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The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites
Israelites
and the worship of the God
God
of Abraham. The term derives from a figure from the Bible
Bible
known as Abraham.[1] Abrahamic religion
Abrahamic religion
was able to spread globally through Christianity
Christianity
being adopted by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 4th century and Islam
Islam
by the Islamic Empire from the 7th century onward. As a consequence, today the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
are one of the major divisions in comparative religion (along with Indian, Iranian, and East Asian religions).[2] The major Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
in chronological order of founding are Judaism
Judaism
in the 7th century BCE,[3] Christianity
Christianity
in the 1st century CE, and Islam
Islam
in the 7th century CE. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
Judaism
are the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
with the greatest numbers of adherents.[4][5][6] Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
with fewer adherents include the faiths descended from Yazdânism
Yazdânism
(the Yezidi, Yarsani and Alevi faiths), Samaritanism,[7] the Druze
Druze
faith (often classified as a branch of Isma'ili Shi'i Islam),[8] Bábism,[9][self-published source] the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
and Rastafari.[10][11] As of 2005[update], estimates classified 54% (3.6 billion people) of the world's population as adherents of an Abrahamic religion, about 32% as adherents of other religions, and 16% as adherents of no organized religion. Christianity
Christianity
claims 33% of the world's population, Islam
Islam
has 21%, Judaism
Judaism
has 0.2%[12][13] and the Bahá'í Faith represents around 0.1%.[14][15]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Challenges to the terms "Abrahamic religions" and "Abrahamic traditions" 3 Religions

3.1 Judaism 3.2 Christianity 3.3 Islam 3.4 Other Abrahamic religions

3.4.1 Bahá'í Faith 3.4.2 Bábism 3.4.3 Samaritanism 3.4.4 Yazdânism
Yazdânism
(the Yezidi, Yarsani and Alevi faiths) 3.4.5 Shabakism 3.4.6 Mandeanism 3.4.7 Druze
Druze
faith 3.4.8 Rastafari

4 Abrahamic ethno-religious groups 5 Origins and history 6 Common aspects

6.1 Monotheism 6.2 Theological continuity 6.3 Scripture 6.4 Ethical orientation 6.5 Eschatological world view 6.6 Importance of Jerusalem 6.7 Significance of Abraham

7 Differences

7.1 God 7.2 Scriptures 7.3 Eschatology 7.4 Worship
Worship
and religious rites 7.5 Circumcision 7.6 Food restrictions 7.7 Sabbath observance 7.8 Proselytism

8 Dialogue between Abrahamic religions 9 Violent conflicts

9.1 Between Abrahamic religions 9.2 Between branches of the same Abrahamic religion 9.3 Between Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
and non-adherents

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Citations

13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit]

Major religious groups
Major religious groups
as a percentage of world population

It was suggested by Louis Massignon
Louis Massignon
that the phrase, "Abrahamic religion" means that all these religions come from one spiritual source.[4] Paul referred to Abraham
Abraham
as the "father of us all".[Rom. 4] There is a Quranic term, millat Ibrahim 'religion of Ibrahim',[5][6] indicating that Islam
Islam
sees itself as standing in a tradition of religious practice from Abraham.[16] Jewish tradition claims that the Jews
Jews
are descended from Abraham, and adherents of Judaism
Judaism
derive their spiritual identity from Abraham
Abraham
as the first of the three "fathers" or biblical Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. All the major Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
claim a direct lineage to Abraham, although in Christianity
Christianity
this is understood in spiritual terms:

Abraham
Abraham
is recorded in the Torah
Torah
as the ancestor of the Israelites through his son Isaac, born to Sarah
Sarah
through a promise made in Genesis.[Gen. 17:16][17] Most Christians
Christians
affirm the ancestral origin of the Jews
Jews
in Abraham, but, as gentiles, they consider themselves as grafted into the family tree under the New Covenant: see significance of Abraham
Abraham
for Christians
Christians
for details. It is the Islamic tradition that Muhammad, as an Arab, is descended from Abraham's son Ishmael. Jewish tradition also equates the descendants of Ishmael, Ishmaelites, with Arabs, as the descendants of Isaac
Isaac
by Jacob, who was also later known as Israel, are the Israelites.[18] The Báb, regarded by Bahá'í's as a predecessor to Bahá'u'lláh, was a Sayyid, or a direct descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
and thus traces his ancestry to Abraham's son Ishmael. Tradition also holds that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is a descendant of Abraham
Abraham
through his third wife, Keturah.[19]

Adam
Adam
Dodds argues that the term "Abrahamic faiths", while helpful, can be considered misleading, as it conveys an unspecified historical and theological commonality that is problematic on closer examination. While there is commonality among the religions, in large measure their shared ancestry is peripheral to their respective foundational beliefs and thus conceals crucial differences.[20] For example, the common Christian
Christian
beliefs of Incarnation, Trinity
Trinity
and the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
are not accepted by Judaism
Judaism
or Islam
Islam
(see for example Islamic view of Jesus' death). There are key beliefs in both Islam
Islam
and Judaism that are not shared by most of Christianity
Christianity
(such as strict monotheism and adherence to Divine Law), and key beliefs of Islam, Christianity, and the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
not shared by Judaism
Judaism
(such as the prophetic and Messianic position of Jesus, respectively).[21] Challenges to the terms "Abrahamic religions" and "Abrahamic traditions"[edit] The appropriateness of grouping Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Islam
by the terms "Abrahamic religions" or "Abrahamic traditions" has been challenged in the following books. In 2012, Alan L. Berger, Professor of Judaic Studies at Florida Atlantic University,[22] in his Preface to Trialogue and Terror: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Islam
after 9/11 wrote that there are "commonalities", but "there are essential differences between the Abrahamic traditions" both "historical and theological". Although " Judaism
Judaism
birthed both Christianity
Christianity
and Islam", the "three monotheistic faiths went their separate ways". The three faiths "understand the role of Abraham" in "differing ways", and the relationships between Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
and between Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
are "uneven". Also, the three traditions are "demographically unbalanced and ideologically diverse".[23] Also in 2012, Aaron W. Hughes published a book about the category Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
as an example of "abuses of history." He said that only recently the category "Abrahamic religions" has come into use and that it is a "vague referent." It is "largely a theological neologism" and "an artificial and imprecise" term. Combining the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Muslim
religions into this one category might serve the purpose of encouraging "interfaith trialogue", but it is not true to the "historical record". Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
is "an ahistorical category". There are "certain family resemblances" among these three religions, but the "amorphous" term Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
prevents an understanding of the "complex nature" of the interactions among them. Furthermore, the three religions do not share the same story of Abraham. For these and other reasons, Hughes argued that the term should not be used, at least in academic circles.[24] Religions[edit] Judaism[edit] Main article: Jewish history

A Jewish Rebbe holds Torah

One of Judaism's primary texts is the Tanakh, an account of the Israelites' relationship with God
God
from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple
Second Temple
(c. 535 BCE). Abraham
Abraham
is hailed as the first Hebrew
Hebrew
and the father of the Jewish people. One of his great-grandsons was Judah, from whom the religion ultimately gets its name. The Israelites
Israelites
were initially a number of tribes who lived in the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and Kingdom of Judah. After being conquered and exiled, some members of the Kingdom of Judah eventually returned to Israel. They later formed an independent state under the Hasmonean dynasty
Hasmonean dynasty
in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, before becoming a client kingdom of the Roman Empire, which also conquered the state and dispersed its inhabitants. From the 2nd to the 6th centuries Jews
Jews
wrote the Talmud, a lengthy work of legal rulings and Biblical exegesis which, along with the Tanakh, is a key text of Judaism. Christianity[edit] Main article: History of Christianity

Central Italian School 16th century Head of God
God
the Father

Christianity
Christianity
began in the 1st century as a sect within Judaism initially led by Jesus. His followers viewed him as the Messiah, as in the Confession of Peter; after his crucifixion and death they came to view him as God
God
incarnate,[25] who was resurrected and will return at the end of time to judge the living and the dead and create an eternal Kingdom of God. Within a few decades the new movement split from Judaism. After several periods of alternating persecution and relative peace vis a vis the Roman authorities under different administrations, Christianity
Christianity
became the state church of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 380, but has been split into various churches from its beginning. An attempt was made by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to unify Christendom, but this formally failed with the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
of 1054. In the 16th century, the birth and growth of Protestantism
Protestantism
further split Christianity
Christianity
into many denominations. Islam[edit] Main article: History of Islam

The tomb of Abraham, a cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.

Islam
Islam
is based on the teachings of the Quran. Although it considers Muhammad
Muhammad
to be the Seal of the prophets, Islam
Islam
teaches that every prophet preached Islam, providing a historical back-story for the religion by independently recognizing Jewish and Christian
Christian
prophets, and adding others. The teachings of Quran
Quran
are presented as the direct revelation and words of Allah. Islam
Islam
(meaning "submission", in the sense of submission to God) is universal (membership is open to anyone); like Judaism, it has a strictly unitary conception of God, called tawhid, or "strict" or "simple" monotheism.[26] Other Abrahamic religions[edit] Historically, the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
have been considered to be Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. Some of this is due to the age and larger size of these three. The other, similar religions were seen as either too new to judge as being truly in the same class, or too small to be of significance to the category. However, some of the restriction of Abrahamic to these three is due only to tradition in historical classification. Therefore, restricting the category to these three religions has come under criticism.[27] The religions listed below here claim Abrahamic classification, either by the religions themselves, or by scholars who study them. Bahá'í Faith[edit] Main article: Bahá'í Faith

Nine-point star of Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith, which dates only to the late 19th century, has sometimes been listed as Abrahamic by scholarly sources in various fields.[28][29][30] Though smaller and younger than the well-known Abrahamic religions, the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
is significant because of its activities, distribution and numbers. The religion is almost entirely contained in a single, organized community with international, national, regional, and local administration, without sects or subdivisions, and is recognized as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity.[31][32] The Association of Religion
Religion
Data Archives estimated some 7.3 million Bahá'ís in 2005[33] and the only religion to consistently surpass population growth in each major region of the planet over the last century, often growing at twice the rate of the population.[34] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(1817–1892), the founder, affirms the highest religious station for Abraham
Abraham
and generally for prophets mentioned among the other Abrahamic religions,[35] and has claimed a lineage of descent from Abraham
Abraham
through Keturah
Keturah
and Sarah.[10][36][37] Additionally Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
actually did lose a son, Mírzá Mihdí.[38] Bahá'u'lláh, then in prison, eulogized his son and connected the subsequent easing of restrictions to his son's dying prayer and compared it to the intended sacrifice of Abraham's son.[39] The religion also shares many of the same commonalities of Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam.[35][40][41] The religion emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God,[42][43][44] the station of the founders of the major religions as Manifestations of God
Manifestations of God
come with revelation[43][45][46] as a series of interventions by God
God
in human history that has been progressive, and each preparing the way for the next.[30] There is no definitive list of Manifestations of God, but Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
referred to several personages as Manifestations; they include individuals generally not recognized by other Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
– Krishna, Zoroaster, and Buddha[47] – and general statements go further to other cultures.[48] Bábism[edit] Bábism[49] (Persian: بابیه‎, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith[50][51] (Arabic: بيانة, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God[52][53] who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God
Manifestations of God
(Arabic: ظهور الله). It is an extremely small religion, with no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of which are concentrated in Iran.[54][55][56] It was founded by ‘Ali Muhammad
Muhammad
Shirazi who first assumed the title of Báb (lit. "Gate") from which the religion gets its name, out of the belief that he was the gate to the Twelfth Imam.[57] However throughout his ministry his titles and claims underwent much evolution as the Báb
Báb
progressively outlined his teachings.[58] Founded in 1844, Bábism
Bábism
flourished in Persia until 1852, then lingered on in exile in the Ottoman Empire, especially Cyprus, as well as underground. An anomaly amongst Islamic messianic movements, the Bábí movement signaled a break with Islam, beginning a new religious system with its own unique laws, teachings, and practices. While Bábism
Bábism
was violently opposed by both clerical and government establishments, it led to the founding of the Bahá'í Faith, whose followers consider the religion founded by the Báb
Báb
as a predecessor to their own. Samaritanism[edit] Samaritanism
Samaritanism
is based on some of the same books used as the basis of Judaism
Judaism
but differs from the latter. Samaritan religious works include the Samaritan version of the Torah, the Memar Markah, the Samaritan liturgy, and Samaritan law codes and biblical commentaries. Many[who?] claim the Samaritans
Samaritans
appear to have a text of the Torah
Torah
as old as the Masoretic Text; scholars have various theories concerning the actual relationships between these three texts. Yazdânism
Yazdânism
(the Yezidi, Yarsani and Alevi faiths)[edit] Yazdânism, or the Cult of Angels, is a proposed pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds. The term was introduced by Kurdish scholar Mehrdad Izady to represent what he considers the "original" religion of the Kurds[59] as the primary inhabitants of the Zagros Mountains, until their increasing Islamization
Islamization
in the course of the 10th century.[citation needed] According to Izady, Yazdânism
Yazdânism
is now continued in the denominations of Yazidism, Yarsanism, and Alevism.[60] The three traditions subsumed under the term Yazdânism
Yazdânism
are primarily practiced in relatively isolated communities, from Khurasan to Anatolia
Anatolia
and parts of western Iran. The concept of Yazdânism
Yazdânism
has found a wide perception both within and beyond Kurdish nationalist discourses, but has been disputed by other recognized scholars of Iranian religions. Well established, however, are the "striking" and "unmistakable" similarities between the Yazidis and the Yaresan or Ahl-e Haqq,[61] some of which can be traced back to elements of an ancient faith that was probably dominant among Western Iranians[62] and likened to practices of pre-Zoroastrian Mithraic religion.[63] Mehrdad Izady defines the Yazdanism as an ancient Hurrian religion and states that Mitannis could have introduced some of the Vedic
Vedic
tradition that appears to be manifest in Yazdanism.[64] Shabakism[edit] Shabakism is the name given to the beliefs and practices of the Shabak people of Kurdistan region
Kurdistan region
and around Mosul
Mosul
in Iraq. A majority of Shabaks regard themselves as Shia, and a minority identify as Sunnis.[65][66][67][68] Despite this, their actual faith and rituals differ from Islam, and have characteristics that make them distinct from neighboring Muslim
Muslim
populations. These include features from Christianity
Christianity
including confession, and the consumption of alcohol, and the fact that Shabaks often go on pilgrimage to Yazidi
Yazidi
shrines.[69] Nevertheless, the Shabak people
Shabak people
also go on pilgrimages to Shia holy cities such as Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala, and follow many Shiite teachings.[70] The organization of Shabakism appears to be much like that of a Sufi order: adult laymen (Murids) are bound to spiritual guides (pîrs or Murshids) who are knowledgeable in matters of religious doctrine and ritual. There are several ranks of such pîrs; at the top stands the Baba, or supreme head of the order. Theoretically individuals can choose their own pîr, but in practice the pir families often become associated with lay families over several generations.[71] Shabakism combines elements of Sufism
Sufism
with the uniquely Shabak interpretation of "divine reality." According to Shabaks, this divine reality supersedes the literal, or Shar'ia, interpretation of the Quran. Shabaks comprehend divine reality through the mediation of the "Pir" or spiritual guide, who also performs Shabak rituals.[72] The structure of these mediatory relationships closely resembles that of the Yarsan.[73] The primary Shabak religious text is the Buyruk or Kitab al-Managib ( Book
Book
of Exemplary Acts) and is written in Turkoman.[73][74] Shabaks also consider the poetry of Ismail I
Ismail I
to be revealed by God, and they recite Ismail's poetry during religious meetings.[72] Mandeanism[edit] Mandaeism
Mandaeism
or Mandaeanism (Arabic: مندائية‎ Mandāʼīyah) is a gnostic religion[75]:4 with a strongly dualistic worldview. Its adherents, the Mandaeans, revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. The Aramaic manda means "knowledge", as does Greek gnosis.[76][77] According to most scholars, Mandaeaism originated sometime in the first three centuries CE,[78] in Mesopotamia.[citation needed] They are Semites and speak a dialect of Eastern Aramaic known as Mandaic. There is a theory that they may be related to the Nabateans who were pre-Islamic pagan Arabs[79] whose territory extended into southern Iraq.[80] The religion has been practised primarily around the lower Karun, Euphrates
Euphrates
and Tigris
Tigris
and the rivers that surround the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, part of southern Iraq
Iraq
and Khuzestan Province
Khuzestan Province
in Iran. There are thought to be between 60,000 and 70,000 Mandaeans
Mandaeans
worldwide.[81] Until the 2003 Iraq
Iraq
war, almost all of them lived in Iraq.[82] Many Mandaean Iraqis
Iraqis
have since fled their country (as have many other Iraqis) because of the turmoil created by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation by U.S. armed forces, and the related rise in sectarian violence by Muslim
Muslim
extremists.[83] By 2007, the population of Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iraq
Iraq
had fallen to approximately 5,000.[82] The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
have remained separate and intensely private. Reports of them and of their religion have come primarily from outsiders: particularly from Julius Heinrich Petermann, a scholar in Iranian studies,[citation needed] as well as from Nicolas Siouffi, a Syrian Christian
Christian
who was the French vice-consul in Mosul
Mosul
in 1887,[84][85] and British cultural anthropologist Lady E. S. Drower. Druze
Druze
faith[edit] The Druze
Druze
faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion
Abrahamic religion
based on the teachings of high Islamic figures like Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad
Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad
and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Greek philosophers such as Plato
Plato
and Aristotle.[86][87] The Epistles of Wisdom
Epistles of Wisdom
is the foundational text of the Druze
Druze
faith.[88] The Druze
Druze
faith incorporates elements of Islam's Ismailism,[89] Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Pythagoreanism, Hinduism (according to some),[90][91] and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness.[91] The Druze
Druze
follow theophany, and believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul.[92] At the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (Al Aaqal Al Kulli).[93] The Druze
Druze
Faith
Faith
is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili Shi'i Islam. Rastafari[edit] Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion. Classified as both a new religious movement and social movement, it developed in Jamaica
Jamaica
during the 1930s. It lacks any centralised authority and there is much heterogeneity among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas. Rastafari
Rastafari
refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible, as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who partially resides within each individual. The former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is given central importance. Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah
Jah
on Earth and as the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Christ. Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual. Rastafari
Rastafari
is Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora, which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or "Babylon". Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora
African diaspora
in either Ethiopia
Ethiopia
or Africa more widely, referring to this continent as the Promised Land
Promised Land
of "Zion". Other interpretations shift focus on to the adoption of an Afrocentric attitude while living outside of Africa. Rastas refer to their practices as "livity". Communal meetings are known as "groundations", and are typified by music, chanting, discussions, and the smoking of cannabis, the latter being regarded as a sacrament with beneficial properties. Rastas place emphasis on what they regard as living 'naturally', adhering to ital dietary requirements, allowing their hair to form into dreadlocks, and following patriarchal gender roles. Rastafari
Rastafari
originated among impoverished and socially disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities in 1930s Jamaica. Its Afrocentric ideology was largely a reaction against Jamaica's then-dominant British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement
Back-to-Africa movement
promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey. The movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell, proclaimed that the crowning of Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
as Emperor of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in 1930 fulfilled a Biblical prophecy. By the 1950s, Rastafari's counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the 1960s and 1970s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica
Jamaica
and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley. Enthusiasm for Rastafari
Rastafari
declined in the 1980s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
and Marley. The Rasta movement is organised on a largely cellular basis. There are several denominations, or "Mansions of Rastafari", the most prominent of which are the Nyahbinghi, Bobo Ashanti, Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, and the Twelve Tribes of Israel, each of which offers different interpretations of Rasta belief. There are an estimated 700,000 to 1 million Rastas across the world; the largest population is in Jamaica
Jamaica
although communities can be found in most of the world's major population centres. Abrahamic ethno-religious groups[edit] Some small religions, such as Samaritanism,[94] Druzes,[93] Rastafari movement,[10] and the Bábí Faith, are Abrahamic. These religions are regional, with Samaritans
Samaritans
largely in Israel
Israel
and the West Bank,[95] Druze
Druze
largely in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan,[96] and Rastafari largely in Jamaica.[97] Origins and history[edit] See also: Ancient Canaanite religion, Yahweh, and Religion
Religion
in pre-Islamic Arabia The civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
influenced some religious texts, particularly the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
and the Book
Book
of Genesis in particular; Abraham
Abraham
is said to have originated in Mesopotamia.[98] Judaism
Judaism
regards itself as the religion of the descendants of Jacob,[n 1] a grandson of Abraham. It has a strictly unitary view of God, and the central holy book for almost all branches is the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
as elucidated in the Oral Torah. In the 19th century and 20th centuries Judaism
Judaism
developed a small number of branches, of which the most significant are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. Christianity
Christianity
began as a sect of Judaism[n 2] in the Mediterranean Basin[n 3] of the first century CE and evolved into a separate religion—Christianity—with distinctive beliefs and practices. Jesus
Jesus
is the central figure of Christianity, considered by almost all denominations to be God
God
the Son, one person of the Trinity. See God
God
in Christianity.[n 4] The Christian biblical canons
Christian biblical canons
are usually held to be the ultimate authority, alongside sacred tradition in some denominations (such as the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Eastern Orthodox Church). Over many centuries, Christianity
Christianity
divided into three main branches (Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant), dozens of significant denominations, and hundreds of smaller ones. Islam
Islam
arose in the Arabian Peninsula[n 5] in the 7th century CE
7th century CE
with a strictly unitary view of God.[n 6] Muslims hold the Quran
Quran
to be the ultimate authority, as revealed and elucidated through the teachings and practices[n 7] of a central, but not divine prophet, Muhammad. The Islamic faith considers all prophets and messengers from Adam
Adam
through the final messenger (Muhammad) to carry the same Islamic monotheistic principles. Soon after its founding, Islam
Islam
split into two main branches ( Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a), each of which now has a number of denominations. The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
began within the context of Shi'a
Shi'a
Islam
Islam
in 19th-century Persia, after a merchant named Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází claimed divine revelation and took on the title of the Báb, or "the Gate". The Bab's ministry proclaimed the imminent advent of "He whom God
God
shall make manifest", who Bahá'í's accept as Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'í's revere the Torah, Gospels and the Quran, and the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and `Abdu’l-Bahá' are considered the central texts of the faith. A vast majority of adherents are unified under a single denomination.[99] Lesser-known Abrahamic religions, originally offshoots of Shia Islam, include Bábism[n 8] and the Druze
Druze
faith.[100] Common aspects[edit] The unifying characteristic of Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
is that all accept the tradition that God
God
revealed himself to the patriarch Abraham.[101] All are monotheistic, and conceive God
God
to be a transcendent creator and the source of moral law.[102] Their religious texts feature many of the same figures, histories, and places, although they often present them with different roles, perspectives, and meanings.[103] Believers who agree on these similarities and the common Abrahamic origin tend to also be more positive towards other Abrahamic groups.[104] In these four Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
the individual, God, and the universe are highly separate from each other. The Abrahamic religions believe in a judging, paternal, fully external god to which the individual and nature are subordinate. One seeks salvation or transcendence not by contemplating the natural world or via philosophical speculation, but by seeking to please God
God
(such as obedience with God's wishes or his law) and see divine revelation as outside of self, nature, and custom. Monotheism[edit] Main article: Monotheism All Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
claim to be monotheistic, worshiping an exclusive God, although one known by different names.[101] Each of these religions preaches that God
God
creates, is one, rules, reveals, loves, judges, punishes, and forgives.[20][need quotation to verify] However, although Christianity
Christianity
does not profess to believe in three gods—but rather in three persons, or hypostases, united in one essence—the Trinitarian doctrine, a fundamental of faith for the vast majority of Christian
Christian
denominations[citation needed], conflicts with Jewish, Muslim, and Bahá'í concepts of monotheism. Since the conception of a divine Trinity
Trinity
is not amenable to tawhid, the Islamic doctrine of monotheism, Islam
Islam
regards Christianity
Christianity
as variously polytheistic[citation needed]. Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
each revere Jesus
Jesus
(Arabic: Isa or Yasu among Muslims and Arab Christians
Arab Christians
respectively) but with vastly differing conceptions:

Christians
Christians
view Jesus
Jesus
as the saviour (and most Christians
Christians
also regard him as God
God
incarnate). Muslims see Isa as a Prophet
Prophet
of Islam[105] and Messiah. Bahá'í's rank Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah
Messiah
and as a Manifestation of God (not as God
God
incarnate, but as the presence of God).[106]

However, the worship of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God (known as shirk in Islam
Islam
and as shituf in Judaism), is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam
Islam
and Judaism
Judaism
and as misguided by the Bahá'ís. Judaism, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
also see the incarnation of God
God
into human form as a heresy.[citation needed] Theological continuity[edit] See also: Messianism All the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
affirm one eternal God
God
who created the universe, who rules history, who sends prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the divine will through inspired revelation. They also affirm that obedience to this creator deity is to be lived out historically and that one day God
God
will unilaterally intervene in human history at the Last Judgment.[citation needed] Scripture[edit] See also: Development of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
canon, Development of the Christian
Christian
biblical canon, and History of the Quran All Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
believe that God
God
guides humanity through revelation to prophets, and each religion recognizes that God
God
revealed teachings up to and including those in their own scripture. Ethical orientation[edit] See also: Ethical monotheism An ethical orientation: all these religions speak of a choice between good and evil, which is associated with obedience or disobedience to a single God
God
and to Divine Law. Eschatological world view[edit] An eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the creation of the world and the concept that God
God
works through history, and ending with a resurrection of the dead and final judgment and world to come.[107] Importance of Jerusalem[edit] See also: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Judaism, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Christianity, and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Islam Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is considered Judaism's holiest city. Its origins can be dated to 1004 BCE[108] when according to Biblical tradition David established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son Solomon
Solomon
built the First Temple
First Temple
on Mount Moriah.[109] Since the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
relates that Isaac's sacrifice took place there, Mount Moriah's importance for Jews
Jews
predates even these prominent events. Jews
Jews
thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas for the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple
Holy Temple
(the Third Temple) on mount Moriah, close the Passover
Passover
service with the wistful statement "Next year in built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has served as the only capital for the five Jewish states that have existed in Israel since 1400 BCE (the United Kingdom of Israel, the Kingdom of Judah, Yehud Medinata, the Hasmonean Kingdom, and modern Israel). It has been majority Jewish since about 1852 and continues through today.[110][111] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Christian
Christian
presence there since.[112] William R. Kenan, Jr., professor of the history of Christianity
Christianity
at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, writes that from the middle of the 4th century to the Islamic conquest in the middle of the 7th century, the Roman province of Palestine was a Christian
Christian
nation with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
its principal city.[112] According to the New Testament, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the city Jesus
Jesus
was brought to as a child to be presented at the temple[Luke 2:22] and for the feast of the Passover.[Luke 2:41] He preached and healed in Jerusalem, unceremoniously drove the money changers in disarray from the temple there, held the Last Supper
Last Supper
in an "upper room" (traditionally the Cenacle) there the night before he is said to have died on the cross, was arrested in Gethsemane. The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha, his burial nearby (traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre), and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
(even though not mentioned by name in the Quran). The Al-Aqsa
Al-Aqsa
mosque, which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Quran
Quran
and its surroundings are addressed in the Quran
Quran
as "the holy land". Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem. The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba
Kaaba
(Al-Haram Mosque), but toward Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(this was the qibla for 13 years): the qibla was switched to Kaaba
Kaaba
later on to fulfill the order of Allah
Allah
of praying in the direction of Kaaba
Kaaba
(Quran, Al-Baqarah 2:144–150). Another reason for its significance is its connection with the Miʿrāj,[113] where, according to traditional Muslim, Muhammad ascended through the Seven heavens
Seven heavens
on a winged mule named Buraq, guided by the Archangel Gabriel, beginning from the Foundation Stone on the Temple Mount, in modern times under the Dome of the Rock.[114][115] Significance of Abraham[edit] Main articles: Covenant of the pieces, Abraham
Abraham
§ Christianity, and Abraham
Abraham
in Islam

An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham
Abraham
(Genesis 15:18).[Genesis 15]

Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Islam
do not all claim Abraham
Abraham
as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs.[28] For Jews, Abraham
Abraham
is the founding patriarch of the children of Israel. God
God
promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you."[Gen. 12:2] With Abraham, God
God
entered into "an everlasting covenant throughout the ages to be God
God
to you and to your offspring to come".[Gen. 17:7] It is this covenant that makes Abraham
Abraham
and his descendants children of the covenant. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham.[citation needed] Abraham
Abraham
is primarily a revered ancestor or patriarch (referred to as Avraham Avinu (אברהם אבינו in Hebrew) " Abraham
Abraham
our father") to whom God
God
made several promises: chiefly, that he would have numberless descendants, who would receive the land of Canaan
Canaan
(the "Promised Land"). According to Jewish tradition, Abraham
Abraham
was the first post-Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem
Shem
and Eber
Eber
carried on the tradition from Noah.[116][117] Christians
Christians
view Abraham
Abraham
as an important exemplar of faith, and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus. For Christians, Abraham
Abraham
is a spiritual forebear as well as/rather than a direct ancestor depending on the individual's interpretation of Paul the Apostle,[Rom. 4:9–12] with the Abrahamic covenant
Abrahamic covenant
"reinterpreted so as to be defined by faith in Christ rather than biological descent" or both by faith as well as a direct ancestor; in any case, the emphasis is placed on faith being the only requirement for the Abrahamic Covenant to apply[118] (see also New Covenant
New Covenant
and supersessionism). In Christian
Christian
belief, Abraham
Abraham
is a role model of faith,[Heb. 11:8–10][non-primary source needed] and his obedience to God
God
by offering Isaac
Isaac
is seen as a foreshadowing of God's offering of his son Jesus.[Rom. 8:32][119] Christian
Christian
commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham
Abraham
as applying to Christianity
Christianity
subsequent to, and sometimes rather than (as in supersessionism), being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus. They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham
Abraham
as a Gentile (before he was circumcised) "believed God
God
and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen. 15:6] (cf. Rom. 4:3, James 2:23), "those who have faith are children of Abraham" [Gal. 3:7] (see also John 8:39). This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all who believe in God
God
are spiritual descendants of Abraham.[Rom. 4:20] [Gal. 4:9][120] However, with regards to Rom. 4:20[121] and Gal. 4:9[122], in both cases he refers to these spiritual descendants as the "sons of God"[Gal. 4:26] rather than "children of Abraham".[123] For Muslims, Abraham
Abraham
is a prophet, the "messenger of God" who stands in the line from Adam
Adam
to Muhammad, to whom God
God
gave revelations,[Quran 4:163], who "raised the foundations of the House" (i.e., the Kaaba)[Quran 2:127] with his first son, Isma'il, a symbol of which is every mosque.[124] Ibrahim (Abraham) is the first in a genealogy for Muhammad. Islam
Islam
considers Abraham
Abraham
to be "one of the first Muslims" (Surah 3)—the first monotheist in a world where monotheism was lost, and the community of those faithful to God,[125] thus being referred to as ابونا ابراهيم or "Our Father Abraham", as well as Ibrahim al- Hanif or " Abraham
Abraham
the Monotheist". Also, the same as Judaism, Islam
Islam
believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham
Abraham
is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage.[126] Differences[edit] God[edit] Main articles: God
God
in Abrahamic religions, God
God
in Judaism, God
God
in Christianity, God
God
in Islam, Yahweh, Tetragrammaton, and El (deity) The Abrahamic God
God
is conceived of as eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the creator of the universe. God
God
is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God
God
is also transcendent, but at the same time personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.

The Star of David
Star of David
(or Magen David), is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.

In Jewish theology, God
God
is strictly monotheistic. God
God
is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God
God
is incomprehensible and unknowable and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world. In Judaism, the one God
God
of Israel
Israel
is the God
God
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delivered Israel
Israel
from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the 613 Mitzvot
613 Mitzvot
at Mount Sinai as described in the Torah. The national god of the Israelites
Israelites
has a proper name, written YHWH (Hebrew: יְהֹוָה‬, Modern Yehovah, Tiberian Yəhōwāh) in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. The name YHWH
YHWH
is a combination of the future, present, and past tense of the verb "howa" (Hebrew: הוה‎) meaning "to be" and translated literally means "The self-existent One". A further explanation of the name was given to Moses when YHWH
YHWH
stated Eheye Asher Eheye (Hebrew: אהיה אשר אהיה‎) "I will be that I will be", the name relates to God
God
as God
God
truly is, God's revealed essence, which transcends the universe. It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God
God
is Elohim, relating to the interaction between God
God
and the universe, God
God
as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe".

The Christian cross
Christian cross
(or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin
Latin
Cross.

In Christian
Christian
theology, God
God
is the eternal being who created and preserves the world. Christians
Christians
believe God
God
to be both transcendent and immanent (involved in the world).[127][128] Early Christian
Christian
views of God
God
were expressed in the Pauline Epistles
Pauline Epistles
and the early[n 9] creeds, which proclaimed one God
God
and the divinity of Jesus. Around the year 200, Tertullian
Tertullian
formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus
Jesus
and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381.[129][130] Trinitarians, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith.[131][132] Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways.[133] The theology of the attributes and nature of God
God
has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus
Irenaeus
writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things".[134] In the 8th century, John of Damascus
John of Damascus
listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted.[135] As time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible
Bible
(e.g., the Lord's Prayer, stating that the Father is in Heaven), others based on theological reasoning.[136][137]

The word God
God
written in Arabic.

In Islamic theology, God
God
(Arabic: الله‎ Allāh) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.[138] Islam
Islam
emphasizes that God
God
is strictly singular (tawḥīd )[139] unique (wāḥid ) and inherently One (aḥad ), all-merciful and omnipotent.[140] According to Islamic teachings, God
God
exists without place[141] and according to the Quran, "No vision can grasp him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things."[142] God, as referenced in the Quran, is the only God.[143][144] Islamic tradition also describes the 99 names of God. These 99 names describe attributes of God, including Most Merciful, The Just, The Peace and Blessing, and the Guardian. Islamic belief in God
God
is distinct from Christianity
Christianity
in that God
God
has no progeny. This belief is summed up in chapter 112 of the Quran
Quran
titled Al-Ikhlas, which states "Say, he is Allah
Allah
(who is) one, Allah
Allah
is the Eternal, the Absolute. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent".[Quran 112:1] Scriptures[edit] Main articles: Tanakh, Bible, Old Testament, New Testament, Quran, and Hadith All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being. The sacred scriptures of Judaism
Judaism
are the Tanakh, a Hebrew
Hebrew
acronym standing for Torah
Torah
(Law or Teachings), Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings). These are complemented by and supplemented with various (originally oral) traditions: Midrash, the Mishnah, the Talmud
Talmud
and collected rabbinical writings. The Tanakh
Tanakh
(or Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible) was composed between 1,400 BCE, and 400 BCE by Jewish prophets, kings, and priests. The Hebrew
Hebrew
text of the Tanakh, and the Torah
Torah
in particular is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the 300,000+ stylized letters that make up the Hebrew
Hebrew
Torah
Torah
text renders a Torah
Torah
scroll unfit for use; hence the skills of a Torah scribe are specialist skills, and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.

A Bible
Bible
handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible
Bible
was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.

The sacred scriptures of most Christian
Christian
groups are the Old Testament and the New Testament. Latin
Latin
Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
due to a lack of original Hebrew
Hebrew
sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations. Greek Bibles contain additional materials. The New Testament
New Testament
comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
(the Four Gospels), as well as several other writings (the epistles) and the Book
Book
of Revelation. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired, and together comprise the Christian
Christian
Bible. The vast majority of Christian
Christian
faiths (including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism) recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
and that the extant versions are copies of those originals. The version of the Bible considered to be most valid (in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God) has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin
Latin
Vulgate, the English King James Version and the Russian Synodal Bible
Bible
have been authoritative to different communities at different times. The sacred scriptures of the Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians
Christians
and councils of Christian
Christian
leaders (see canon law). Some Christian
Christian
churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian
Christian
groups consider only the Bible
Bible
to be binding (sola scriptura).

9th-century Quran
Quran
in Reza Abbasi Museum

Islam's holiest book is the Quran, comprising 114 Suras ("chapters of the Qur'an"). However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
in their original forms, albeit not the current versions. According to the Quran
Quran
(and mainstream Muslim belief), the verses of the Quran
Quran
were revealed by God
God
through the Archangel Jibrail
Jibrail
to Muhammad
Muhammad
on separate occasions. These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran
Quran
was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman
Uthman
provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire. The Quran
Quran
mentions and reveres several of the Israelite
Israelite
prophets, including Moses and Jesus, among others (see also: Prophets of Islam). The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible. However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh
Tanakh
and the New Testament
New Testament
are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God
God
(through Gabriel) to Muhammad
Muhammad
and codified in the Quran. Like the Jews
Jews
with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Quran
Quran
as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Quran, as only the original Arabic
Arabic
text is considered to be the divine scripture.[145] Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, the Quran
Quran
is complemented by the Hadith, a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith
Hadith
interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith
Hadith
at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad: genuine (sahih), fair (hasan) or weak (da'if).[146] By the 9th century, six major Hadith
Hadith
collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni
Sunni
Muslims.

Sahih al-Bukhari Sahih Muslim Sunan ibn Majah Sunan Abu Dawud Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan an-Nasa'ii

Shia Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead.[147] They are known collectively as The Four Books. The Hadith
Hadith
and the life story of Muhammad
Muhammad
(sira) form the Sunnah, an authoritative supplement to the Quran. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists (Faqīh) provide another source for the daily practice and interpretation of Islamic tradition (see Fiqh.) The Quran
Quran
contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" (see Suras 2:130,135; 3:95; 6:123,161; 12:38; 16:123; 22:78). In the Quran, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism, as in Sura
Sura
2:135, for example: 'They say: "Become Jews
Jews
or Christians
Christians
if ye would be guided (to salvation)." Say thou (O Muslims): "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham
Abraham
the True, and he joined not gods with God." ' In the Quran, Abraham
Abraham
is declared to have been a Muslim
Muslim
(a hanif, more accurately a "primordial monotheist"), not a Jew nor a Christian
Christian
( Sura
Sura
3:67). Eschatology[edit] Main articles: Eschatology, Jewish eschatology, Christian
Christian
eschatology, and Islamic eschatology In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism
Judaism
awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah; the Jewish concept of Messiah
Messiah
differs from the Christian
Christian
concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the world to come. Christianity
Christianity
awaits the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Christ, though Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam
Islam
awaits both the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
(to complete his life and die) and the coming of Mahdi
Mahdi
(Sunnis in his first incarnation, Shi'a
Shi'a
as the return of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi). Most Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul, which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God
God
will judge each person's life accordingly after death. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions.[citation needed] Judaism's views on the afterlife ("the Next World") are quite diverse. This can be attributed to the fact that although there clearly are traditions in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
of an afterlife (see Naboth
Naboth
and the Witch of Endor), Judaism
Judaism
focuses on this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward. Christians
Christians
have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian
Christian
approaches either include different abodes for the dead (Heaven, Hell, Limbo, Purgatory) or universal reconciliation because all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism, the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God
God
simply cease to exist. In Islam, God
God
is said to be "Most Compassionate and Most Merciful" ( Quran
Quran
1:2, as well as the start of all suras but one). However, God is also "Most Just"; Islam
Islam
prescribes a literal Hell
Hell
for those who disobey God
God
and commit gross sin. Those who obey God
God
and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell
Hell
is divided into numerous levels. Those who worship and remember God
God
are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight levels, with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah
Allah
(martyrs). Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God
God
is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk (i.e. associating God
God
in any way, such as claiming that He is equal with anything or denying Him), this is not pardonable—he or she will stay forever in Hell. Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity.[148] Worship
Worship
and religious rites[edit] Main article: Christian
Christian
worship Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities—Shabbat, Sabbath, or jumu'ah; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days and rested in the seventh. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the Talmud. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah, and facing in the direction of Jerusalem's Temple Mount. Other practices include circumcision, dietary laws, Shabbat, Passover, Torah
Torah
study, Tefillin, purity and others. Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism
Judaism
and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law. Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by denomination; in contemporary Orthodox practice, women do not read from the Torah
Torah
and are only required to say certain parts of these daily services. All versions of Judaism
Judaism
share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year (an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year). All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one. Christian
Christian
worship varies from denomination to denomination. Individual prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion. During church services, some form of liturgy is frequently followed. Rituals are performed during sacraments, which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism
Baptism
and Communion, and may also include Confirmation, Confession, Last Rites
Last Rites
and Holy Orders. Catholic worship practice is governed by the Roman Missal
Roman Missal
and other documents. Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional, see Adiaphora, particularly since the Protestant Reformation. The followers of Islam
Islam
(Muslims) are to observe the Five Pillars of Islam. The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad
Muhammad
as his final and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily (salat) towards the direction (qibla) of the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca. The third pillar is almsgiving (Zakah), a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Quran
Quran
and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith. The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone were required (i.e. proceeds from renting space), and increases to 50% on "unearned wealth" such as treasure-finding, and to 100% on wealth that is considered haram, as part of attempting to make atonement for the sin, such as that gained through financial interest (riba). Fasting
Fasting
(sawm) during the ninth month of the Muslim
Muslim
lunar calendar, Ramadan, is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health (as judged by a Muslim
Muslim
doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright Muslim
Muslim
physician" is required to agree), that are not menstruating are bound to observe—missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting. In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed. Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as often as possible, preferably once a year. Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj
Hajj
(e.g. if making Hajj
Hajj
would put stress on one's financial situation, but would not end up in homelessness or starvation, it is still required). During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba
Kaaba
among millions of other Muslims and the "stoning of the devil" at Mina. At the end of the Hajj, the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels, are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut, to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah
Allah
replaced Abraham's son Ishmael
Ishmael
(contrasted with the Judaeo- Christian
Christian
tradition that Isaac was the intended sacrifice) with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts of ihram and the hajj is complete.[citation needed] Circumcision[edit] See also: Circumcision in the Bible, Brit Milah, Khatna, Circumcision controversy in early Christianity, and History of male circumcision Judaism
Judaism
practices circumcision for males as a matter of religious obligation at the age of 8 days old, as does Islam
Islam
as part of Sunnah. Western Christianity
Christianity
replaced that custom with a baptism[149] ceremony varying according to the denomination, but generally including immersion, aspersion, or anointment with water. The Early Church
Early Church
(Acts 15, the Council of Jerusalem) decided that circumcision is not required for Gentile Christians. The Council of Florence
Council of Florence
in the 15th century[150] prohibited it. Paragraph #2297 of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral.[151][152] By the 21st century, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
had adopted a neutral position on the practice, as long as it is not practised as an initiation ritual. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts.[153][154][155] The New Testament
New Testament
chapter Acts 15 records that Christianity
Christianity
did not require circumcision. The Catholic Church currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision,[156] and in 1442 it banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence.[157] Coptic Christians
Christians
practice circumcision as a rite of passage.[158] The Eritrean Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church calls for circumcision, with near-universal prevalence among Orthodox men in Ethiopia.[159] Many countries with majorities of Christian
Christian
adherents have low circumcision rates, while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in many predominantly Christian
Christian
countries such as the United States,[160] and the Philippines, Australia,[161] and Canada, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, and Kenya, and many other African Christian
Christian
countries,[162][163] Circumcision is near universal in the Christian
Christian
countries of Oceania.[164] Coptic Christianity
Christianity
and Ethiopian Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
and Eritrean Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage.[165][158] Male circumcision is also widely practiced among Christians
Christians
from South Korea, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, and North Africa. (See also aposthia.) Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam
Islam
and is part of the fitrah, or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation.[166] Food restrictions[edit] Main articles: kashrut, halal, and ital See also: Apostolic Decree Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
have strict dietary laws, with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam
Islam
prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halal
Halal
restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places, Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam.[167] With rare exceptions, Christians
Christians
do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions.[168] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
believes in observing abstinence and penance. For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days.[169] The law of abstinence requires a Catholic from 14 years of age until death to abstain from eating meat on Fridays in honor of the Passion of Jesus
Jesus
on Good Friday. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops obtained the permission of the Holy See for Catholics in the U.S. to substitute a penitential, or even a charitable, practice of their own choosing.[170] Eastern Rite Catholics have their own penitential practices as specified by the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches. The Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
(SDA) embraces numerous Old Testament rules and regulations such as tithing, Sabbath observance, and Jewish food laws. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures".[Leviticus 11:1–47] among others[171] In the Christian
Christian
Bible, the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree[Acts 15:19–21] and are still forbidden in the Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele, who, in his Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, the rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of Acts 15] with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greeks, indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show." He also writes that "as late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory the Third, in 731, forbade the eating of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days."[172] Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based on Acts 15:19–21. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
prohibits the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and non-herbal tea. While there is not a set of prohibited food, the church encourages members to refrain from eating excessive amounts of red meat.[173] Sabbath observance[edit] See also: Biblical Sabbath, Shabbat, and Christian
Christian
Sabbath Sabbath in the Bible
Bible
is a weekly day of rest and time of worship. It is observed differently in Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition. Proselytism[edit] Judaism
Judaism
accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
era. Judaism
Judaism
states that non- Jews
Jews
can achieve righteousness by following Noahide
Noahide
Laws, a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud, were given by God[174] as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah"—that is, all of humanity.[175][176] It is believed that as much as ten percent of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
followed the Judaism
Judaism
either as fully ritually obligated Jews
Jews
or the simpler rituals required of non-Jewish members of that faith.[177] Moses Maimonides, one of the major Jewish teachers, commented: "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator". Because the commandments applicable to the Jews
Jews
are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide
Noahide
laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. In the U.S., as of 2003 28% of married Jews
Jews
were married to non-Jews.[178] See also Conversion to Judaism.

The Sermon on the Mount
Sermon on the Mount
by Carl Heinrich Bloch.

Christianity
Christianity
encourages evangelism. Many Christian
Christian
organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. The most prominently cited allegations are the conversions of the pagans after Constantine; of Muslims, Jews
Jews
and Eastern Orthodox during the Crusades; of Jews
Jews
and Muslims during the time of the Spanish Inquisition, where they were offered the choice of exile, conversion or death; and of the Aztecs by Hernán Cortés. Forced conversions to Protestantism
Protestantism
may have occurred as well, notably during the Reformation, especially in England and Ireland (see recusancy and Popish plot). Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian
Christian
religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offences are regarded as a scandal (a cause of unbelief). According to Pope Paul VI, "It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God
God
in faith must be free: no one, therefore, is to be forced to embrace the Christian
Christian
faith against his own will."[179] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
has declared that Catholics should fight anti-Semitism.[180] Dawah
Dawah
is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summons" or "making an invitation". A Muslim
Muslim
who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī, plural du‘āt. A dā‘ī is thus a person who invites people to understand Islam
Islam
through a dialogical process and may be categorized in some cases as the Islamic equivalent of a missionary, as one who invites people to the faith, to the prayer, or to Islamic life. Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques
Mosques
and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches. Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah. In Islamic theology, the purpose of Da‘wah is to invite people, both Muslims and non-Muslims, to understand the commandments of God
God
as expressed in the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah
Sunnah
of the Prophet, as well as to inform them about Muhammad. Da‘wah produces converts to Islam, which in turn grows the size of the Muslim
Muslim
Ummah, or community of Muslims. Dialogue between Abrahamic religions[edit] Main article: Interfaith dialogue This section reports on writings and talks which describe or advocate dialogue between the Abrahamic religions. Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi

External video

Jesus
Jesus
meets him says Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi.

In 1997, Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi
Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi
claims to have met Jesus
Jesus
in New Mexico.[181] Since then he has exalted God's love above all religious differences. He describes the situation in this way: "A Muslim
Muslim
says, 'I am superior to all.' A Jew declares, 'I am even better than the Muslim.' And a Christian
Christian
says, 'I am greater than both the Muslim
Muslim
and the Jew, and the rest of the religions, because I am the nation of God's Son.'" However, Gohar Shahi himself "declares that superior and best of all is the one who possesses God's love in his heart, in spite of his indifference to any religion".[182] Amir Hussain In 2003, a book called Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism contains a chapter by Amir Hussain
Amir Hussain
on "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue" which he shows how interfaith dialogue has been an integral part of Islam
Islam
from its beginning. From his "first revelation" for the rest of his life, Muhammad
Muhammad
was "engaged in interfaith dialogue." Islam
Islam
would not have spread without "interfaith dialogue."[183] Hussain gives an early example of "the importance of pluralism and interfaith dialogue" to Islam. When some of Muhammad’s followers suffered "physical persecution" in Mecca, he sent them to Abyssinia, a Christian
Christian
nation, where they were "welcomed and accepted" by the Christian
Christian
king. Another example is Córdoba, Andalusia
Córdoba, Andalusia
in Muslim Spain, in the ninth and tenth centuries. Córdoba was "one of the most important cities in the history of the world". In " Christians
Christians
and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city." Thus, there is "a history of Muslims, Jews, Christians, and other religious traditions living together in a pluralistic society."[184] Turning to the present, Hussain says that one of the challenges faced by Muslims now is the conflicting passages in the Qur̀an some of which support interfaith "bridge-building," but others can be used "justify mutual exclusion." [185] Trialogue The 2007 book Trialogue: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Dialogue puts the importance of interfaith dialogue starkly: "We human beings today face a stark choice: dialogue or death!"[186] The Trialogue book gives four reasons why the three Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
should engage in dialogue:[187]

1. They "come from the same Hebraic roots and claim Abraham
Abraham
as their originating ancester." 2. "All three traditions are religions of ethical monotheism." 3. They "are all historical religions." 4. All three are "religions of revelation."

Pope Benedict XVI In 2010, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
spoke about "Interreligious dialogue." He said that "the Church's universal nature and vocation require that she engage in dialogue with the members of other religions." For the Abrahamic religions, this "dialogue is based on the spiritual and historical bonds uniting Christians
Christians
to Jews
Jews
and Muslims." It is dialogue "grounded in the sacred Scriptures" and "defined in the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium and in the Declaration on the Church's Relation to Non- Christian
Christian
Religions Nostra Aetate. The Pope concluded with a prayer: "May Jews, Christians
Christians
and Muslims . . . give the beautiful witness of serenity and concord between the children of Abraham."[188] Learned Ignorance In the 2011 book Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians
Christians
and Muslims, the three editors address the question of "why engage in interreligious dialogue; its purpose?":

James L. Heft, a Roman Catholic priest, suggests "that the purpose of interreligious dialogue is, not only better mutual understanding . . . but also trying . . . to embody the truths that we affirm."[189] Omid Safi, a Muslim, answers the question of "why engage in interreligious dialogue?" He writes, "because for me, as a Muslim, God is greater than any one path leading to God." Therefore, "neither I nor my traditions has a monopoly on truth, because in reality, we belong to the Truth (God), Truth to us."[190] Reuven Firestone, a Jewish Rabbi writes about the "tension" between the "particularity" of one's "own religious experience" and the "universality of the divine reality" that as expressed in history has led to verbal and violent conflict. So, although this tension may never be "fully resolved," Firestone says that "it is of utmost consequence for leaders in religion to engage in the process of dialogue."[191]

The Interfaith Amigos In 2011, TED broadcast a 10-minute program about "Breaking the Taboos of Interfaith Dialogue" with Rabbi Ted Falcon (Jewish), Pastor Don Mackenzie (Christian), and Imam Jamal Rahman (Muslim) collectively known as The Interfaith Amigos See their TED program by clicking here. Divisive matters should be addressed In 2012, a PhD
PhD
thesis Dialogue Between Christians, Jews
Jews
and Muslims argues that "the paramount need is for barriers against non-defensive dialogue conversations between Christians, Jews, and Muslims to be dismantled to facilitate the development of common understandings on matters that are deeply divisive." As of 2012, the thesis says that this has not been done.[192] Cardinal Koch In 2015, Cardinal Kurt Koch, the President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian
Christian
Unity and who is "responsible for the Church's dialogue with the Jewish people," was interviewed in 2015. He noted that the Church is already engaged in "bilateral talks with Jewish and Muslim
Muslim
religious leaders." However, he said that it is too early for "trialogue" talks among the three Abrahamic religions. Yet, Koch added, "we hope that we can go in this [direction] in future."[193] Omid Safi In 2016, a 26-minute interview with Professor Omid Safi, a Muslim
Muslim
and Director of the Duke Islamic Studies Center, was posted on YouTube.com. In it, Safi said that his life had been trying to combine "love and tenderness" which are the "essence of being human" with "social justice."[194] Violent conflicts[edit] Between Abrahamic religions[edit] In most of their common history, the three Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
have been "ignorant about each other, or worse, especially in the case of Christians
Christians
and Muslims, attacked each other." In the La Convivencia (The Coexistence) in the 14th and 15th centuries, Muslims, Christians and Jews
Jews
co-existed in relative peace, but, otherwise, there has been "very little genuine dialogue" between believers in these Abrahamic religions. They have "kept their distance from one another, or were in conflict. . . there has been very little genuine dialogue."[195] An aspect La Convivencia is shown in a six-minute video Cities of Light that documents collaboration between Spanish Jewish, Muslim
Muslim
and Christian
Christian
scientists in 12th century Spain. It features the works of Maimonides
Maimonides
(Jewish philosopher) and Averroes
Averroes
( Muslim
Muslim
philosopher). Examples of violent conflict follow:

Jews
Jews
killed Christians
Christians
during the Bar Kochba revolt.[196][197] The Yemeni Jewish Himyar tribe, led by King Dhu Nuwas
Dhu Nuwas
massacred Christians.[198] The Sasanian conquest and occupation of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
led to the massacre of Christians
Christians
by Jews.[199] The wars between the emerging Islamic Caliphates
Caliphates
and the Christian Byzantine
Byzantine
or Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
between the 7th and the 11th centuries CE were a series of military, political and religious conflicts which led to the Islamization
Islamization
of large territories in the Near East
Near East
such as Egypt
Egypt
and Syria. The Crusades
Crusades
(end of 11th – end of 13th century CE) were a series of military expeditions from Western Europe to the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean: a rather unsuccessful response by Western (Catholic) Christians
Christians
to aid their Eastern counterparts in retaking what was perceived by all Christians
Christians
as the Holy Land
Holy Land
from its Muslim inhabitants. In passing, Crusades
Crusades
were also marked with conflicts between Western and Eastern (Orthodox, Syro-Jacobite and Armenian) Christians
Christians
and unilateral damage inflicted by Western Christians
Christians
to Jews
Jews
along the path of travel and in the Holy Land. The conquest and the following Reconquista
Reconquista
of Spain, and founding of Portugal (beginning of 8th – end of 15th century CE) were a series of wars between Muslims and Christians
Christians
in the Iberian peninsula resulting in the founding of several Muslim
Muslim
and Christian
Christian
Medieval states and the final victory of the Catholic Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
and Aragon
Aragon
against the Muslim
Muslim
Emirate of Granada. The Ottoman conquest of the Balkan peninsula
Balkan peninsula
(mid-14th – end of 15th century CE) followed by a series of wars between the Islamic Ottoman Empire and various Christian
Christian
powers and alliances (end of 14th – beginning of 20th century CE) was an important political, military and cultural process for South-Eastern Europe resulting in the fall of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) Empire and its successor states and finally leading to the emerging of several modern nations in that region. The Spanish inquisition
Spanish inquisition
was an attempt by the Christian
Christian
Catholic church in Spain in the wake of the centuries-long Reconquista
Reconquista
to suppress or expel Jews
Jews
and Muslims and to prosecute Christian heretics. Openly Jewish and Muslim
Muslim
people were expelled rather than killed, but many submitted to forced conversion to Catholicism to avoid expulsion. The Inquisitors
Inquisitors
often did not trust the converts, and persecuted them cruelly for being secret adherents of their original religions, which was often true but sometimes fabricated. Jewish forced converts were known as "anusim," or sometimes by the pejorative "morrano (pig)."[citation needed] At various points in history pogroms against Jews
Jews
were common in Christian
Christian
Europe, and in many Islamic areas. See blood libel. Persecution of Bahá'ís
Persecution of Bahá'ís
and Political accusations against the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
review the substantive efforts in parts of the world against the Bahá'ís and their religion.

Between branches of the same Abrahamic religion[edit]

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The Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
and subsequent wars between Catholic Europeans and the Orthodox Byzantine
Byzantine
Greeks following the Great Schism. The Christian
Christian
Reformation
Reformation
of the 16th century CE was an attempt towards a religious reform in the Catholic Christian
Christian
Church which resulted in a series of Religious
Religious
Wars between Catholic and emerging Reformist/Protestant Christian
Christian
forces during the 16th and 17th centuries CE throughout Western Europe. The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
was due to a religious conflict between Catholic and Protestant Christians, and economic causes. There have been many violent conflicts between the Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a branches of Islam; see Shi'a– Sunni
Sunni
relations. After the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
by a western coalition there was an armed conflict between branches of Islam, with fighting and bombings, even of mosques.

Between Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
and non-adherents[edit]

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Religious
Religious
hostility fueled the Jewish revolt against the Selucid Empire and Jewish–Roman wars. Earlier Roman emperors persecuted Christians. For example, see Diocletianic Persecution. In the initial expansion of both Christianity
Christianity
and Islam, a number of pagan communities were converted. Wars between the Hindu Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire (modern-day Indonesia) and Islamic states led to the decrease of Hinduism
Hinduism
in South East Asia. Christian
Christian
evangelism was a key motivation for the colonization of the Americas.[200][201][citation needed] Communist dictatorships practice a policy of religious oppression in favour of atheistic personality cults revering the leader or the state. Up to 1 million Muslims and Christians
Christians
were massacred by atheist, buddhists and Hindus in 1960s Indonesia.

See also[edit]

Book: Abrahamic religions Book: Judaism Book: Christianity Book: Islam

Dharmic religions
Dharmic religions
a similar term used to refer Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism Abraham's family tree Abrahamites Ancient Semitic religion Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement Chrislam (Yoruba) Christianity
Christianity
and Islam Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism Islam
Islam
and Judaism People of the Book

Notes[edit]

^ Jacob
Jacob
is also called Israel, a name the Bible
Bible
states he was given by God. ^ cf. Judaizer, Messianic Judaism ^ With several centers, such as Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Thessaloniki and Corinth, Antioch, and later spread outwards, eventually having two main centers in the empire, one for the Western Church and one for the Eastern Church
Eastern Church
in Rome and Constantinople respectively by the 5th century CE ^ Triune God
God
is also called the "Holy Trinity" ^ Islam
Islam
arose specifically in Tihamah
Tihamah
city of Mecca
Mecca
and Hejaz
Hejaz
city of Medina
Medina
of Arabia ^ The monotheistic view of God
God
in Islam
Islam
is called tawhid which is essentially the same as the conception of God
God
in Judaism ^ Teachings and practices of Muhammad
Muhammad
are collectively known as the sunnah, similar to the Judaic concepts of oral law and exegesis, or talmud and midrash ^ Historically, the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
arose in 19th-century Persia, in the context of Shi'a
Shi'a
Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
considers itself an independent religious tradition, which arose from a Muslim
Muslim
context but also recognizes other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable. ^ Perhaps even pre-Pauline creeds.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ " Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ C.J. Adams Classification of religions: Geographical. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2013 ^ Atzmon, G.; Hao, L.; Pe'er, I.; et al. (June 2010). "Abraham's children in the genome era: major Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 86 (6): 850–9. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015. PMC 3032072 . PMID 20560205.  [1] Israelite
Israelite
religion has its origins in Canaanite religions of the Bronze Age, it became distinct from other Canaanite religions in Iron Age I
Iron Age I
due to a focus on the monolatristic worship of Yahweh. Judaism
Judaism
likely became fully monotheistic in the 6th century BCE (Iron Age II).[2] ^ a b Massignon 1949, pp. 20–23 ^ a b Smith 1998, p. 276 ^ a b Derrida 2002, p. 3 ^ "Introduction to Judaism
Judaism
Classroom Materials" (PDF). Jewish Museum of Maryland. 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2009.  ^ Obeid, Anis (2006). The Druze
Druze
& Their Faith
Faith
in Tawhid. Syracuse University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8156-5257-1. Retrieved 27 May 2017.  ^ Onyeakor, Joachim (2012-08-16). Did We Create God?. Xlibris Corporation (published 2012). ISBN 9781477136973. Retrieved 10 January 2015. Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
( Christianity
Christianity
encompassing Anglican, Catholic, evangelical, Jehovah's Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, Orthodox, Pentecostal (having more than thousand denominations), Islam, Judaism, Rastafari
Rastafari
movement, Babism, Baha'i Faith, Gnosticism, Mandaeans
Mandaeans
and Sabians, and Samaritanism)  ^ a b c "Abrahamic Religion". Christianity: Details about... Christianity
Christianity
Guide. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2009.  ^ * "Why 'Abrahamic'?". Lubar Institute for Religious
Religious
Studies at U of Wisconsin. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 

Lawson, Todd (13 December 2012). Cusack, Carole M.; Hartney, Christopher, eds. "Baha'i Religious
Religious
History". Journal of Religious History. 36 (4): 463–470. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2012.01224.x. ISSN 1467-9809. Retrieved 5 September 2013.  Collins, William P., reviewer (1 September 2004). "Review of: The Children of Abraham : Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Islam
/ F. E. Peters. – New ed. – Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2004". Library Journal. New York. 129 (14): 157, 160. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 

^ The numbers, based on upper bounds, do not add to 100%. Hunter, Preston. "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com.  ^ "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  ^ "FIELD LISTING :: RELIGIONS". World Factbook. CIA. 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.  ^ Barrett, David
David
A. (2001). World Christian
Christian
Encyclopedia. p. 4.  ^ The Quran, albaqarah; v. 135 ^ Scherman, pp. 34–35. ^ Saheeh al-Bukharee, Book
Book
55, hadith no. 584; Book
Book
56, hadith no. 710 ^ "Part Four – On the Origin, Powers and Conditions of Man". www.bahai-library.com. Retrieved 5 September 2015.  ^ a b Dodds, Adam
Adam
(July 2009). "The Abrahamic Faiths? Continuity and Discontinuity in Christian
Christian
and Islamic Doctrine". Evangelical Quarterly. 81 (3): 230–253.  ^ Greenstreet, p. 95. ^ "Dr. Alan L. Berger". Florida Atlantic University.  ^ Alan L. Berger, ed., Trialogue and Terror: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Islam
after 9/11 (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2012), xiii. ^ Aaron W. Hughes, Abrahamic Religions: On the Uses and Abuses of History (Oxford University Press, 2012), 3–4, 7–8, 17, 32. ^ Pavlac, Brian A (2010). A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supremacies and Diversities. Chapter 6. ^ Religions » Islam » Islam
Islam
at a glance, BBC, 5 August 2009. ^ *Micksch, Jürgen (2009). "Trialog International – Die jährliche Konferenz". Herbert Quandt Stiftung. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 

Collins, William P., reviewer (1 September 2004). "Review of: The Children of Abraham : Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Islam
/ F. E. Peters. New ed. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2004". Library Journal. New York. 129 (14): 157, 160. ISBN 978-0-691-12769-9. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 

^ a b "Why 'Abrahamic'?". Lubar Institute for Religious
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Bábism
have adopted in order to identify themselves, however it has not been popular within scholarship, modern and contemporary to the religion's founders, the majority of scholars — such as Browne for instance — choosing to refer to the religion as Bábism
Bábism
or the Bábí Faith ^ Varnava, Andrekos, Nicholas Coureas, and Marina Elia, eds. The Minorities of Cyprus: Development patterns and the identity of the internal-exclusion. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. p. 362 ^ Báb, The (1848). Persian Bayán, Exordium. ^ Browne, E.G. Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf, p. 15 ^ "Azali". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2006-12-26.  ^ Barret (2001), p. 246 ^ MacEoin, Dennis (1989). " Azali
Azali
Babism". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Saiedi, Nader (2008). Gate of the Heart. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-55458-035-4.  ^ Lambden, Stephen. The Evolving Clains and Titles of Mirza `Ali Muhammad
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Shirazi, the Bab (1819–1850 CE) ^ Foltz, Richard. "Two Kurdish Sects: The Yezidis and the Yaresan". Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-78074-307-3. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Izady, 1992. pp. 170 passim ^ Kreyenbroek 1995, pp. 54; 59. ^ Foltz, Richard. Two Kurdish Sects: The Yezidis and the Yaresan. p. 219.  ^ Foltz, Richard. " Mithra
Mithra
and Mithraism". Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-78074-307-3. (Registration required (help)).  ^ "Exploring Kurdish Origins".  ^ Mina al-Lami (21 August 2014). "Iraq: The Minorities of the Nineveh Plain". Retrieved 9 October 2014.  ^ http://www.niqash.org/en/articles/society/2219/ ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28351073 ^ https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2016/07/07/iraqs-religious-ethnic-minorities-disappearing-due-isis-violence-global-inaction/ ^ Kjeilen, Tore. "Shabak / Religion
Religion
– LookLex Encyclopaedia".  ^ Imranali Panjwani. Shi'a
Shi'a
of Samarra: The Heritage and Politics of a Community in Iraq. p. 172.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ http://www.kurdishacademy.org/?q=node/133 ^ a b A. Vinogradov, Ethnicity, Cultural Discontinuity and Power Brokers in Northern Iraq: The Case of the Shabak, American Ethnologist, pp. 214–215, American Anthropological Association, 1974 ^ a b Dr. Michiel Leezenberg. "The Shabak and the Kakais". Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Assyrian News Agency (16 August 2005). "Kurdish Gunmen Open Fire on Demonstrators in North Iraq". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002), The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195153859  ^ Rudolph, Kurt (1978). Mandaeism. BRILL. p. 15. ISBN 9789004052529. In some texts, however, it is said that Anoš and Manda ḏHayyē appeared in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
together with Jesus
Jesus
Christ (Mšiha), and exposed him as a lying prophet. This tradition can be explained by an anti- Christian
Christian
concept, which is also found in Mandaeism, but, according to several scholars, it contains scarcely any traditions of historical events. Because of the strong dualism in Mandaeism, between body and soul, great attention is paid to the "deliverance" of the soul  ^ The Light and the Dark: Dualism in ancient Iran, India, and China Petrus Franciscus Maria Fontaine – 1990 "Although it shows Jewish and Christian
Christian
influences, Mandaeism
Mandaeism
was hostile to Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity. Mandaeans
Mandaeans
spoke an East-Aramaic language in which 'manda' means 'knowledge'; this already is sufficient proof of the connection of Mandaeism
Mandaeism
with the Gnosis... ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mandaeanism ^ Nabateans – Livius, Articles on ancient history. (2015, August 19). Retrieved September 3, 2016, from http://www.livius.org/articles/people/nabataeans/ ^ Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko (2006). The Last Pagans of Iraq: Ibn Waḥshiyya and His Nabatean Agriculture. Boston: BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 9789004150102. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.  ^ Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention Archived 2007-10-25 at the Wayback Machine., Kai Thaler, Yale Daily News, March 9, 2007. ^ a b "Save the Gnostics" by Nathaniel Deutsch, October 6, 2007, New York Times. ^ Iraq's Mandaeans
Mandaeans
'face extinction', Angus Crawford, BBC, March 4, 2007. ^ Lupieri, Edmundo (2001). The Mandaeans: The Last Gnostics. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 9780802833501. Siouffi was a Syrian Christian
Christian
who, having received a European education, entered the French diplomatic corps.  ^ Häberl, Charles (2009). The Neo-Mandaic Dialect of Khorramshahr. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 18. ISBN 3447058749. In 1873, the French vice-consul in Mosul, a Syrian Christian
Christian
by the name of Nicholas Siouffi, sought Mandaean informants in Baghdad without success.  ^ Léo-Paul Dana (1 Jan 2010). Entrepreneurship and Religion. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-84980-632-9.  ^ Terri Morrison; Wayne A. Conaway (24 Jul 2006). Kiss, Bow, Or Shake Hands: The Bestselling Guide to Doing Business in More Than 60 Countries (illustrated ed.). Adams Media. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-59337-368-9.  ^ Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin (1993). The Druzes: a new study of their history, faith, and society. BRILL. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-90-04-09705-6. Retrieved 17 March 2011.  ^ Daftary, Farhad. A History of Shi'i Islam. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 0-85773-524-1.  ^ The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land, Donna Rosenthal, Simon and Schuster, 2003, p.296 ^ a b Kapur, Kamlesh. History Of Ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-207-4910-3.  ^ Nisan 2002, p. 95. ^ a b "Druze". druze.org.au. 2015. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016.  ^ "Introduction to Judaism
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Of:". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 25 February 2010.  ^ Danna, Nissim (December 2003). The Druze
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in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-903900-36-9.  ^ Hubbard, Benjamin Jerome; Hatfield, John T; Santucci, James A (April 2007). Chanting down Babylon: the Rastafari
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reader. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-59158-409-4. Retrieved 1 February 2010.  ^ Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to life in ancient Mesopotamia (Paperback ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 312. ISBN 978-0195183641.  ^ "The Bahá'í Faith
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– The website of the worldwide Bahá'í community". www.bahai.org. Retrieved 5 September 2015.  ^ * Dolbee, Sandi (27 March 2003). "Faith, Hope and Understand: Teenagers Questions and learn about each other's Faiths". The San Diego Union–Tribune. p. E.1. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 

"WORLD RELIGIONS RESOURCES". WPC library catalog. Warner Pacific College. 2012. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2014.  "The Journey of Abraham" (PDF). Part of Library's Stories of Faith Program; Discussion to Focus on Shared Beliefs of Semitic Religions. San Diego Public Library. Retrieved 3 March 2012.  "Tagged: Abrahamic religions". Search Results. National Library of Australia. 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.  "Why 'Abrahamic'?". Lubar Institute for Religious
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Studies at U of Wisconsin. Retrieved 3 March 2012.  Mayton, Daniel M. (2009). Nonviolent Perspectives Within the Abrahamic Religions. Peace Psychology Book
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Series. Springer US. pp. 167– 203. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-89348-8_7. ISBN 978-0-387-89348-8.  "Abrahamic religions". Library of Congress Authorities & Vocabularies. The Library of Congress. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2012.  Bacquet, Karen (May 2006). "When Principle and Authority Collide: Baha'i Responses to the Exclusion of Women from the Universal House of Justice". Nova Religio: the Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. University of California Press. 9 (4): 34–52. doi:10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.034. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.034. 

^ a b Peters, Francis E.; Esposito, John L. (2006). The children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12769-9.  ^ "Religion: Three Religions – One God". Global Connections of the Middle East. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2002. Retrieved 20 September 2009.  ^ Kunst, J. R.; Thomsen, L. (2014). "Prodigal sons: Dual Abrahamic categorization mediates the detrimental effects of religious fundamentalism on Christian- Muslim
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relations". The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. doi:10.1080/10508619.2014.937965.  ^ Kunst, J.; Thomsen, L.; Sam, D. (2014). "Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious
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fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians". European Journal of Social Psychology. 44 (4): 337. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2014.  ^ Uri Rubin, Prophets and Prophethood, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an ^ " Jesus
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Christ in the Bahá'í Writings". bahai-library.com. Retrieved 5 September 2015.  ^ Wiener, Philip P. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973–74. The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia
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question and its resolution: selected documents. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-7923-2893-3.  ^ a b Wilken, Robert L. "From Time Immemorial? Dwellers in the Holy Land." Christian
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Century, 30 July – 6 August 1986, p.678. ^ "Mi'raj – Islam".  ^ " Jerusalem
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Mosque – mosque, Jerusalem".  ^ Shultz, Joseph P. "Two Views of the Patriarchs", in Nahum Norbert Glatzer, Michael A. Fishbane, Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (eds.) (1975). Texts and Responses: Studies presented to Nahum N. Glatzer on the occasion of his 70th birthday by his students. Brill Publishers. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9789004039803 ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1973). "The Jew". The Aryeh Kaplan
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Reader. Mesorah Publications. p. 161. ISBN 9780899061733 ^ Blasi, Turcotte, Duhaime, p. 592. ^ MacArthur, John (1996). "The Hymn of Security". The MacArthur New Testament Commentary: Romans. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8254-1522-5.  ^ "So those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith." "In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God's children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham's offspring." (Rom. 9:8) ^ Rom. 4:20, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769) ^ Gal. 4:9, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769) ^ Bickerman, p.188cf. ^ Leeming, David
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Adams (2005). The Oxford companion to world mythology. US: Oxford University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.  ^ Fischer, Michael M. J.; Mehdi Abedi (1990). Debating Muslims: cultural dialogues in postmodernity and tradition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 163–166. ISBN 978-0-299-12434-2.  ^ Hawting, Gerald R. (2006). The development of Islamic ritual; Volume 26 of The formation of the classical Islamic world. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. xviii, xix, xx, xxiii. ISBN 978-0-86078-712-9.  ^ Basic Christian
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Doctrine by John H. Leith (1 January 1992) ISBN 0664251927 pages 55–56 ^ Introducing Christian
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edited by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0865543739 page 935 ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian
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Doctrines A & C Black: 1965, p 115 ^ Theology: The Basics by Alister E. McGrath (21 September 2011) ISBN 0470656751 pages 117–120 ^ Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons by Eric Francis Osborn (26 November 2001) ISBN 0521800064 pages 27–29 ^ Global Dictionary of Theology
Theology
by William A. Dyrness, Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Juan F. Martinez and Simon Chan (10 October 2008) ISBN 0830824545 pages 352–353 ^ Christian
Christian
Doctrine by Shirley C. Guthrie (1 July 1994) ISBN 0664253687 pages 111 and 100 ^ Hirschberger, Johannes. Historia de la Filosofía I, Barcelona: Herder 1977, p.403 ^ Gerhard Böwering God
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and his Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Quran.com, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.22 ^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.88 ^ "Allah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Islam, p. 3 ^ Quran 6:103 ^ Quran 29:46 ^ F. E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003 ^ Baker, Mona; Saldanha, Gabriela (2008). Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-415-36930-5.  ^ ʻUthmān ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ al-Shahrazūrī; Eerik Dickinson (2006). An Introduction to the Science of Hadith: Kitab Ma'rifat Anwa' 'ilm Al-hadith. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85964-158-3.  ^ Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shiʻi Islam: the history and doctrines of Twelver
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Shiʻism. Yale University Press. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.  ^ al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (1994). Reliance of the Traveler (edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller). Amana Publications. pp. 995–1002. ISBN 0-915957-72-8.  ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Baptism: "According to rabbinical teachings, which dominated even during the existence of the Temple (Pes. viii. 8), Baptism, next to circumcision and sacrifice, was an absolutely necessary condition to be fulfilled by a proselyte to Judaism
Judaism
(Yeb. 46b, 47b; Ker. 9a; 'Ab. Zarah 57a; Shab. 135a; Yer. Kid. iii. 14, 64d). Circumcision, however, was much more important, and, like baptism, was called a "seal" (Schlatter, "Die Kirche Jerusalems", 1898, p. 70). But as circumcision was discarded by Christianity, and the sacrifices had ceased, Baptism
Baptism
remained the sole condition for initiation into religious life. The next ceremony, adopted shortly after the others, was the imposition of hands, which, it is known, was the usage of the Jews
Jews
at the ordination of a rabbi. Anointing
Anointing
with oil, which at first also accompanied the act of Baptism, and was analogous to the anointment of priests among the Jews, was not a necessary condition". ^ "Ecumenical Council of Florence
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(1438–1445)". The Circumcision Reference Library. Retrieved 10 July 2007. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church: Article 5—The Fifth commandment. Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi. Retrieved 10 July 2007. ^ Dietzen, John. "The Morality
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and Circumcision".  ^ "Should Catholics circumcise their sons? – Catholic Answers".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-21.  ^ Slosar, J.P.; D. O'Brien (2003). "The Ethics
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Church: The Controversy That Shaped a Continent". In Bolnick, David
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A.; Koyle, Martin; Yosha, Assaf. Surgical Guide to Circumcision. London: Springer. pp. 291–298. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-2858-8_26. ISBN 978-1-4471-2857-1. Retrieved April 6, 2014. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Ray, Mary G. "82% of the World's Men are Intact", Mothers Against Circumcision, 1997. ^ Richters, J.; Smith, A. M.; de Visser, R. O.; Grulich, A. E.; Rissel, C. E. (August 2006). "Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health". Int J STD AIDS. 17 (8): 547–54. doi:10.1258/095646206778145730. PMID 16925903.  ^ Williams, B. G.; et al. (2006). "The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa". PLoS Med. 3 (7): e262. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030262. PMC 1489185 . PMID 16822094.  ^ "Questions and answers: NIAID-sponsored adult male circumcision trials in Kenya
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and Uganda". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. December 2006. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010.  ^ "Circumcision amongst the Dogon". The Non-European Components of European Patrimony (NECEP) Database. 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-03.  ^ Van Doorn-Harder, Nelly (2006). "Christianity: Coptic Christianity". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious
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Practices. 1. Archived from the original on 2016-05-22.  ^ Australia, Muslim
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Information Service of. "Male Circumcision in Islam".  ^ " Halal
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& Healthy: Is Kosher
Kosher
Halal" Archived 23 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine., SoundVision.com—Islamic information & products. 5 August 2009. ^ Schuchmann, Jennifer. "Does God
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Behavior. Seventh-Day Adventist Church website. 6 August 2009. ^ Schaff, Philip. "Canon II of The Council of Gangra". The Seven Ecumenical Councils. 6 August 2009. Commentary on Canon II of Gangra. ^ "Doctrine and Covenants 89". www.lds.org.  ^ According to Encyclopedia Talmudit ( Hebrew
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edition, Israel, 5741/1981, Entry Ben Noah, page 349), most medieval authorities consider that all seven commandments were given to Adam, although Maimonides
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(Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) considers the dietary law to have been given to Noah. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit ( Hebrew
Hebrew
edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, introduction) states that after the giving of the Torah, the Jewish people were no longer in the category of the sons of Noah; however, Maimonides
Maimonides
(Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) indicates that the seven laws are also part of the Torah, and the Talmud
Talmud
(Bavli, Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
59a, see also Tosafot ad. loc.) states that Jews
Jews
are obligated in all things that Gentiles are obligated in, albeit with some differences in the details. ^ Compare Genesis 9:4–6. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed. (1981) [1978]. Spectrum–Times Atlas van de Wereldgeschiedenis [The Times Atlas of World History]. Het Spectrum. pp. 102–103.  (in Dutch) ^ Kornbluth, Doron. Why marry Jewish?. Southfield, MI: Targum Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-56871-250-5 ^ Pope Paul VI. "Declaration on Religious
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and Muslims (Oxford University Press, USA, 2011), 308. ^ Ian Rex Fry, Dialogue Between Christians, Jews
Jews
and Muslims (PhD Thesis, 2012), 37, 333. Retrieved July 3, 2016. ^ "Cardinal Koch: Trialogue among Catholics, Jews, Muslims?".  ^ Parmida Mostafavi (April 19, 2016). "Interview with Professor Omid Safi [Eng Subs]". YouTube.  ^ "The Necessity of Inter- Faith
Faith
Diplomacy: The Catholic/Muslim Dialogue – Institute for Advanced Catholic Studies".  ^ Eusebius. "Texts on Bar Kochba: Eusebius". livius.org. Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ See Justin Martyr's First Apology 31.6: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0126.htm ^ Simon's letter is part of Part III of The Chronicle of Zuqnin, translated by Amir Harrack (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1999), pp. 78–84. ^ "What We Choose to Remember: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in World History". historynewsnetwork.org.  ^ Luis N. Rivera, Luis Rivera Pagán (1992). A Violent Evangelism: The Political and Religious
Religious
Conquest of the Americas. Westminster/John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664253677. Archived from the original on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2017-07-21. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ John F. Schwaller (March 2016). "The Church in Colonial Latin America". Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 

Further reading[edit]

This article's further reading may not follow's content policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing less relevant or redundant publications with the same point of view; or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Assmann, Jan (1998). Moses the Egyptian: the memory of Egypt
Egypt
in western monotheism. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-58739-7.  Bakhos, Carol (2014). The Family of Abraham: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Muslim
Interpretations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05083-9.  Blasi, Anthony J.; Turcotte, Paul-André; Duhaime, Jean (2002). Handbook of early Christianity: social science approaches. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0-7591-0015-2.  Barnett, Paul (2002). Jesus
Jesus
& the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament
New Testament
Times. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2699-5.  Derrida, Jacques (2002). Anidjar, Gil, ed. Acts of Religion. New York & London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92401-6.  Dodds, Adam
Adam
(July 2009). "The Abrahamic Faiths? Continuity and Discontinuity in Christian
Christian
and Islamic Doctrine". Evangelical Quarterly. 81 (3): 230–253.  Firestone, Reuven (2001). Children of Abraham: an introduction to Judaism
Judaism
for Muslims. Hoboken, NJ: Ktav Publishing House. ISBN 978-0-88125-720-5.  Freedman H. (trans.), and Simon, Maurice (ed.), Genesis Rabbah, Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash
Midrash
Rabbah: Genesis, Volume II, London: The Soncino Press, 1983. ISBN 0-900689-38-2. Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., Seder Olam: The rabbinic view of Biblical chronology, (trans., & ed.), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1998 Greenstreet, Wendy (2006). Integrating spirituality in health and social care. Oxford; Seattle, WA: Radcliffe. ISBN 978-1-85775-646-3.  Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., Seder Olam: The rabbinic view of Biblical chronology, (trans., & ed.), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1998 Johansson, Warren (1990). "Abrahamic Religions". In Dynes, Wayne R. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality (PDF). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8240-6544-7.  Kritzeck, James (1965). Sons of Abraham: Jews, Christians, and Moslems. Helicon.  Longton, Joseph (1987–2009). "Fils d'Abraham". In Longton, Joseph. Fils d'Abraham. S.A. Brepols I. G. P. and CIB Maredsous. ISBN 2-503-82344-0.  Massignon, Louis (1949). "Les trois prières d'Abraham, père de tous les croyants". Dieu Vivant. 13: 20–23.  Masumian, Farnaz (1995). Life After Death: A study of the afterlife in world religions. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-074-8.  de Perceval, Armand-Pierre Caussin (1847). Calcutta review – Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant l'islamisme, pendant l'époque de Mahomet, et jusqu'à la réduction de toutes les tribus sous la loi musulmane (in French). Paris: Didot. OCLC 431247004.  Peters, Francis E. (2010). The Children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Princeton University Press.  Reid, Barbara E. (1996). Choosing the Better Part?: Women in the Gospel of Luke. Liturgical Press.  Scherman, Nosson, (ed.), Tanakh, Vol.I, The Torah, (Stone edition), Mesorah Publications, Ltd., New York, 2001 Silverstein, Adam
Adam
J.; Stroumsa, Guy G., eds. (2015). The Oxford Handbook of the Abrahamic Religions. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-969776-2.  Simon, Maurice (ed.), Genesis Rabbah, Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash
Midrash
Rabbah: Genesis, Volume II, London: The Soncino Press, 1983. ISBN 0-900689-38-2. Smith, Jonathan Z. (1998). "Religion, Religions, Religious". In Taylor, Mark C. Critical Terms for Religious
Religious
Studies. University of Chicago Press. pp. 269–284. ISBN 978-0-226-79156-2.  Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6. 

External links[edit]

Reconciling the Abrahamic Faiths Retrieved 21 October 2012 What's Next? Heaven, hell, and salvation in major world religions A side-by-side comparison. [archive] Retrieved 16 September 2014 Three Faiths, One God
God
Retrieved 21 October 2012 Abrahamic Religions Retrieved 21 September 2016

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