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Abraham
Abraham
(Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם‬, Modern ʾAvraham, Tiberian ʾAḇrāhām, Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Avram or Abram (Hebrew: אַבְרָם‬, Modern ʾAvram, Tiberian ʾAḇrām), is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.[1] In Judaism
Judaism
he is the founding father of the Covenant, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God; in Christianity, he is the prototype of all believers, Jewish or Gentile; and in Islam
Islam
he is seen as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam
Adam
and culminates in Muhammad.[2] The narrative in Genesis revolves around the themes of posterity and land. Abraham
Abraham
is called by God
God
to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land originally given to Canaan, but which God
God
now promises to Abraham
Abraham
and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward who might inherit the land after Abraham, and while promises are made to Ishmael
Ishmael
about founding a great nation, Isaac, his son by his half-sister Sarah, inherits the promises to Abraham. Abraham purchases a tomb (the Cave of the Patriarchs) at Hebron
Hebron
to be Sarah's grave, thus establishing his right to the land, and in the second generation his heir Isaac
Isaac
is married to a woman from his own kin, thus ruling the Canaanites out of any inheritance. Abraham
Abraham
later marries Keturah
Keturah
and has six more sons, but on his death, when he is buried beside Sarah, it is Isaac
Isaac
who receives "all Abraham's goods", while the other sons receive only "gifts" (Genesis 25:5–8).[3] The Abraham
Abraham
story cannot be definitively related to any specific time, and it is widely agreed that the patriarchal age, along with the exodus and the period of the judges, is a late literary construct that does not relate to any period in actual history.[4] A common hypothesis among scholars is that it was composed in the early Persian period (late 6th century BCE) as a result of tensions between Jewish landowners who had stayed in Judah during the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
and traced their right to the land through their "father Abraham", and the returning exiles who based their counter-claim on Moses
Moses
and the Exodus tradition.[5]

Contents

1 Biblical account

1.1 Origins and calling 1.2 Sarai 1.3 Abram and Lot separate 1.4 Chedorlaomer 1.5 Covenant of the pieces 1.6 Hagar 1.7 Sarah 1.8 Three visitors 1.9 Abraham's plea 1.10 Abimelech 1.11 Isaac 1.12 Ishmael 1.13 Binding of Isaac 1.14 Later years

2 Historicity and origins

2.1 Historicity 2.2 Origins of the narrative

3 Religious traditions

3.1 Overview 3.2 Judaism 3.3 Christianity 3.4 Islam

4 In the arts

4.1 Painting and sculpture

4.1.1 Abraham
Abraham
in Christian iconography

4.2 Literature 4.3 Music

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Biblical account

A painting of Abraham's departure by József Molnár

Origins and calling Terah, the ninth in descent from Noah, was the father of three sons: Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Haran was the father of Lot (who was thus Abram's nephew), and died in his native city, Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarah
Sarah
(Sarai), who was barren. Terah, with Abram, Sarai, and Lot, then departed for Canaan, but settled in a place named Haran, where Terah
Terah
died at the age of 205.[Genesis 11:27–32] God
God
had told Abram to leave his country and kindred and go to a land that he would show him, and promised to make of him a great nation, bless him, make his name great, bless them that bless him, and curse them who may curse him.[Genesis 12:1–3] Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and the substance and souls that they had acquired, and traveled to Shechem
Shechem
in Canaan.[Genesis 12:4–6] Sarai

Abraham's Counsel to Sarai (watercolor c. 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that Abram and Lot and their households, traveled to Egypt. On the way Abram told Sarai to say that she was his sister, so that the Egyptians would not kill him.[Genesis 12:10–13] When they entered Egypt, the Pharaoh's officials praised Sarai's beauty to Pharaoh, and they took her into the palace and gave Abram goods in exchange. God
God
afflicted Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and his household with plagues, which led Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to try to find out what was wrong.[Genesis 12:14–17] Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh
Pharaoh
demanded that Abram and Sarai leave.[Genesis 12:18–20] Abram and Lot separate

Depiction of the separation of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot by Wenceslaus Hollar

Main article: Abraham
Abraham
and Lot's conflict When they came back to the Bethel and Hai area, Abram's and Lot's sizable herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen who were assigned to each family's cattle. The conflicts between herdsmen had become so troublesome that Abram suggested that Lot choose a separate area, either on the left hand or on the right hand, that there be no conflict amongst brethren. Lot chose to go eastward to the plain of Jordan where the land was well watered everywhere as far as Zoar, and he dwelled in the cities of the plain toward Sodom. Abram went south to Hebron
Hebron
and settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God.[6] Chedorlaomer Main article: Battle of Siddim

Meeting of Abraham
Abraham
and Melchizedek
Melchizedek
(painting c. 1464–1467 by Dieric Bouts the Elder)

During the rebellion of the Jordan River cities against Elam,[Genesis 14:1–9] Abram's nephew, Lot, was taken prisoner along with his entire household by the invading Elamite forces. The Elamite army came to collect the spoils of war, after having just defeated the king of Sodom's armies.[Genesis 14:8–12] Lot and his family, at the time, were settled on the outskirts of the Kingdom of Sodom which made them a visible target.[Genesis 13:12] One person who escaped capture came and told Abram what happened. Once Abram received this news, he immediately assembled 318 trained servants. Abram's force headed north in pursuit of the Elamite army, who were already worn down from the Battle of Siddim. When they caught up with them at Dan, Abram devised a battle plan by splitting his group into more than one unit, and launched a night raid. Not only were they able to free the captives, Abram's unit chased and slaughtered the Elamite King Chedorlaomer at Hobah, just north of Damascus. They freed Lot, as well as his household and possessions, and recovered all of the goods from Sodom that had been taken.[Genesis 14:13–16] Upon Abram's return, Sodom's king came out to meet with him in the Valley of Shaveh, the "king's dale". Also, Melchizedek
Melchizedek
king of Salem (Jerusalem), a priest of God
God
Most High, brought out bread and wine and blessed Abram and God. Abram then gave Melchizedek
Melchizedek
a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom then offered to let Abram keep all the possessions if he would merely return his people. Abram refused any deal from the king of Sodom, other than the share to which his allies were entitled.[Genesis 14:17–24] Covenant of the pieces

The vision of the Lord directing Abraham
Abraham
to count the stars (woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
from the 1860 Bible in Pictures)

See also: Covenant of the pieces The voice of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and repeated the promise of the land and descendants as numerous as the stars. Abram and God
God
made a covenant ceremony, and God
God
told of the future bondage of Israel in Egypt. God
God
described to Abram the land that his offspring would claim: the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites.[Genesis 15:1–21] Hagar See also: Hagar
Hagar
and Hagar
Hagar
in Islam

Abraham, Sarah
Sarah
and Hagar, imagined here in a Bible illustration from 1897.

Abram and Sarai tried to make sense of how he would become a progenitor of nations, because after 10 years of living in Canaan, no child had been born. Sarai then offered her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, to Abram with the intention that she would bear him a son. After Hagar
Hagar
found she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress, Sarai. Therefore, Sarai mistreated Hagar, and Hagar
Hagar
fled away. En route an angel spoke with Hagar
Hagar
at the fountain in the way to Shur. He instructed her to return and that her son would be "a wild ass of a man; his hand shall be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren." She was told to call her son Ishmael. Hagar
Hagar
then called God
God
who spoke to her "El-roi", ("Thou God
God
seest me:" KJV). From that day, the well was called Beer-lahai-roi, ("The well of him that liveth and seeth me." KJV margin). She then did as she was instructed by returning to her mistress in order to have her child. Abram was eighty-six years of age when Ishmael
Ishmael
was born.[Genesis 16:4–16] Sarah Thirteen years later, when Abram was ninety-nine years of age, God declared Abram's new name: "Abraham" – "a father of many nations".[Genesis 17:5] Abraham
Abraham
then received the instructions for the covenant, of which circumcision was to be the sign.[Genesis 17:10–14] Then God
God
declared Sarai's new name: "Sarah" and blessed her and told Abraham, "I will give thee a son also of her".[Genesis 17:15–16] But Abraham
Abraham
laughed, and "said in his heart, 'Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?'"[Genesis 17:17] Immediately after Abraham's encounter with God, he had his entire household of men, including himself (age 99) and Ishmael
Ishmael
(age 13), circumcised.[Genesis 17:22–27] Three visitors

Abraham
Abraham
and the Three Angels (watercolor c. 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Not long afterward, during the heat of the day, Abraham
Abraham
had been sitting at the entrance of his tent by the terebinths of Mamre. He looked up and saw three men in the presence of God. Then he ran and bowed to the ground to welcome them. Abraham
Abraham
then offered to wash their feet and fetch them a morsel of bread, to which they assented. Abraham
Abraham
rushed to Sarah's tent to order cakes made from choice flour, then he ordered a servant-boy to prepare a choice calf. When all was prepared, he set curds, milk and the calf before them, waiting on them, under a tree, as they ate.[Genesis 18:1–8] One of the visitors told Abraham
Abraham
that upon his return next year, Sarah would have a son. While at the tent entrance, Sarah
Sarah
overheard what was said and she laughed to herself about the prospect of having a child at their ages. The visitor inquired of Abraham
Abraham
why Sarah
Sarah
laughed at bearing a child at her age, as nothing is too hard for God. Frightened, Sarah
Sarah
denied laughing. Abraham's plea Main articles: Sodom and Gomorrah
Sodom and Gomorrah
and Lot (biblical person)

Abraham
Abraham
Sees Sodom in Flames (watercolor c. 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

After eating, Abraham
Abraham
and the three visitors got up. They walked over to the peak that overlooked the 'cities of the plain' to discuss the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah
Sodom and Gomorrah
for their detestable sins that were so great, it moved God
God
to action. Because Abraham's nephew was living in Sodom, God
God
revealed plans to confirm and judge these cities. At this point, the two other visitors left for Sodom. Then Abraham
Abraham
turned to God
God
and pleaded decrementally with Him (from fifty persons to less) that "if there were at least ten righteous men found in the city, would not God
God
spare the city?" For the sake of ten righteous people, God
God
declared that he would not destroy the city.[Genesis 18:17–33] When the two visitors got to Sodom to conduct their report, they planned on staying in the city square. However, Abraham's nephew, Lot, met with them and strongly insisted that these two "men" stay at his house for the night. A rally of men stood outside of Lot's home and demanded that they bring out his guests so that they may "know" (v.5) them. However, Lot objected and offered his virgin daughters who had not "known" (v.8) man to the rally of men instead. They rejected that notion and sought to break down Lot's door to get to his male guests,[Genesis 19:1–9] thus confirming the wickedness of the city and portending their imminent destruction.[Genesis 19:12–13] Early the next morning, Abraham
Abraham
went to the place where he stood before God. He "looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah" and saw what became of the cities of the plain, where not even "ten righteous" (v.18:32) had been found, as "the smoke of the land went up as the smoke of a furnace."[Genesis 19:27–29] Abimelech

The Caravan of Abraham
Abraham
(watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

See also: Endogamy and Wife–sister narratives in the Book of Genesis Abraham
Abraham
settled between Kadesh and Shur in the land of the Philistines. While he was living in Gerar, Abraham
Abraham
openly claimed that Sarah
Sarah
was his sister. Upon discovering this news, King Abimelech
Abimelech
had her brought to him. God
God
then came to Abimelech
Abimelech
in a dream and declared that taking her would result in death because she was a man's wife. Abimelech
Abimelech
had not laid hands on her, so he inquired if he would also slay a righteous nation, especially since Abraham
Abraham
had claimed that he and Sarah
Sarah
were siblings. In response, God
God
told Abimelech
Abimelech
that he did indeed have a blameless heart and that is why he continued to exist. However, should he not return the wife of Abraham
Abraham
back to him, God would surely destroy Abimelech
Abimelech
and his entire household. Abimelech
Abimelech
was informed that Abraham
Abraham
was a prophet who would pray for him.[Genesis 20:1–7] Early next morning, Abimelech
Abimelech
informed his servants of his dream and approached Abraham
Abraham
inquiring as to why he had brought such great guilt upon his kingdom. Abraham
Abraham
stated that he thought there was no fear of God
God
in that place, and that they might kill him for his wife. Then Abraham
Abraham
defended what he had said as not being a lie at all: "And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife."[Genesis 20:12] Abimelech
Abimelech
returned Sarah
Sarah
to Abraham, and gave him gifts of sheep, oxen, and servants; and invited him to settle wherever he pleased in Abimelech's lands. Further, Abimelech
Abimelech
gave Abraham
Abraham
a thousand pieces of silver to serve as Sarah's vindication before all. Abraham
Abraham
then prayed for Abimelech
Abimelech
and his household, since God
God
had stricken the women with infertility because of the taking of Sarah.[Genesis 20:8–18] After living for some time in the land of the Philistines, Abimelech and Phicol, the chief of his troops, approached Abraham
Abraham
because of a dispute that resulted in a violent confrontation at a well. Abraham then reproached Abimelech
Abimelech
due to his Philistine
Philistine
servant's aggressive attacks and the seizing of Abraham's well. Abimelech
Abimelech
claimed ignorance of the incident. Then Abraham
Abraham
offered a pact by providing sheep and oxen to Abimelech. Further, to attest that Abraham
Abraham
was the one who dug the well, he also gave Abimelech
Abimelech
seven ewes for proof. Because of this sworn oath, they called the place of this well: Beersheba. After Abimelech
Abimelech
and Phicol headed back to Philistia, Abraham
Abraham
planted a grove in Beersheba
Beersheba
and called upon "the name of the LORD, the everlasting God."[Genesis 21:22–34] Isaac

Sacrifice of Isaac, by Caravaggio

As had been prophesied in Mamre
Mamre
the previous year,[Genesis 17:21] Sarah
Sarah
became pregnant and bore a son to Abraham, on the first anniversary of the covenant of circumcision. Abraham
Abraham
was "an hundred years old", when his son whom he named Isaac
Isaac
was born; and he circumcised him when he was eight days old.[Genesis] For Sarah, the thought of giving birth and nursing a child, at such an old age, also brought her much laughter, as she declared, " God
God
hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me."[Genesis] Isaac continued to grow and on the day he was weaned, Abraham
Abraham
held a great feast to honor the occasion. During the celebration, however, Sarah found Ishmael
Ishmael
mocking; an observation that would begin to clarify the birthright of Isaac.[Genesis 21:8–13] Ishmael See also: Ishmael
Ishmael
in Islam
Islam
§ The sacrifice Ishmael
Ishmael
was fourteen years old when Abraham's son Isaac
Isaac
was born to Sarah. When she found Ishmael
Ishmael
teasing Isaac, Sarah
Sarah
told Abraham
Abraham
to send both Ishmael
Ishmael
and Hagar
Hagar
away. She declared that Ishmael
Ishmael
would not share in Isaac's inheritance. Abraham
Abraham
was greatly distressed by his wife's words and sought the advice of his God. God
God
told Abraham
Abraham
not to be distressed but to do as his wife commanded. God
God
reassured Abraham that "in Isaac
Isaac
shall seed be called to thee."[Genesis 21:12] He also said that Ishmael
Ishmael
would make a nation, "because he is thy seed".[Genesis 21:9–13] Early the next morning, Abraham
Abraham
brought Hagar
Hagar
and Ishmael
Ishmael
out together. He gave her bread and water and sent them away. The two wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba
Beersheba
until her bottle of water was completely consumed. In a moment of despair, she burst into tears. After God
God
heard the boy's voice, an angel of the Lord confirmed to Hagar
Hagar
that he would become a great nation, and will be "living on his sword". A well of water then appeared so that it saved their lives. As the boy grew, he became a skilled archer living in the wilderness of Paran. Eventually his mother found a wife for Ishmael
Ishmael
from her home country, the land of Egypt.[Genesis 21:14–21] Binding of Isaac

The Angel Hinders the Offering of Isaac
Isaac
by Rembrandt

Abraham
Abraham
about to sacrifice Isaac. From a 14th-century missal

Main article: Binding of Isaac At some point in Isaac's youth, Abraham
Abraham
was commanded by God
God
to offer his son up as a sacrifice in the land of Moriah. The patriarch traveled three days until he came to the mount that God
God
told him of. He then commanded the servants to remain while he and Isaac
Isaac
proceeded alone into the mount. Isaac
Isaac
carried the wood upon which he would be sacrificed. Along the way, Isaac
Isaac
asked his father where the animal for the burnt offering was, to which Abraham
Abraham
replied " God
God
will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering". Just as Abraham
Abraham
was about to sacrifice his son, he was interrupted by the angel of the Lord, and he saw behind him a "ram caught in a thicket by his horns", which he sacrificed instead of his son. For his obedience he received another promise of numerous descendants and abundant prosperity. After this event, Abraham
Abraham
went to Beersheba.[Genesis 22:1–19] Later years See also: Abraham's family tree Sarah
Sarah
died, and Abraham
Abraham
buried her in the Cave of the Patriarchs
Cave of the Patriarchs
(the "cave of Machpelah"), near Hebron
Hebron
which he had purchased along with the adjoining field from Ephron the Hittite.[Genesis 23:1–20] After the death of Sarah, Abraham
Abraham
took another wife, a concubine named Keturah, by whom he had six sons: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.[Genesis 25:1–6] According to the Bible, reflecting the change of his name to "Abraham" meaning "a father of many nations", Abraham
Abraham
is considered to be the progenitor of many nations mentioned in the Bible, among others the Israelites, Ishmaelites,[Genesis 25:12–18] Edomites,[Genesis 36:1–43]) Amalekites,[Genesis 36:12–16] Kenizzites,[Genesis 36:9–16] Midianites and Assyrians,[Genesis 25:1–5] and through his nephew Lot he was also related to the Moabites and Ammonites.[Genesis 19:35–38] Abraham
Abraham
lived to see his son marry Rebekah, (and to see the birth of his twin grandsons Jacob
Jacob
and Esau). He died at age 175, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah by his sons Isaac
Isaac
and Ishmael.[Genesis 25:7–10][1 Chronicles 1:32] Historicity and origins Historicity

Abraham's well
Abraham's well
at Beersheba

In the early and middle 20th century, leading archaeologists such as William F. Albright
William F. Albright
and biblical scholars such as Albrecht Alt believed that the patriarchs and matriarchs were either real individuals or believable composites of people who lived in the "patriarchal age", the 2nd millennium BCE. But, in the 1970s, new arguments concerning Israel's past and the biblical texts challenged these views; these arguments can be found in Thomas L. Thompson's The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives (1974), and John Van Seters' Abraham in History and Tradition
Abraham in History and Tradition
(1975). Thompson, a literary scholar, based his argument on archaeology and ancient texts. His thesis centered on the lack of compelling evidence that the patriarchs lived in the 2nd millennium BCE, and noted how certain biblical texts reflected first millennium conditions and concerns. Van Seters examined the patriarchal stories and argued that their names, social milieu, and messages strongly suggested that they were Iron Age creations.[7] By the beginning of the 21st century, archaeologists had given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac or Jacob
Jacob
credible historical figures.[8] Origins of the narrative Abraham's name is apparently very ancient, as the tradition found in Genesis no longer understands its original meaning (probably "Father is exalted" – the meaning offered in Genesis 17:5, "Father of a multitude", is a popular etymology).[9] The story, like those of the other patriarchs, most likely had a substantial oral prehistory.[10] At some stage the oral traditions became part of the written tradition of the Pentateuch; a majority of scholars believe this stage belongs to the Persian period, roughly 520–320 BCE.[11] The mechanisms by which this came about remain unknown,[12] but there are currently two important hypotheses.[13] The first, called Persian Imperial authorisation, is that the post-Exilic community devised the Torah
Torah
as a legal basis on which to function within the Persian Imperial system; the second is that Pentateuch
Pentateuch
was written to provide the criteria for who would belong to the post Exilic Jewish community and to establish the power structures and relative positions of its various groups, notably the priesthood and the lay "elders".[13] Nevertheless, the completion of the Torah
Torah
and its elevation to the centre of post-Exilic Judaism
Judaism
was as much or more about combining older texts as writing new ones – the final Pentateuch
Pentateuch
was based on existing traditions.[14] In Ezekiel
Ezekiel
33:24, written during the Exile (i.e., in the first half of the 6th century BCE), Ezekiel, an exile in Babylon, tells how those who remained in Judah are claiming ownership of the land based on inheritance from Abraham; but the prophet tells them they have no claim because they do not observe Torah.[15] Isaiah 63:16 similarly testifies of tension between the people of Judah and the returning post-Exilic Jews (the "gôlâ"), stating that God
God
is the father of Israel and that Israel's history begins with the Exodus and not with Abraham.[16] The conclusion to be inferred from this and similar evidence (e.g., Ezra-Nehemiah), is that the figure of Abraham must have been preeminent among the great landowners of Judah at the time of the Exile and after, serving to support their claims to the land in opposition to those of the returning exiles.[16] Religious traditions

Abraham

Abraham
Abraham
and the Angels by Aert de Gelder
Aert de Gelder
(c. 1680–85)

First Patriarch

Venerated in

Judaism Christianity Islam Baha'i Faith

Feast 9 October – Roman Catholicism

Overview Abraham
Abraham
is given a high position of respect in three major world faiths, Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. In Judaism
Judaism
he is the founding father of the Covenant, the special relationship between the Jewish people and God – a belief which gives the Jews a unique position as the Chosen People of God. In Christianity, the Apostle Paul taught that Abraham's faith in God
God
– preceding the Mosaic law – made him the prototype of all believers, circumcised and uncircumcised. The Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
claimed Abraham, whose submission to God
God
constituted Islam
Islam
as a "believer before the fact" and undercut Jewish claims to an exclusive relationship with God
God
and the Covenant.[17] Judaism In Jewish tradition, Abraham
Abraham
is called Avraham Avinu (אברהם אבינו), "our father Abraham," signifying that he is both the biological progenitor of the Jews and the father of Judaism, the first Jew.[18] His story is read in the weekly Torah
Torah
reading portions, predominantly in the parashot: Lech-Lecha (לֶךְ-לְךָ), Vayeira (וַיֵּרָא), Chayei Sarah
Sarah
(חַיֵּי שָׂרָה), and Toledot (תּוֹלְדֹת). In Jewish legend, God
God
created heaven and earth for the sake of the merits of Abraham.[19] After the deluge, Abraham
Abraham
was the only one among the pious who solemnly swear never forsaking God,[20] and studied in house of Noah
Noah
and Shem
Shem
to learn about "Ways of God,"[21] and continuing the line of High Priest from Noah
Noah
and Shem, then he descended the office to Levi
Levi
and his seeds forever. Before leaving his fathers' land, Abraham
Abraham
was miraculously saved from the fiery furnace of Nimrod
Nimrod
following his brave action of breaking the idols of the Chaldeans
Chaldeans
into pieces.[22] During his sojourning in Canaan, Abraham was accustomed to extend hospitality to travelers and strangers and taught how to praise God
God
also knowledge of God
God
to those who had received his hospitality.[23] Besides Isaac
Isaac
and Jacob, he is the one whose name would appear united with God, as God in Judaism
God in Judaism
was called Elohei Abraham, Elohei Yitzchak ve Elohei Ya`aqob (" God
God
of Abraham, God
God
of Isaac, and God
God
of Jacob") and never the God
God
of any one else.[24] He was also mentioned as the father of thirty nations.[25] Christianity Abraham
Abraham
does not loom so large in Christianity
Christianity
as he does in Judaism and Islam. It is Jesus
Jesus
as the Jewish Messiah
Messiah
who is central to Christianity, and the idea of a divine Messiah
Messiah
is what separates Christianity
Christianity
from the other two religions.[26] In Romans 4, Abraham's merit is less his obedience to the divine will than his faith in God's ultimate grace; this faith provides him the merit for God
God
having chosen him for the covenant, and the covenant becomes one of faith, not obedience.[27] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
calls Abraham
Abraham
"our father in Faith" in the Eucharistic prayer
Eucharistic prayer
of the Roman Canon, recited during the Mass (see Abraham
Abraham
in the Catholic liturgy). He is also commemorated in the calendars of saints of several denominations: on 20 August by the Maronite Church, 28 August in the Coptic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East (with the full office for the latter), and on 9 October by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. In the introduction to his 15th-century translation of the Golden Legend's account of Abraham, William Caxton noted that this patriarch's life was read in church on Quinquagesima Sunday.[28] He is the patron saint of those in the hospitality industry.[29][page needed] The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates him as the "Righteous Forefather Abraham", with two feast days in its liturgical calendar. The first time is on 9 October (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 9 October falls on 22 October of the modern Gregorian Calendar), where he is commemorated together with his nephew "Righteous Lot". The other is on the "Sunday of the Forefathers" (two Sundays before Christmas), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. Abraham
Abraham
is also mentioned in the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of Saint Basil the Great, just before the Anaphora, and Abraham
Abraham
and Sarah
Sarah
are invoked in the prayers said by the priest over a newly married couple. Islam Main article: Abraham
Abraham
in Islam Islam
Islam
regards Abraham
Abraham
as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam
Adam
and culminates in Muhammad.[30] Ibrāhīm is mentioned in 35 chapters of the Quran, more often than any other biblical personage apart from Moses.[31] He is called both a hanif (monotheist) and muslim (one who submits),[32] and Muslims regard him as a prophet and patriarch, the archetype of the perfect Muslim, and the revered reformer of the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca.[33] Islamic traditions consider Ibrāhīm (Abraham) the first Pioneer of Islam
Islam
(which is also called millat Ibrahim, the "religion of Abraham"), and that his purpose and mission throughout his life was to proclaim the Oneness of God. In Islam, Abraham
Abraham
holds an exalted position among the major prophets and he is referred to as "Ibrahim Khalilullah", meaning " Abraham
Abraham
the Friend [of Allah]". Besides Ishaq and Yaqub, Ibrahim is among the most honorable and the most excellent men in sight of God.[34][35] In the arts Painting and sculpture Paintings on the life of Abraham
Abraham
tend to focus on only a few incidents: the sacrifice of Isaac; meeting Melchizedek; entertaining the three angels; Hagar
Hagar
in the desert; and a few others.[36] Additionally, Martin O'Kane, a professor of Biblical Studies, writes that the parable of Lazarus resting in the "Bosom of Abraham", as described in the Gospel of Luke, became an iconic image in Christian works.[37] According to O'Kane, artists often chose to divert from the common literary portrayal of Lazarus sitting next to Abraham
Abraham
at a banquet in Heaven and instead focus on the "somewhat incongruous notion of Abraham, the most venerated of patriarchs, holding a naked and vulnerable child in his bosom".[37] Several artists have been inspired by the life of Abraham, including Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), Caravaggio
Caravaggio
(1573–1610), Donatello, Raphael, Philip van Dyck (Dutch painter, 1680–1753), and Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
(French painter, 1600–1682). Rembrandt
Rembrandt
(Dutch, 1606–1669) created at least seven works on Abraham, Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
(1577–1640) did several, Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall
did at least five on Abraham, Gustave Doré (French illustrator, 1832–1883) did six, and James Tissot
James Tissot
(French painter and illustrator, 1836–1902) did over twenty works on the subject.[36]

16th century plaster cast of a late Roman era Sacrifice of Isaac. The hand of God
God
originally came down to restrain Abraham's knife (both are now missing).

The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
depicts a set of biblical stories, including Abraham
Abraham
about to sacrifice Isaac. These sculpted scenes are on the outside of a marble Early Christian sarcophagus used for the burial of Junius Bassus. He died in 359. This sarcophagus has been described as "probably the single most famous piece of early Christian relief sculpture."[38] The sarcophagus was originally placed in or under Old St. Peter's Basilica, was rediscovered in 1597,[39] and is now below the modern basilica in the Museo Storico del Tesoro della Basilica di San Pietro (Museum of St. Peter's Basilica) in the Vatican. The base is approximately 4 × 8 × 4 feet. The Old Testament scenes depicted were chosen as precursors of Christ's sacrifice in the New Testament, in an early form of typology. Just to the right of the middle is Daniel in the lion's den and on the left is Abraham
Abraham
about to sacrifice Isaac. George Segal created figural sculptures by molding plastered gauze strips over live models in his 1987 work Abraham's Farewell to Ishmael. The human condition was central to his concerns, and Segal used the Old Testament as a source for his imagery. This sculpture depicts the dilemma faced by Abraham
Abraham
when Sarah
Sarah
demanded that he expel Hagar
Hagar
and Ishmael. In the sculpture, the father's tenderness, Sarah's rage, and Hagar's resigned acceptance portray a range of human emotions. The sculpture was donated to the Miami Art Museum after the artist's death in 2000.[40] Abraham
Abraham
in Christian iconography Usually Abraham
Abraham
can be identified by the context of the image – the meeting with Melchizedek, the three visitors, or the sacrifice of Isaac. In solo portraits a sword or knife may be used as his attribute, as in this statue by Gian Maria Morlaiter or this painting by Lorenzo Monaco. He always wears a gray or white beard. As early as the beginning of the 3rd century, Christian art followed Christian typology in making the sacrifice of Isaac
Isaac
a foreshadowing of Christ's sacrifice on the cross and its memorial in the sacrifice of the Mass. See for example this 11th-century Christian altar engraved with Abraham's and other sacrifices taken to prefigure that of Christ in the Eucharist.[41] Some early Christian writers interpreted the three visitors as the triune God. Thus in Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, a 5th-century mosaic portrays only the visitors against a gold ground and puts semitransparent copies of them in the "heavenly" space above the scene. In Eastern Orthodox art the visit is the chief means by which the Trinity is pictured (example). Some images do not include Abraham and Sarah, like Andrei Rublev's Trinity, which shows only the three visitors as beardless youths at a table.[42] Literature Fear and Trembling
Fear and Trembling
(original Danish title: Frygt og Bæven) is an influential philosophical work by Søren Kierkegaard, published in 1843 under the pseudonym Johannes de silentio (John the Silent). Kierkegaard wanted to understand the anxiety that must have been present in Abraham
Abraham
when God
God
asked him to sacrifice his son.[43] Music In 1994, Steve Reich
Steve Reich
released an opera named The Cave. The title refers to the Cave of the Patriarchs. The narrative of the opera is based on the story of Abraham
Abraham
and his immediate family as it is recounted in the various religious texts, and as it is understood by individual people from different cultures and religious traditions. Bob Dylan's "Highway 61 Revisited"[44] is the title track for his 1965 album Highway 61 Revisited. In 2004, Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine ranked the song as number 364 in their 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.[45] The song has five stanzas. In each stanza, someone describes an unusual problem that is ultimately resolved on Highway 61. In Stanza 1, God tells Abraham
Abraham
to "kill me a son". God
God
wants the killing done on Highway 61. Abram, the original name of the biblical Abraham, is also the name of Dylan's own father. See also

Judaism
Judaism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Abraham
Abraham
Path Abraham's Gate
Abraham's Gate
at Tel Dan Abraham
Abraham
in History and Tradition Apocalypse of Abraham Gathering of Israel Genealogies of Genesis Jewish Kabbalah Pearl of Great Price Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions The evil Nimrod
Nimrod
vs. the righteous Abraham Zoroaster

References

^ McCarter 2000, p. 8. ^ Levenson 2012, p. 8. ^ Ska 2009, pp. 26–31. ^ McNutt 1999, pp. 41–42. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 227–28, 260. ^ "Abram and Lot Separate", Chabad.org ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 18–19. ^ Dever 2002, p. 98 and fn.2. ^ Thompson 2002, pp. 23–24. ^ Pitard 2001, p. 27. ^ Ska 2009, p. 260. ^ Enns 2012, p. 26. ^ a b Ska 2006, pp. 217, 227–28. ^ Carr & Conway 2010, p. 193. ^ Ska 2009, p. 43. ^ a b Ska 2009, p. 44. ^ Peters 2010, pp. 170–71. ^ Levenson 2012, p. 3. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : The Wicked Generations (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : In the Fiery Furnace (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Samuel, Moses, 1840, Book of Jasher (Sefer Hayashar) Referred to in Joshua
Joshua
and Second Samuel
Samuel
Chapter 9: 5-6] ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : In the Fiery Furnace (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : The Covenant with Abimelech
Abimelech
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : Joy And Sorrow in the House Of Jacob
Jacob
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. I : The Birth Of Esau And Jacob
Jacob
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Peters 2010, p. 171. ^ Firestone, Reuven. "Abraham." Encyclopedia of World History. ^ Caxton, William. "Abraham". The Golden Legend. Internet Medieval Source Book. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  ^ Holweck 1924. ^ Levenson 2012, p. PA8. ^ Peters 2003, p. PA9. ^ Levenson 2012, p. PA200. ^ Mecca, Martin Lings, c. 2004 ^ Quran
Quran
(chapter Shaad) 38:45-47 ^ Maulana, Mohammad, 2006, Encyclopaedia Of Quranic Studies p. 104 ^ a b For a very thorough online collection of links to artwork about Abraham
Abraham
see: Artwork Depicting Scenes from Abraham's Life. Retrieved 25 March 2011 ^ a b Exum 2007, p. 135. ^ Journal of Early Christian Studies, Leonard Victor Rutgers, The Iconography of the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
(review of Malbon book), Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1993, pp. 94–96; for Janson it is also the "finest Early Christian sarcophagus". ^ or 1595, see Elsner, p. 86n. ^ Abraham's Farewell to Ishmael. George Segal. Miami Art Museum. Collections: Recent Acquisitions.. Retrieved 10 September 2014. ^ " Abraham
Abraham
the Patriarch
Patriarch
in Art – Iconography and Literature". Christian Iconography – a project of Georgia Regents University. Retrieved 2014-04-18.  ^ Boguslawski, Alexander. "The Holy Trinity". Rollins.edu. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  ^ Kierkegaard 1980, pp. 155–56. ^ "Highway 61 Revisited". Retrieved 25 March 2011. ^ "Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2008. 

Bibliography

Andrews, Stephen J. (1990). "Abraham". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger A. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7.  Barr, James (2013). Bible and Interpretation: The Collected Essays of James Barr. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199692897.  Barr, James (1993). "Chronology". In Metzger, Bruce; Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743919.  Carr, David
David
M.; Conway, Colleen M. (2010). "Introduction to the Pentateuch". An Introduction to the Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405167383.  Coogan, Michael (2008). The Old Testament: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530505-0.  Davies, Philip R. (2008). Memories of Ancient Israel: An Introduction to Biblical History – Ancient and Modern. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664232887.  Dever, William G. (2002). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and when Did They Know It?: What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3.  Enns, Peter (2012). The Evolution of Adam. Baker Books. ISBN 978-1-58743-315-3.  Exum, Jo Cheryl (2007). Retellings: The Bible in Literature, Music, Art and Film. Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-16572-X.  Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2338-1.  Hatcher, W.S.; Martin, J.D. (1998). The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Bahá'í Publishing Trust.  Hendel, Ronald (2005). Remembering Abraham: Culture, Memory, and History in the Hebrew Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-803959-X.  Hill, Andrew E.; Walton, John H. (2010). A Survey of the Old Testament. Zondervan. pp. 2024–30. ISBN 978-0-310-59066-8.  Holweck, Frederick George (1924). A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. B. Herder Book Co.  Hubbard, David
David
Allan; Sanford La Sor, Frederic William; Bush (1996). Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-3788-3.  Hughes, Jeremy (1990). Secrets of the Times. Continuum.  Kierkegaard, Søren (1980). The Concept of Anxiety: A Simple Psychologically Orienting Deliberation on the Dogmatic Issue of Hereditary Sin. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02011-6.  Levenson, Jon Douglas (2012). Inheriting Abraham: The Legacy of the Patriarch
Patriarch
in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton University Press.  Ma'ani, Baharieh Rouhani (2008). Leaves of the Twin Divine Trees. Oxford, United Kingdom: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-533-2.  May, Dann J (December 1993). "The Bahá'í Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism". University of North Texas, Denton, Texas: 102.  McCarter, P. Kyle (2000). "Abraham". In Freedman, Noel David; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.  McNutt, Paula M. (1999). Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22265-9.  Mills, Watson E. (1998). Mercer Commentary on the Bible, Volume 1; Volume 8. Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-506-5.  Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0.  Peters, Francis Edward (2003). Islam, a Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 1400825482.  Peters, Francis Edward (2010). The Children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1-4008-2129-0.  Pitard, Wayne T. (2001). "Before Israel". In Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2.  Shea, William H. (2000). "Chronology of the Old Testament". In Freedman, David
David
Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.  Ska, Jean Louis (2006). Introduction to Reading the Pentateuch. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-122-1.  Ska, Jean Louis (2009). The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 30–31, 260. ISBN 978-3-16-149905-0.  link pp. 30–31 Taherzadeh, Adib (1984). "The Death of the Purest Branch". The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 3: 'Akka, The Early Years 1868–77. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-144-2.  Thompson, Thomas L. (2002). The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives: The Quest for the Historical Abraham. Valley Forge, Pa: Trinity Press International. pp. 23–24, 36. ISBN 1-56338-389-6.  Wilson, Marvin R. (1989). Our Father Abraham: Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith. Massachusetts: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-0423-3. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abraham.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Abraham

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary
Easton's Bible Dictionary
article Abraham.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abraham.

"Abraham" at chabad.org. Abraham
Abraham
smashes the idols (accessed 24 March 2011). "Journey and Life of the Patriarch
Patriarch
Abraham", a map dating back to 1590. Kitáb-i-Íqán

v t e

Legendary progenitors

Manu (Hinduism) Mannus (German) Adam, Noah, Abraham
Abraham
(Judaism, Christianity, Islam) Kintu (Uganda) Mashya and Mashyana
Mashya and Mashyana
(Zoroastrianism) Phoenix (Phoenicians) Nyatri Tsenpo
Nyatri Tsenpo
(Tibetan Buddhism) Nüwa
Nüwa
(China) Melampus (Greek Mythology) Wurugag and Waramurungundi (Australian Gunwinggu) Míl Espáine (Irish) Wau Rauh (Bali)

v t e

Linear genealogy of Jesus
Jesus
from the first couple according to the Matthew 1

Generations after Creation

Adam
Adam
and Eve Seth Enos Kenan Mahalalel Jared Enoch Methuselah Lamech Noah Shem

Patriarchs after Flood

Arpachshad Shelah Eber Peleg Reu Serug Nahor Terah Abraham Isaac Jacob

Nationhood to Kingship

Judah Perez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon Salmon Boaz Obed Jesse David Solomon

Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
to Captivity

Rehoboam Abijah Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Uzziah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jeconiah

Return to Jesus

Salathiel Zerubbabel Abihud Eliakim Azor * Sadoc * Achim * Eliud * Eleazar * Matthan * Jacob Joseph Jesus

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89660956 LCCN: n79065663 ISNI: 0000 0000 9650 0173 GND: 118500201 SELIBR: 292616 BNF:

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