundant in the field and on the slopes exposed to the west, instead of decreasing towards the east and east-facing slopes. Often the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast are sidelined rainfall from the west to the barrier effect of the Apennines undergoing the action of gentle winds descending from it (or Libeccio).[13] The minimum annual rainfall, however, are found in some inland valleys, sheltered from much disturbance to the blocking action of mountain ridges, such as the Peligna Valley, or the valley of the river Tirino, which in some places (Ofena, Capestrano) showed barely 500 millimetres (19.7 inches), and not along the coast where it never falls below 600 millimetres (23.6 inches), for if Teramo
Teramo
is relatively little watered by rain ( Teramo
Teramo
less than 800 mm), the metre is exceeded in Chieti, reaching maximum levels in the Adriatic, while between Ortona
Ortona
and Vasto
Vasto
in Costa dei Trabocchi decrease again.[13] The highest rainfall occurs in upland areas on the border with Lazio; they are especially vulnerable to Atlantic
Atlantic
disturbances. Around 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 inches) of precipitation is typical ( Pescara
Pescara
in 2010 showed a value close to 2800 mm).[14] Flora and fauna[edit] Main articles: Abruzzo
Abruzzo
National Park, Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
and Monti della Laga National Park, Maiella
Maiella
National Park, and Sirente-Velino Regional Park

Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
d'Italia

As with many Mediterranean
Mediterranean
regions, Abruzzo's vegetation is characterized by the presence of different Mediterranean
Mediterranean
ecosystems. The coast and the surrounding areas are characterized by the presence of typical plants of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
shrubland, such as myrtle, heather and mastic, while in the hilly areas other species grow, including olive, pine, willow, oak, poplar, alder, arbutus, broom, acacia, capers, rosemary, hawthorn, licorice and almond trees, interspersed with oak trees. At elevations between 600 and 1,000 metres (2,000 and 3,300 ft) there is sub-montane vegetation, mainly characterized by mixed forests of oak and turkey oak, maple and hornbeam; shrubs include dog rose and red juniper. Elevations between 1,000 and 1,900 metres (3,300 and 6,200 ft) are dominated by beech trees. In the Apennine Mountains
Apennine Mountains
at elevations above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) species include alpine orchid, mountain juniper, silver fir, black cranberry and the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
edelweiss. The fauna of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is highly varied, including the region's symbol, the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
chamois ( Rupicapra pyrenaica
Rupicapra pyrenaica
ornata), which has recovered after risking extinction. Another animal typical of this region is the marsican brown bear, along with Italian wolf, deer, lynx, roe deer, snow vole, fox, porcupine, wild cat, wild boar, badger, otter and viper. The natural parks of the region include the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
National Park,[15] the Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
and Monti della Laga National Park,[16] the Maiella National Park[17] and the Sirente-Velino Regional Park,[18] as well as numerous others natural reserves and protected areas.[19] Economy[edit] See also: Abruzzo (wine)
Abruzzo (wine)
and Tourism in Abruzzo Until a few decades ago, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
was a region of poverty in Southern Italy; over the past decades, however, it has developed to such an extent that it has escaped from the spiral of underdevelopment to become the 'first' region of the 'Italian Mezzogiorno'. This confirms its pivotal role in the national economic system. Since the 1950s, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
has had steady economic growth. In 1951, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
per capita income or GDP was 53% of that of Northern Italy, the nation's richest region. By 1971, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
was at 65% and, by 1994, per capita income was at 76% of Northern Italy's per capita income, giving Abruzzo
Abruzzo
the highest per capita GDP of Southern Italy
Italy
and surpassing the growth of every other region of Italy. The construction of superhighways from Rome
Rome
to Teramo
Teramo
(A24) and Rome
Rome
to Pescara
Pescara
(A25) opened Abruzzo
Abruzzo
to easy access, state and private investment in the region increased, and Abruzzo
Abruzzo
attained higher per capita education levels and greater productivity growth than the rest of the South. As of 2003, Abruzzo's per capita GDP was €19,506 or 84% of the national average of €23,181 and well outpacing that of the South (€15,808).[20] The region's average GDP per capita was approximately 20,100 EUR.[21]

Montepulciano grapes.

The 2009 L'Aquila
L'Aquila
earthquake led to a sharp economic slowdown. However, according to statistics at the end of 2010, it seems that the economy of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is recovering, despite the negative data regarding employment.[20] In fact, at the end of 2010, Abruzzo's growth was 1.47%, which placed it fourth among the Italian regions with the highest annual growth rates after Lazio, Lombardy
Lombardy
and Calabria.[22] In 2011 Abruzzo's economic growth was +2.3%, the highest percentage among the regions of Southern Italy.[23] The region is also the richest region of Southern Italy, with a GDP per capita higher than any other region of southern Italy
Italy
(€21,574).[13]

Travel poster from the 1920s.

Abruzzo's industrial sector expanded rapidly, especially in mechanical engineering, transportation equipment and telecommunications.[24] The structure of production in the region reflects the transformation of the economy from agriculture to industry and services. Although industry has developed strongly, it retains weak points due to the existence of only a few large businesses alongside a huge fabric of small and medium-sized businesses. Both pure and applied research are carried out in the region, where there are major institutes and factories involved in research in the fields of pharmaceutics, biomedicine, electronics, aerospace and nuclear physics. The industrial infrastructure is spread throughout the region in industrial zones which have already been mentioned, the most important of which are Val Pescara, Val Sangro, Val Trigno, Val Vibrata and Conca del Fucino. A further activity worthy of note is seaside and mountain tourism, which is of considerable importance to the economy of the region.[25] Agriculture, involving small holdings, has succeeded in modernising and offering high-quality products. The mostly small, agricultural holdings produce wine, cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, olives, vegetables, fruit and dairy products. Traditional products are saffron and liquorice. Most famous in the world is Abruzzo's wine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo; in the late 20th and early 21st century, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
earned a reputation as being one of the most widely exported DOC classed wine in Italy.[26] In the past decade, tourism has increased, in particular concerning internal and European arrivals. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is world-famous for his wildlife parks ( Abruzzo
Abruzzo
National Park, Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
and Monti della Laga National Park, Maiella
Maiella
National Park) and regional park (Sirente Velino) and 38 protected areas between oasis, regional reserves and state reserves and also in the inland mountainous region has several ski resorts equipped; also coastal tourism and resort is very developed, in particular be mentioned the Trabocchi Coast, a very picturesque stretch of coastline known for the ancient fishing machines that can still be seen by tourists. Abruzzo's wealth of castles and medieval towns, especially around the town of L'Aquila, has earned it in some quarters the nickname of "Abruzzoshire", by analogy with the "Chiantishire", nickname sometimes used to refer to the Chianti
Chianti
area of Tuscany, but Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is still off the beaten path for most visitors to Italy.[27] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1861 858,000 —    

1871 906,000 +5.6%

1881 946,000 +4.4%

1901 1,070,000 +13.1%

1911 1,116,000 +4.3%

1921 1,131,000 +1.3%

1931 1,168,000 +3.3%

1936 1,202,000 +2.9%

1951 1,277,000 +6.2%

1961 1,206,000 −5.6%

1971 1,167,000 −3.2%

1981 1,218,000 +4.4%

1991 1,249,000 +2.5%

2001 1,262,000 +1.0%

2011 1,343,000 +6.4%

2017 1,322,247 −1.5%

Source: ISTAT 2001

Chieti

Although the population density of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
has increased over the last decades, it is still well below the Italian national average: in 2008, 123.4 inhabitants per km2, compared to 198.8. At the province level, the density is varied: as of 2008[update] Pescara
Pescara
is the most densely populated with 260.1 inhabitants per km2, whereas L'Aquila
L'Aquila
is the least densely populated with 61.3 inhabitants per km2, although it has the largest area. After decades of emigration from the region, the main feature of the 1980s is the immigration from third world countries. The population increase is due to the positive net migration, as since 1991 more deaths than births were registered in Abruzzo
Abruzzo
(except for 1999, when their number was equal).[28] In 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 59,749 foreign-born immigrants live in Abruzzo, equal to 4.5% of the total regional population. The most serious demographic imbalance is between the mountainous areas of the interior and the coastal strip. The largest province, L'Aquila, is situated entirely in the interior and has the lowest population density. The movement of the population of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
from the mountains to the sea has led to the almost complete urbanisation of the entire coastal strip especially in the province of Teramo
Teramo
and Chieti. The effects on the interior have been impoverishment and a demographic ageing, reflected by an activity rate in the province of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
which is the lowest of the provinces in Abruzzo
Abruzzo
– accompanied by geological degradation as a result of the absence of conservation measures. In the coastal strip, on the other hand, there is such a jumble of accommodation and activities that the environment has been changed with negative effects. The policy of providing incentives for development has resulted in the setting-up of industrial zones, some of which (Vasto, Avezzano, Carsoli, Gissi, Val Vibrata, Val di Sangro) have made genuine progress, while others (Val Pescara, L'Aquila) have run into trouble after initial success. The zones of Sulmona
Sulmona
and Guardiagrele
Guardiagrele
have turned out to be more or less failures. Outside these zones, the main activities are agriculture and tourism.[28] Main settlements[edit] L'Aquila
L'Aquila
is both the capital city of the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
region and of the Province of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
and second largest city (pop. 73,000). L'Aquila was hit by an earthquake on 6 April 2009 which destroyed much of the city centre. The other provincial capitals are Pescara, which is Abruzzo's largest city and major port (pop. 123,000); Teramo
Teramo
(pop. 55,000) and Chieti
Chieti
(pop. 55,000). Other large municipalities in Abruzzo
Abruzzo
include Avezzano
Avezzano
(pop.41,000), an industrial and high technology center, Vasto
Vasto
(population 40,636), Lanciano
Lanciano
(population 36,000), and Sulmona
Sulmona
(population 25,000) are three important industrial and touristic centers. Transport[edit] See also: Abruzzo
Abruzzo
International Airport, Port of Pescara, Adriatic railway, Autostrada A14 (Italy), Autostrada A24 (Italy), and Autostrada A25 (Italy) Airports[edit]

Abruzzo International Airport
Abruzzo International Airport
is the only international airport in the region. Open to civilian traffic since 1996, has seen over the years more and more increase the number of transit passengers thanks to the airlines and low-cost flights. Today, the airport has a catchment area of over 500,000 passengers annually and connects the city of Pescara and the entire region with many Italian and European destinations.[29] L'Aquila-Preturo Airport
L'Aquila-Preturo Airport
is located in the nearby village of Courts and was recently renovated and modernized to accommodate flights presidential G8, specifically moved into the city after the earthquake in Abruzzo. Soon the airport will also be open to civilian traffic.

Ports[edit]

The port of Pescara.

There are four main ports in Abruzzo: Pescara, Ortona, Vasto
Vasto
and Giulianova. Over the years the Port of Pescara
Pescara
became one of the most important tourist ports of Italy
Italy
and the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea. Heavily damaged in World War II, it underwent some 60 years of major restoration and was reborn as a modern marina with advanced moorings and shipbuilding facilities. It has been honored with the European Union's blue flag for the quality of services offered. The port of Pescara
Pescara
has lost passenger traffic because of its shallowness and silting, but its fishery and aquaculture activities are thriving.[30] Railways[edit] There is a significant disparity between the railways of the Abruzzo coast and the inland areas, which badly need modernisation to improve the service, in particular the Rome- Pescara
Pescara
line. Some services have schedules similar to those of a century ago. The situation is so bad that often it is faster to travel by road, normally bus. Existing railway lines:

Adriatic
Adriatic
railway (through the whole of Italy
Italy
from north to south, along the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea): The question that interests the Abruzzo region is included in the Towns of Martinsicuro
Martinsicuro
and San Salvo. Unless, that delimit the borders with Marche
Marche
and Molise
Molise
regions, namely, the 113 km (70.21 mi) between the stations of intercurrent Alba Adriatica-Nereto- Controguerra
Controguerra
and San Salvo. The interchanges are made by the respective railway lines Giulianova
Giulianova
Teramo
Teramo
and Pescara-Rome. Train Rome
Rome
Sulmona
Sulmona
– Pescara: Pescara- Rome
Rome
railway line is along the railway line Bologna- Bari
Bari
on the Adriatic sea
Adriatic sea
other line is important because through the Tyrrhenian coast, passing through the provinces of Pescara, Chieti
Chieti
and L'Aquila
L'Aquila
and ends the path to Roma Tiburtina railway station. The railway, which covers the Abruzzo Region, extends for 170 kilometres (110 mi), ranging from municipalities to the province of Pescara
Pescara
Carsoli, Oricola
Oricola
and Pereto. The infrastructure in question is the following interchanges: Sulmona, Isernia, Terni
Terni
– Sulmona, Avezzano- Roccasecca, Bologna
Bologna
and Bari. Sulmona
Sulmona
– Carpinone: the infrastructure in question is a continuation to the south of Terni-Sulmona, as part of the intermediate cross- Pescara
Pescara
– Naples. After that Brenner is the highest railway station in Italy, whose tortuous path, characterized by steep slopes, passing through the station Rivisondoli-Pescocostanzo and wedges in the Abruzzo National Park
Abruzzo National Park
and the Maiella. The line is the interchanges of railway lines Rome- Pescara
Pescara
and Sulmona
Sulmona
L'Aquila
L'Aquila
Rieti
Rieti
– Terni. Reached Carpinone, divides west to east to Benevento
Benevento
and Caserta. Sulmona– Terni
Terni
railway: Trafficking in question connects the regions of Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
and Molise
Molise
and then along the line-Carpinone Sulmona. It therefore crosses the inner Abruzzo, finding interchanges Avezzano
Avezzano
and Pescara-Rome-Roccasecca, in their respective provinces of L'Aquila, Terni
Terni
and Rieti. It concerns a type of regional traffic in that, across the Tyrrhenian perpendicular colleague Abruzzo, Umbria, Lazio
Lazio
and Molise. The question of interest is included in the Abruzzo town of Sulmona
Sulmona
and Tornimparte
Tornimparte
and more precisely in the stations 75 kilometres (47 mi) intercurrent Sulmona
Sulmona
and saddle horn. Avezzano
Avezzano
railroad – Roccasecca: infrastructure test starts on the track in the town of Avezzano, crosses the territory of Marsica, passes through the valley and Bush get into the Lazio
Lazio
region, in the town of Sora. Her journey ends in the town of Roccasecca
Roccasecca
which marks the end of Lazio
Lazio
and the entry in the Campania
Campania
region towards Cassino. Therefore, the only online exchange that meets the railway line is Pescara
Pescara
Rome
Rome
station Avezzano. Giulianova
Giulianova
Teramo
Teramo
(a branch railway line Adriatic
Adriatic
you forward towards the interior until Teramo) railway line Giulianova
Giulianova
– Teramo, the network is complementary to the Adriatic, fulfilling a liaison function between the capital and the coast. Therefore, the only rail interchange is characterized by the Adriatic
Adriatic
railway line Bologna
Bologna
– Bari, Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is Martinsicuro
Martinsicuro
rail-Broad-San Salvo. With its 24 kilometres (15 mi) journey infrastructure is the result, a SS80 along the path to the location of the industrial districts of Teramo, before merging the SS 16 that accesses the port Giulianova. Sangritana ( Lanciano
Lanciano
– Castel di Sangro): The infrastructure in question are an important transition between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea, as in Pescara
Pescara
station meets the respective points of connection of the FS Bologna
Bologna
Bari
Bari
and Pescara
Pescara
– Rome, while that of Sulmona, L'Aquila
L'Aquila
lines FS – Terni
Terni
and Sulmona
Sulmona
– Carpinone. This position transition, attributed to the infrastructure an important strategic military role in World War II, a stage when the bombing of the German armed forces air, marked the temporary suspension of the subject line of repair work. Like other regional railways direct L'Aquila, Sulmona
Sulmona
and Roccasecca, through a circuitous route mountain typically characterized by steep slopes, although in terms of localization of production facilities is to signal the passage of the railway in the industrial area of Valle del Sangro .

Highways[edit]

Salinello Bridge on the A14

Road and motorway networks in the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
region are relatively well developed, there are three highways that serve the region:

Highway A24 Rome
Rome
L'Aquila
L'Aquila
– Teramo, was built in the 70s and connects Rome
Rome
with Lazio
Lazio
and more specifically to the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Teramo via L'Aquila, performs an important liaison function of the region, both Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic, due to the presence of several knots of connection roads and highways. The Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
tunnel, the longest road tunnel entirely on Italian territory, was opened in 1984. It connects L'Aquila
L'Aquila
and Teramo
Teramo
on the A24 making the northern Abruzzo coast reachable within two hours from Rome.

Numerous infrastructure connecting adjacent junction as directional Torano it branches in the A25 to Pescara, Teramo
Teramo
to Giulianova
Giulianova
on SS80, SS81 to Chieti
Chieti
and on the A14 Bologna-Taranto, exit on the freeway Rieti
Rieti
Valley Jump -Terni, exit west on SS80 to L'Aquila-Teramo, near Tivoli and the connection to the A1 motorway allows easy connections with Naples
Naples
and Milan, the highway construction has contributed greatly to the economic development of the region .

Highway A25 Torano – Avezzano
Avezzano
Pescara
Pescara
allows the connection between Rome
Rome
and Pescara, as of the release of Torano begins its journey where it intersects with the A24, flows in the Conca del Fucino exceeds the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Apennines coming to Peligna Valley and ends at 'exit Pescara-Villanova to join the A14. Motorway A14 Bologna
Bologna
Taranto
Taranto
said the A14 "Adriatica" includes 743 km (461.68 mi) of route, including the cities of Bologna and Taranto. Inaugurated in 1965 is now a major tourist infrastructure, as through the coastal towns of Emilia Romagna, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise
Molise
and Puglia. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is the infrastructure in question, including the toll of South Broad and Val Vibrata, which mark the border with the Marche
Marche
and Molise. Regarding the links, the A14 meets the SS16 and the SS652 Bottom Sangro Valley near Broad and SS80 in Giulianova.

Culture[edit]

Castel del Monte, one of Abruzzo's little-known hill towns

Gabriele d'Annunzio
Gabriele d'Annunzio
from Pescara

Abbazia di San Liberatore a Majella
Majella
(Serramonacesca)

Ovid
Ovid
from Sulmona

Cathedral of San Giustino (Chieti)

Fishing trabucco of San Vito Chietino

The most important museum is Museo Archeologico Nazionale d'Abruzzo
Museo Archeologico Nazionale d'Abruzzo
in Chieti
Chieti
housing the famed warrior statue Warrior of Capestrano
Capestrano
found in a necropolis from 6th century B.C.. Of cultural importance are the Cathedral of Teramo, its archeological museum and the Roman theater, the Castello della Monica, the astronomical Observatory, the famous L'Aquila
L'Aquila
Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio
Santa Maria di Collemaggio
– with the remains of Pope Celestine V, the Museo Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Santa Maria del Suffragio, the Forte Spagnolo, the 99 Spouts fountain, Gabriele D'Annunzio's house in Pescara, Campli's Scala Sancta
Scala Sancta
and its church, the church of Santissima Annunziata in Sulmona, the cathedrals of Chieti, Lanciano, Guardiagrele, Atri and Pescara
Pescara
along with the castles of Ortona, Celano
Celano
and Ortucchio. At L'Aquila's Santa Maria di Collemaggio
Santa Maria di Collemaggio
every 28–29 August is celebrated the Perdonanza Celestiniana, remembering the indulgentia, issued by Pope Celestine V
Pope Celestine V
to any who, "truly repentant and confessed" would visit that Church from the vespers of the vigil to the vispers of 29 August.[31] Sulmona's Holy Week
Holy Week
is commemorated with big traditional celebrations and rituals, such as 'La Madonna che Scappa in Piazza', where a huge statue of the Madonna, carried by a group of Sulmonesi part of Confraternities, runs through the square towards her Son resurrected.[32] At Cocullo, in the province of L'Aquila, is yearly held the 'Festa dei serpari' in which the patron saint's statue covered by snakes is transported in a procession, it attracts thousands of both Italian and foreign visitors. In many Abruzzo villages in January is celebrated the Anthony the Great's feast with massive and scenic bonfires.[33] In the past, the region of Abruzzo was well known for the transumanza, the migratory movement of sheep principally south to the region of Puglia
Puglia
during the cold winter months.[34] The Feast of St. Biagio, the protector of the throat and of wool dealers, is the most widespread in Abruzzo. One of the most interesting and engaging rites takes place on 3 February in Taranta Peligna where every year since the sixteenth century an evocative ritual is carried out, entailing the distribution of "panicelle", that are small loaves, made of flour and water, in the shape of a blessing hand, which are distributed to the faithful. Between the province of Teramo
Teramo
and L'Aquila, under the Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
Tunnel are found the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso(LNGS) of the INFN, one of the three underground astroparticle laboratories in Europe. Interamnia World Cup the largest international youth handball competition worldwide takes place on a yearly basis in Teramo. It will reach its 42nd edition in July 2014.[35] Amongst Abruzzo
Abruzzo
historical people there are the Roman orator Asinius Pollio, Latin
Latin
poets Sallust
Sallust
and Ovid
Ovid
who were born in L'Aquila
L'Aquila
and Sulmona
Sulmona
respectively, Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus
a Roman senator and a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and Pontius Pilate who was born in the province of Teramo
Teramo
and is best known for authorizing the crucifixion of Jesus. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
religious personalities include Saint Berardo, John of Capistrano
John of Capistrano
who led a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, Thomas of Celano
Celano
author of three hagiographies about Saint Francis of Assisi, Alessandro Valignano
Alessandro Valignano
who introduced Catholicism
Catholicism
to the Far East
Far East
and Japan; the Polish Pope John Paul II loved the mountains of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
where he would retire often and pray in the church of San Pietro della Ienca. When he died Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz, gave the local Abruzzo
Abruzzo
community of some of the late pontiff's blood as a token of the love he had felt for the mountainous area.[36] The greateast Italian poet of the 20th century Gabriele D'Annunzio was from Pescara, other very important Abruzzo personalities in the field of humanities include poet Ignazio Silone, director Ennio Flaiano
Ennio Flaiano
who co-wrote La dolce vita, philosopher Benedetto Croce, composer Sir Paolo Tosti
Paolo Tosti
and the sculptor Venanzo Crocetti. American artists and celebrities such as Madonna, Michael Bublé, Dean Martin, Bradley Cooper, Perry Como, Henry Mancini, Nancy Pelosi, Rocky Marciano, Rocky Mattioli, Bruno Sammartino, Mario Batali, John and Dan Fante, Tommy Lasorda, Dan Marino
Dan Marino
have publicly boased their Abruzzo origins. Important international movies shot in Abruzzo
Abruzzo
include George Clooney's The American, Jean-Jacques Annaud's The name of the Rose, Fellini's La Strada
La Strada
and I Vitelloni, Schwarzenegger's Red Sonja, Ladyhawke, King David, Francesco, Keoma, The Barbarians, The Fox and the Child and Krull. Medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
hill towns[edit]

The fortress of Civitella is the most visited monument in Abruzzo

View of Casoli

Roccascalegna
Roccascalegna
fortress

Medieval village of Scanno

Before the earthquakes Abruzzo
Abruzzo
was the region with the highest number of castels and hill towns, but still today it holds many of Italy's best-preserved medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
hill towns that rival those in Umbria
Umbria
and Tuscany. Abruzzo
Abruzzo
boasts indeed twenty of The most beautiful villages in Italy, 2nd only to Umbria
Umbria
which has 22.[37] These awards are not just for aesthetic beauty but also are for art and culture, historical importance and livability. The abrupt decline of Abruzzo's agricultural economy in the early to mid-20th-century saved some of the region's most beautiful hill towns from the onslaught of modern development. Many lie entirely within regional and national parks. Among the most well preserved are Castel del Monte and Santo Stefano di Sessanio, which lie in the Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
National Park on the edge of the high plain of Campo Imperatore
Campo Imperatore
and nestled beneath the Apennines' highest peaks; both hill towns, which were ruled by the Medicis for over a century-and-a-half, have relatively little tourism. Between the two towns sits Rocca Calascio, the ruin of an ancient fortress popular with film makers. Both Monteferrante
Monteferrante
and Roccascalegna
Roccascalegna
are two best-representing Abruzzo
Abruzzo
villages in the province of Chieti. Within the Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
National Park is also found Castelli, an ancient pottery center whose artisans produced ceramics for most of the royal houses of Europe. Civitella del Tronto
Civitella del Tronto
played a crucial role in the history of the unification of Italy. The fortress of Civitella is today the most visited monument in the whole Abruzzo
Abruzzo
region.[38] Other medieval hill towns located fully within Abruzzo's park system are Pacentro
Pacentro
in the Maiella National Park
Maiella National Park
and Pescasseroli
Pescasseroli
in the Abruzzo National Park. Pacentro, which features a 14th-century castle with two intact towers, has been little touched by modernization. The Shrine of Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows, in the province of Teramo, with average of 2 million visitors per year is one of the 15 most visited sanctuaries in the world.[39] Capestrano, a small characteristic town in the province of L'Aquila, is the hometown of Saint John of Capistrano, Franciscan friar and Catholic priest, as well as the namesake of the Franciscan missions San Juan Capistrano in Southern California, the mission Mission San Juan Capistrano
Mission San Juan Capistrano
(Texas) and the city of San Juan Capistrano in Orange County.

The duomo of San Flaviano, centre of the ideal city design of Giulia.

In the last twenty years, studies showed Giulia (the name of the city founded in 1471 by Giulio Antonio Acquaviva) was an example of Renaissance
Renaissance
ideal city, following the experiment of Pienza
Pienza
(1462), and the new theaching of Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
and Francesco Di Giorgio Martini. It's thought the project was realized by Baccio Pontelli in a first time and the same Francesco Di Giorgio Martini in a second, because of the bond between the founder of Giulia and the most important courts of the time ( Urbino
Urbino
in specific). But these names has been retracted and studies are underway.[40] The proximity to Rome, the protected natural reserves and landscapes which award the region as the greenest in Europe, the presence of some of the most beautiful Italian villages, its rich and heterogeneous gastronomy along with a long history of deep-rooted local tradition and authentic Italian culture
Italian culture
make Abruzzo
Abruzzo
rank fifth among the Italian regions by tourist arrivals after Calabria, Marche, Sardinia and Trentino. In 2010, arrivals totalled 6,381,067 Italian and 925,884 foreign.[41] In 2015, the American organization Live and Invest Overseas included Abruzzo
Abruzzo
in the list of World's Top 21 Overseas Retirement Havens. The study was based on such factors like climate, infrastructure, health care, safety, taxes, cost of living and more.[42] Universities[edit]

Campus of University "Gabriele d'Annunzio"

There are three universities in the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
region:

University of L'Aquila D'Annunzio University of Chieti–Pescara University of Teramo

Harvard University
Harvard University
bases an intensive summer Italian language
Italian language
and culture program in Vasto, a resort town on Abruzzo's southern coast.[43] Dialects[edit] The regional accents of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
include Teramano, Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico and Abruzzese Occidentale. The first two form part of the dialect of southern Italy
Italy
also known simply as "Neapolitan" due to the region having been part of the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
and the Two Sicilies, while the Italian of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
Province is related to the Osco-Umbro dialect of central Italy, including the one of Rome. The dialects spoken in the Abruzzo
Abruzzo
region can be divided into three main groups:

Sabine dialect, in the province of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
(central Italian dialects) Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Adriatic
Adriatic
dialect, in the province of Teramo, Pescara
Pescara
and Chieti, that is virtually abandoned in the province of Ascoli Piceno (southern Italian dialects) Abruzzo
Abruzzo
western dialect, in the province of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
(southern Italian dialects)

Cuisine[edit]

"Arrosticini" of Pescara
Pescara
valley

See also: Cuisine of Abruzzo

" Spaghettoni
Spaghettoni
alla chitarra" of Teramo

Typical "bocconotto" of Castel Frentano

"Sise delle Monache" from Guardiagrele

Renowned for its variety and richness due to the heterogeneity of its territory, Abruzzo's cuisine is among the best in Italy. In 2013 an Italian organization Confesercenti survey of foreign tourists showed that Abruzzo
Abruzzo
is the best Italian region to eat in.[44] Both the agricultural and coastal aspects of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
have contributed to its cuisine. Due to the mountains, much of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
was isolated from international influence until the 20th century. As a result, the region's cuisine remained unique.[45] Popular dishes[edit] One of the most popular regional dishes is Spaghetti
Spaghetti
alla chitarra which is made by pressing or cutting pasta through a chitarra, an implement to form long thin noodles similar to spaghetti. The pasta is served with a tomato-based sauce, often flavored with peppers, pork, goose, or lamb. This dish is complemented by regional side dishes, such as the bean and noodle soup, sagne e fagioli. This soup is traditionally flavored with tomatoes, garlic, oil, and peperoncini. Other popular dishes include:

Gnocchi
Gnocchi
carrati, flavored with bacon, eggs and pecorino cheese Scrippelle, a rustic French-style crêpe served either mbusse (a type of soup) or used to form a sort of soufflé with some ragù and stuffed with chicken liver, meatballs, hard-boiled eggs, and cheese Pastuccia, a polenta stew with sausage, eggs, and cheese

Across the region, roast lamb is enjoyed in several variations. Some of these variations include:

Arrosticini, a skewered lamb dish Pecora al cotturo, lamb stuffed with a variety of mountain herbs and cooked in a copper pot Lamb cooked whole in a bread oven Agnello cacio e ovo, a lamb-based fricassee

Seafood is also popular, especially in coastal areas. The variety of fish available to the area has resulted in several fish-based Brodetti (broths), coming from such places as Vasto, Giulianova, and Pescara. These broths are often made by cooking fish, flavored with tomatoes, herbs, and peperoncino, in an earthenware pot. Rustic pizzas are also very common. Some of these are:

Easter Pizza, a rustic cake with cheese and pepper from the Teramo area Fiadoni from Chieti, dough of eggs and cheese well risen, cooked in the oven in a thin casing of pastry A rustic tart pastry filled with everything imaginable: eggs, fresh cheeses, ricotta, vegetables, and all sorts of flavorings and spices.

Also from Teramo
Teramo
are the spreadable sausages flavored with nutmeg, liver sausages tasting of garlic and spices. The ventricina from the Vasto
Vasto
area is made with large pieces of fat and lean pork, pressed and seasoned with powdered sweet peppers and fennel and all encased in the dehydrated stomach of the pig itself. Atri and Rivisondoli
Rivisondoli
are famous for cheeses. Mozzarella, either fresh or seasoned, made from ewe's milk, although a great number of lesser known varieties of these cheeses can be found all over Abruzzo
Abruzzo
and Molise. Sweets[edit] The sweets of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
are world-famous and include:

Confetti, sugar-coated almonds, from Sulmona Torrone Nurzia, a chocolate nougat from L'Aquila Parrozzo , a cake-like treat made from a mixture of crushed almonds, and coated in chocolate. Ferratelle
Ferratelle
(also known as Pizzelle). A wafer cookie, often flavored with anise Croccante, a type of nougat made from almonds and caramelized suger, often flavored with lemon[46]

A Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
wine labelled as being made from old vines.

Olive
Olive
oil[edit] Best-known is the extra-virgin olive oil produced in Colline Teramane ( Teramo
Teramo
hills), marked by the quality level DOP and considered one of the best in Italy.[47] Wines
Wines
and liquors[edit] Renowned wines like Montepulciano DOCG and Trebbiano d'Abruzzo
Trebbiano d'Abruzzo
DOC are judged to be amongst the world's finest.[48] In 2012, a bottle of Trebbiano d'Abruzzo
Trebbiano d'Abruzzo
ranked No. 1 in the top 50 Italian wine
Italian wine
award.[49] The region is also well known for the production of liquors such as Centerbe, Limoncello, Ratafia
Ratafia
and Genziana.

Gallery[edit]

Campo Imperatore

Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Chamois

San Vito Chietino

Apollo Butterfly in Gran Sasso

Lake Scanno

Maiella
Maiella
massif

Ponte sul mare in Pescara

Campo Felice

Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Wild boars

Ortona
Ortona
seaside

Prati di Tivo ski slopes

Monteferrante

Rocca Calascio

Duomo of Teramo

Chieti

L'Aquila
L'Aquila
99 Spouts Fountain

San Bernardino Basilica in L'Aquila

L'Aquila

Lanciano
Lanciano
basilica

Church of SS Annunziata in Sulmona

Sulmona

Celano

Casalbordino

Guardiagrele

Ortona

Shrine of Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows

Palazzo Savini in Teramo

See also[edit]

List of museums in Abruzzo 2009 L'Aquila
L'Aquila
earthquake

References[edit]

^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". European Commission. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "EUROPA Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-08.  ^ a b Paradosso evidenziato da Ignazio Silone, cfr. Costantino Felice (2010). "Quadri ambientali e identità regionale". In Donzelli. Le trappole dell'identità: l'Abruzzo, le catastrofi, l' Italia
Italia
di oggi. Rome. p. 41. ISBN 978-88-6036-436-4.  ^ "Laquilacapitale". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015.  ^ "Parco Nazionale d' Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Lazio
Lazio
e Molise
Molise
– Natura – Fauna".  ^ "I parchi in Abruzzo".  ^ "Abruzzo: Forte e Gentile, definizione di Primo Levi, giornalista e diplomatico, nel sito di vastospa". Archived from the original on 2 September 2012.  ^ Journal of Anthropological Sciences, "Towards a re-appraisal of the Early Neolithic skeleton from Lama dei Peligni (Abruzzo, Italy" by Miliano Bruner and Giorgio Manzi, Vol. 81 (2003), pp. 69–78 (Abruzzo, Italy) ^ a b "WineCountry.it Abruzzo
Abruzzo
wine region of Italy". winecountry.it. Retrieved 8 October 2009.  ^ " Italy
Italy
Guide: Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Region". Comuni-Italiani.it.  ^ "ABRUZZO" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014.  ^ Sam Dunham (2008-08-17). " Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Annual Weather Forecast". Life in Abruzzo. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ a b c "The Region Abruzzo".  ^ "Region Abruzzo". Immobiliare Caserio resources.  ^ "Parco Nazionale d' Abruzzo
Abruzzo
(in English)". Retrieved 29 May 2013.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ [2][dead link] ^ [3][dead link] ^ [4][dead link] ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-25.  ^ "EUROPA Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27, GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania to 336% in Inner London". Europa (web portal). 19 February 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "Economic and energy framework in 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2010.  ^ Helg, Rodolfo; Peri, Giovanni; Viesti, Gianfranco. " Abruzzo
Abruzzo
and Sicily: Catching up and lagging behind" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ " Abruzzo
Abruzzo
and Sicily: Catching up and lagging behind, EIB Papers vol. 5, No. 1 (2000)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "Eurostat". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 26 January 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2009.  ^ J. Bastianich & D. Lynch Vino Italiano pg 280–283 Crown Publishing 2005 ISBN 1-4000-9774-6 ^ "Abruzzo". Italian Tourism Official Website.  ^ a b "Eurostat". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009.  ^ " Abruzzo International Airport
Abruzzo International Airport
– flights information Pescara, Abruzzo, Italy". Abruzzoairport.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "Marina of Pescara". Marinape.com. 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "The Perdonanza with images of 1998, 1999 and 2000".  ^ "IN SULMONA, EASTER DRAMA IN THE PIAZZA". The New York Times. 7 April 1985.  ^ Delicious Italy
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Team. "Delicious Italy
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Easter in Sulmona".  ^ Lucio D'Andrea. "Along the Shepherd's Tracks Tratturi and Transumanza" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011.  ^ "Interamnia World Cup".  ^ "This page has been removed". The Guardian.  ^ "I Borghi più belli d'Italia".  ^ "Serenissimi e borbonici insieme per disfare l'Italia".  ^ "Shrine of Saint Gabriele dell'Addolorata – Isola del Gran Sassoo". turismo.provincia.teramo.it.  ^ RAIMONDI, Umberto. "Guida turistico-culturale di Giulianova: La città ideale di Giuliantonio Acquaviva – Abruzzo... una regione da vivere e... da scoprire".  ^ "Movimento dei clienti negli esercizi ricettivi – Dati definitivi". Retrieved 12 August 2012.  ^ Kathleen Peddicord. "World's Top 21 Retirement Havens". Live and Invest Overseas.  ^ "Harvard Summer Program in Umbria
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and Abruzzo, Italy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2014.  ^ "È l' Abruzzo
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la regione dove si mangia meglio". Bompensa Oleificio e Azienda Agricola. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014.  ^ "Abruzzo". MarioBatali.com.  ^ " Abruzzo
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abruzzo.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Abruzzo.

Official site of the regional administration Official Abruzzo
Abruzzo
tourist board website Map of Abruzzo In the land of bears and castles, Financial Times, 29 June 2007 Italy
Italy
as it used to be The Guardian, 16 April 2005 Life in Abruzzo, a chronicle of Abruzzo
Abruzzo
life written from a hill village in the Gran Sasso
Gran Sasso
Mountains Things to do in Abruzzo

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Coordinates: 42°21′58″N 12°23′40″E / 42.36611°N 12.39444°E / 42.36611; 12.39444

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