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METRES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL (MAMSL) or simply METRES ABOVE SEA LEVEL (MASL or M A.S.L.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level . Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time. For this and other reasons, recorded measurements of elevation above sea level might differ from the actual elevation of a given location over sea level at a given moment.

CONTENTS

* 1 Uses * 2 How it is determined * 3 Other measurement systems * 4 Abbreviations * 5 See also * 6 References

USES

Metres above sea level is the standard measurement of the elevation or altitude of:

* Geographic locations such as towns , mountains and other landmarks . * The top of buildings and other structures . * Flying objects such as airplanes or helicopters .

HOW IT IS DETERMINED

The elevation or altitude in metres above sea level of a location, object, or point can be determined in a number of ways. The most common include:

* Global Positioning System (GPS), which triangulates a location in reference to multiple satellites . * Altimeters . They typically measure atmospheric pressure , which decreases as altitude increases. * Aerial photography . * Surveying .

Accurate measurement of historical mean sea levels is complex. Land mass subsidence (as occurs naturally in some islands) can give the appearance of rising sea levels. Conversely, markings on land masses that are uplifted due to geological processes can suggest a lowering of mean sea level.

OTHER MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

Feet above sea level is the most common analogue for metres above sea level in the American measurement system.

ABBREVIATIONS

Metres above sea level is commonly abbreviated mamsl or MAMSL, based on the abbreviation AMSL for above mean sea level . Other abbreviations are m.a.s.l. and MASL.

SEE ALSO

* Metres above average terrain * Metres above ground level * List of places on land with elevations below sea level

REFERENCES

* ^ Ricardo Bressani, Ricardo; Carlos Chon (1996). "Effects of altitude above sea level on the cooking time and nutritional value of common beans" (PDF). _Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum)_. 49 (1): 53–61. doi :10.1007/BF01092522 . Retrieved 2007-05-06. * ^ "Meters above Sea Level - What does MSL stand for? Acronyms and abbreviations by The Free Online Dictionary.". Retrieved 2007-05-06.

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