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Abortion
Abortion
is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.[note 1] An abortion that occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage. An abortion may be caused purposely and is then called an induced abortion, or less frequently, "induced miscarriage". The word abortion is often used to mean only induced abortions. A similar procedure after the fetus could potentially survive outside the womb is known as a "late termination of pregnancy".[1] When allowed by law, abortion in the developed world is one of the safest procedures in medicine.[2][3] Modern methods use medication or surgery for abortions.[4] The drug mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during the first and second trimester of pregnancy.[4][5] Birth control, such as the pill or intrauterine devices, can be used immediately following abortion.[5] When performed legally and safely, induced abortions do not increase the risk of long-term mental or physical problems.[6] In contrast, unsafe abortions (those performed by unskilled individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities) cause 47,000 deaths and 5 million hospital admissions each year.[6][7] The World Health
Health
Organization recommends safe and legal abortions be available to all women.[8] Around 56 million abortions are performed each year in the world,[9] with about 45% done unsafely.[10] Abortion
Abortion
rates changed little between 2003 and 2008,[11] before which they decreased for at least two decades as access to family planning and birth control increased.[12] As of 2008[update], 40% of the world's women had access to legal abortions without limits as to reason.[13] Countries that permit abortions have different limits on how late in pregnancy abortion is allowed.[13] Historically, abortions have been attempted using herbal medicines, sharp tools, forceful massage, or through other traditional methods.[14] Abortion
Abortion
laws and cultural or religious views of abortions are different around the world. In some areas abortion is legal only in specific cases such as rape, problems with the fetus, poverty, risk to a woman's health, or incest.[15] In many places there is much debate over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of abortion.[16][17] Those who oppose abortion often maintain that an embryo or fetus is a human with a right to life, and so they may compare abortion to murder.[18][19] Those who favor the legality of abortion often hold that a woman has a right to make decisions about her own body.[20] Others favor legal and accessible abortion as a public health measure.[21]

Contents

1 Types

1.1 Induced 1.2 Spontaneous

2 Methods

2.1 Medical 2.2 Surgical 2.3 Labor induction abortion 2.4 Other methods

3 Safety

3.1 Mental health 3.2 Unsafe abortion 3.3 Live birth

4 Incidence

4.1 Gestational age
Gestational age
and method

5 Motivation

5.1 Personal 5.2 Societal 5.3 Maternal and fetal health

5.3.1 Cancer

6 History and religion 7 Society and culture

7.1 Abortion
Abortion
debate 7.2 Modern abortion law 7.3 Sex-selective abortion 7.4 Anti-abortion violence

8 Other animals 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Types Induced Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year worldwide. Over a third are unintended and about a fifth end in induced abortion.[11][22] Most abortions result from unintended pregnancies.[23][24] In the United Kingdom, 1 to 2% of abortions are done due to genetic problems in the fetus.[6] A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses.[25][26] Specific procedures may also be selected due to legality, regional availability, and doctor or a woman's personal preference. Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as either therapeutic or elective. An abortion is medically referred to as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman; to prevent harm to the woman's physical or mental health; to terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child will have a significantly increased chance of mortality or morbidity; or to selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy.[27][28] An abortion is referred to as an elective or voluntary abortion when it is performed at the request of the woman for non-medical reasons.[28] Confusion sometimes arises over the term "elective" because "elective surgery" generally refers to all scheduled surgery, whether medically necessary or not.[29] Spontaneous Main article: Miscarriage Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 24th week of gestation.[30] A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a live-born infant is known as a "premature birth" or a "preterm birth".[31] When a fetus dies in utero after viability, or during delivery, it is usually termed "stillborn".[32] Premature births and stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although usage of these terms can sometimes overlap.[33] Only 30% to 50% of conceptions progress past the first trimester.[34] The vast majority of those that do not progress are lost before the woman is aware of the conception,[28] and many pregnancies are lost before medical practitioners can detect an embryo.[35] Between 15% and 30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage, depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman.[36] 80% of these spontaneous abortions happen in the first trimester.[37] The most common cause of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo or fetus,[28][38] accounting for at least 50% of sampled early pregnancy losses.[39] Other causes include vascular disease (such as lupus), diabetes, other hormonal problems, infection, and abnormalities of the uterus.[38] Advancing maternal age and a woman's history of previous spontaneous abortions are the two leading factors associated with a greater risk of spontaneous abortion.[39] A spontaneous abortion can also be caused by accidental trauma; intentional trauma or stress to cause miscarriage is considered induced abortion or feticide.[40] Methods

 

 

Practice of Induced Abortion
Abortion
Methods

MVA

D&E

EVA

Hyst.

D&C

Intact D&X

Mifepr.

Induced Miscarr.

0–12 wks

12–28 weeks

28–40 wks

Gestational age
Gestational age
may determine which abortion methods are practiced.

Medical Main article: Medical abortion Medical abortions are those induced by abortifacient pharmaceuticals. Medical abortion became an alternative method of abortion with the availability of prostaglandin analogs in the 1970s and the antiprogestogen mifepristone (also known as RU-486) in the 1980s.[4][5][41][42][43] The most common early first-trimester medical abortion regimens use mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analog (misoprostol or gemeprost) up to 9 weeks gestational age, methotrexate in combination with a prostaglandin analog up to 7 weeks gestation, or a prostaglandin analog alone.[41] Mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimens work faster and are more effective at later gestational ages than methotrexate–misoprostol combination regimens, and combination regimens are more effective than misoprostol alone.[42] This regime is effective in the second trimester.[44] Medical abortion regiments involving mifepristone followed by misoprostol in the cheek between 24 and 48 hours later are effective when performed before 63 days' gestation.[45] In very early abortions, up to 7 weeks gestation, medical abortion using a mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimen is considered to be more effective than surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration), especially when clinical practice does not include detailed inspection of aspirated tissue.[46] Early medical abortion regimens using mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by buccal or vaginal misoprostol are 98% effective up to 9 weeks gestational age.[47] If medical abortion fails, surgical abortion must be used to complete the procedure.[48] Early medical abortions account for the majority of abortions before 9 weeks gestation in Britain,[49][50] France,[51] Switzerland,[52] and the Nordic countries.[53] In the United States, the percentage of early medical abortions is far lower.[54][55] Medical abortion regimens using mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analog are the most common methods used for second-trimester abortions in Canada, most of Europe, China and India,[43] in contrast to the United States where 96% of second-trimester abortions are performed surgically by dilation and evacuation.[56] Surgical

A vacuum aspiration abortion at eight weeks gestational age (six weeks after fertilization). 1: Amniotic sac 2: Embryo 3: Uterine lining 4: Speculum 5: Vacurette 6: Attached to a suction pump

Up to 15 weeks' gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are the most common surgical methods of induced abortion.[57] Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) consists of removing the fetus or embryo, placenta, and membranes by suction using a manual syringe, while electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) uses an electric pump. These techniques differ in the mechanism used to apply suction, in how early in pregnancy they can be used, and in whether cervical dilation is necessary. MVA, also known as "mini-suction" and "menstrual extraction", can be used in very early pregnancy, and does not require cervical dilation. Dilation and curettage
Dilation and curettage
(D&C), the second most common method of surgical abortion, is a standard gynecological procedure performed for a variety of reasons, including examination of the uterine lining for possible malignancy, investigation of abnormal bleeding, and abortion. Curettage
Curettage
refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
recommends this procedure, also called sharp curettage, only when MVA is unavailable.[58] From the 15th week of gestation until approximately the 26th, other techniques must be used. Dilation and evacuation (D&E) consists of opening the cervix of the uterus and emptying it using surgical instruments and suction. After the 16th week of gestation, abortions can also be induced by intact dilation and extraction (IDX) (also called intrauterine cranial decompression), which requires surgical decompression of the fetus's head before evacuation. IDX is sometimes called "partial-birth abortion", which has been federally banned in the United States. In the third trimester of pregnancy, induced abortion may be performed surgically by intact dilation and extraction or by hysterotomy. Hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section and is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a smaller incision than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of pregnancy.[59] First-trimester procedures can generally be performed using local anesthesia, while second-trimester methods may require deep sedation or general anesthesia.[55] Labor induction abortion In places lacking the necessary medical skill for dilation and extraction, or where preferred by practitioners, an abortion can be induced by first inducing labor and then inducing fetal demise if necessary.[60] This is sometimes called "induced miscarriage". This procedure may be performed from 13 weeks gestation to the third trimester. Although it is very uncommon in the United States, more than 80% of induced abortions throughout the second trimester are labor induced abortions in Sweden and other nearby countries.[61] Only limited data are available comparing this method with dilation and extraction.[61] Unlike D&E, labor induced abortions after 18 weeks may be complicated by the occurrence of brief fetal survival, which may be legally characterized as live birth. For this reason, labor induced abortion is legally risky in the U.S.[61][62] Other methods Historically, a number of herbs reputed to possess abortifacient properties have been used in folk medicine. Among these are: tansy, pennyroyal, black cohosh, and the now-extinct silphium.[63]:44-47,62-63,154-155,230-231 Modern scientific studies have confirmed that many botanical substances do in fact have abortifacient properties.[64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][63]:42,46-50,52,54,56-58,60,62 However, modern users of these plants often lack knowledge of the proper use and dosage. The historian of medicine John Riddle has spoken of the "broken chain of knowledge,"[63]:167-205 and historian of science Ann Hibner Koblitz has written,[72]:125

U.S. women of European descent have perhaps become particularly ignorant about the wealth of herbal remedies that previous generations accumulated over the centuries. And sometimes their fumbling attempts to recover the knowledge can be disastrous.

For example, in 1978 one woman in Colorado died and another was seriously injured when they attempted to procure an abortion by taking pennyroyal oil.[73] Because the indiscriminant use of herbs as abortifacients can cause serious—even lethal—side effects, such as multiple organ failure,[74] such use is not recommended by physicians. Abortion
Abortion
is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. The degree of force, if severe, can cause serious internal injuries without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage.[75] In Southeast Asia, there is an ancient tradition of attempting abortion through forceful abdominal massage.[76] One of the bas reliefs decorating the temple of Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
in Cambodia
Cambodia
depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld.[76] Reported methods of unsafe, self-induced abortion include misuse of misoprostol, and insertion of non-surgical implements such as knitting needles and clothes hangers into the uterus. These and other methods to terminate pregnancy may be called "induced miscarriage". Such methods are rarely used in countries where surgical abortion is legal and available.[77]

Safety

An abortion flyer in South Africa

The health risks of abortion depend principally upon whether the procedure is performed safely or unsafely. The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortions as those performed by unskilled individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities.[78] Legal abortions performed in the developed world are among the safest procedures in medicine.[2][79] In the US, the risk of maternal death from abortion is 0.7 per 100,000 procedures,[3] making abortion about 13 times safer for women than childbirth (8.8 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births).[80][81] In the United States from 2000 to 2009, abortion had a lower mortality rate than plastic surgery.[82] The risk of abortion-related mortality increases with gestational age, but remains lower than that of childbirth through at least 21 weeks' gestation.[83][84][85] Outpatient abortion is as safe and effective from 64 to 70 days' gestation as it is from 57 to 63 days.[86] Medical abortion is safe and effective for pregnancies earlier than 6 weeks' gestation.[87] Vacuum aspiration
Vacuum aspiration
in the first trimester is the safest method of surgical abortion, and can be performed in a primary care office, abortion clinic, or hospital. Complications, which are rare, can include uterine perforation, pelvic infection, and retained products of conception requiring a second procedure to evacuate.[88] Infections account for one-third of abortion-related deaths in the United States.[89] The rate of complications of vacuum aspiration abortion in the first trimester is similar regardless of whether the procedure is performed in a hospital, surgical center, or office.[90] Preventive antibiotics (such as doxycycline or metronidazole) are typically given before elective abortion,[91] as they are believed to substantially reduce the risk of postoperative uterine infection.[55][92] The rate of failed procedures does not appear to vary significantly depending on whether the abortion is performed by a doctor or a mid-level practitioner.[93] Complications after second-trimester abortion are similar to those after first-trimester abortion, and depend somewhat on the method chosen. Second-trimester abortions are generally well-tolerated.[94] There is little difference in terms of safety and efficacy between medical abortion using a combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol and surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration) in early first trimester abortions up to 9 weeks gestation.[46] Medical abortion using the prostaglandin analog misoprostol alone is less effective and more painful than medical abortion using a combined regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol or surgical abortion.[95][96] Some purported risks of abortion are promoted primarily by anti-abortion groups,[97][98] but lack scientific support.[97] For example, the question of a link between induced abortion and breast cancer has been investigated extensively. Major medical and scientific bodies (including the World Health
Health
Organization, National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, Royal College of OBGYN and American Congress of OBGYN) have concluded that abortion does not cause breast cancer.[99] In the past even illegality has not automatically meant that the abortions were unsafe. Referring to the U.S., historian Linda Gordon states: "In fact, illegal abortions in this country have an impressive safety record."[100]:25 According to Rickie Solinger,

A related myth, promulgated by a broad spectrum of people concerned about abortion and public policy, is that before legalization abortionists were dirty and dangerous back-alley butchers.... [T]he historical evidence does not support such claims.[101]:4

Authors Jerome Bates and Edward Zawadzki describe the case of an illegal abortionist in the eastern U.S. in the early 20th century who was proud of having successfully completed 13,844 abortions without any fatality.[102]:59 In 1870s New York City the famous abortionist/midwife Madame Restell
Madame Restell
(Anna Trow Lohman) appears to have lost very few women among her more than 100,000 patients[103] -- a lower mortality rate than the childbirth mortality rate at the time. In 1936 the prominent professor of obstetrics and gynecology Frederick J. Taussig wrote that a cause of increasing mortality during the years of illegality in the U.S. was that

With each decade of the past fifty years the actual and proportionate frequency of this accident [perforation of the uterus] has increased, due, first, to the increase in the number of instrumentally induced abortions; second, to the proportionate increase in abortions handled by doctors as against those handled by midwives; and, third, to the prevailing tendency to use instruments instead of the finger in emptying the uterus. [104]:223

Mental health Main article: Abortion
Abortion
and mental health Current evidence finds no relationship between most induced abortions and mental-health problems[6][105] other than those expected for any unwanted pregnancy.[106] A report by the American Psychological Association concluded that a woman's first abortion is not a threat to mental health when carried out in the first trimester, with such women no more likely to have mental-health problems than those carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term; the mental-health outcome of a woman's second or greater abortion is less certain.[106][107] Some older reviews concluded that abortion was associated with an increased risk of psychological problems;[108] however, they did not use an appropriate control group.[105] Although some studies show negative mental-health outcomes in women who choose abortions after the first trimester because of fetal abnormalities,[109] more rigorous research would be needed to show this conclusively.[110] Some proposed negative psychological effects of abortion have been referred to by anti-abortion advocates as a separate condition called "post-abortion syndrome", but this is not recognized by medical or psychological professionals in the United States.[111] Unsafe abortion Main article: Unsafe abortion

Soviet poster circa 1925, warning against midwives performing abortions. Title translation: "Abortions performed by either trained or self-taught midwives not only maim the woman, they also often lead to death."

Women seeking to terminate their pregnancies sometimes resort to unsafe methods, particularly when access to legal abortion is restricted. They may attempt to self-abort or rely on another person who does not have proper medical training or access to proper facilities. This has a tendency to lead to severe complications, such as incomplete abortion, sepsis, hemorrhage, and damage to internal organs.[112] Unsafe abortions are a major cause of injury and death among women worldwide. Although data are imprecise, it is estimated that approximately 20 million unsafe abortions are performed annually, with 97% taking place in developing countries.[2] Unsafe abortions are believed to result in millions of injuries.[2][113] Estimates of deaths vary according to methodology, and have ranged from 37,000 to 70,000 in the past decade;[2][7][114] deaths from unsafe abortion account for around 13% of all maternal deaths.[115] The World Health Organization believes that mortality has fallen since the 1990s.[116] To reduce the number of unsafe abortions, public health organizations have generally advocated emphasizing the legalization of abortion, training of medical personnel, and ensuring access to reproductive-health services.[117] In response, opponents of abortion point out that abortion bans in no way affect prenatal care for women who choose to carry their fetus to term. The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Health, signed in 2012, notes, "the prohibition of abortion does not affect, in any way, the availability of optimal care to pregnant women."[118] A major factor in whether abortions are performed safely or not is the legal standing of abortion. Countries with restrictive abortion laws have higher rates of unsafe abortion and similar overall abortion rates compared to those where abortion is legal and available.[7][11][117][119][120][121][122] For example, the 1996 legalization of abortion in South Africa had an immediate positive impact on the frequency of abortion-related complications,[123] with abortion-related deaths dropping by more than 90%.[124] Similar reductions in maternal mortality have been observed after other countries have liberalized their abortion laws, such as Romania
Romania
and Nepal.[125] A 2011 study concluded that in the United States, some state-level anti-abortion laws are correlated with lower rates of abortion in that state.[126] The analysis, however, did not take into account travel to other states without such laws to obtain an abortion.[127] In addition, a lack of access to effective contraception contributes to unsafe abortion. It has been estimated that the incidence of unsafe abortion could be reduced by up to 75% (from 20 million to 5 million annually) if modern family planning and maternal health services were readily available globally.[128] Rates of such abortions may be difficult to measure because they can be reported variously as miscarriage, "induced miscarriage", "menstrual regulation", "mini-abortion", and "regulation of a delayed/suspended menstruation".[129][130] Forty percent of the world's women are able to access therapeutic and elective abortions within gestational limits,[13] while an additional 35 percent have access to legal abortion if they meet certain physical, mental, or socioeconomic criteria.[15] While maternal mortality seldom results from safe abortions, unsafe abortions result in 70,000 deaths and 5 million disabilities per year.[7] Complications of unsafe abortion account for approximately an eighth of maternal mortalities worldwide,[131] though this varies by region.[132] Secondary infertility caused by an unsafe abortion affects an estimated 24 million women.[120] The rate of unsafe abortions has increased from 44% to 49% between 1995 and 2008.[11] Health
Health
education, access to family planning, and improvements in health care during and after abortion have been proposed to address this phenomenon.[133] Live birth Although it is very uncommon, women undergoing surgical abortion after 18 weeks gestation sometimes give birth to a fetus that may survive briefly.[134][135][136] Longer term survival is possible after 22 weeks.[137] If medical staff observe signs of life, they may be required to provide care: emergency medical care if the child has a good chance of survival and palliative care if not.[138][139][140] Induced fetal demise before termination of pregnancy after 20–21 weeks gestation is recommended to avoid this.[141][142][143][144][145] Death following live birth caused by abortion is given the ICD-10 underlying cause description code of P96.4; data are identified as either fetus or newborn. Between 1999 and 2013, in the U.S., the CDC recorded 531 such deaths for newborns,[146] approximately 4 per 100,000 abortions.[147] Incidence There are two commonly used methods of measuring the incidence of abortion:

Abortion
Abortion
rate – number of abortions per 1000 women between 15 and 44 years of age Abortion
Abortion
percentage – number of abortions out of 100 known pregnancies (pregnancies include live births, abortions and miscarriages)

In many places, where abortion is illegal or carries a heavy social stigma, medical reporting of abortion is not reliable.[119] For this reason, estimates of the incidence of abortion must be made without determining certainty related to standard error.[11] The number of abortions performed worldwide seems to have remained stable in recent years, with 41.6 million having been performed in 2003 and 43.8 million having been performed in 2008.[11] The abortion rate worldwide was 28 per 1000 women, though it was 24 per 1000 women for developed countries and 29 per 1000 women for developing countries.[11] The same 2012 study indicated that in 2008, the estimated abortion percentage of known pregnancies was at 21% worldwide, with 26% in developed countries and 20% in developing countries.[11] On average, the incidence of abortion is similar in countries with restrictive abortion laws and those with more liberal access to abortion. However, restrictive abortion laws are associated with increases in the percentage of abortions performed unsafely.[13][148][149] The unsafe abortion rate in developing countries is partly attributable to lack of access to modern contraceptives; according to the Guttmacher Institute, providing access to contraceptives would result in about 14.5 million fewer unsafe abortions and 38,000 fewer deaths from unsafe abortion annually worldwide.[150] The rate of legal, induced abortion varies extensively worldwide. According to the report of employees of Guttmacher Institute it ranged from 7 per 1000 women (Germany and Switzerland) to 30 per 1000 women (Estonia) in countries with complete statistics in 2008. The proportion of pregnancies that ended in induced abortion ranged from about 10% (Israel, the Netherlands and Switzerland) to 30% (Estonia) in the same group, though it might be as high as 36% in Hungary and Romania, whose statistics were deemed incomplete.[151][152] The abortion rate may also be expressed as the average number of abortions a woman has during her reproductive years; this is referred to as total abortion rate (TAR). Gestational age
Gestational age
and method

Histogram
Histogram
of abortions by gestational age in England and Wales during 2004. (left)

Abortion in the United States
Abortion in the United States
by gestational age, 2004. (right)

Abortion
Abortion
rates also vary depending on the stage of pregnancy and the method practiced. In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 26% of reported legal induced abortions in the United States were known to have been obtained at less than 6 weeks' gestation, 18% at 7 weeks, 15% at 8 weeks, 18% at 9 through 10 weeks, 9.7% at 11 through 12 weeks, 6.2% at 13 through 15 weeks, 4.1% at 16 through 20 weeks and 1.4% at more than 21 weeks. 90.9% of these were classified as having been done by "curettage" (suction-aspiration, dilation and curettage, dilation and evacuation), 7.7% by "medical" means (mifepristone), 0.4% by "intrauterine instillation" (saline or prostaglandin), and 1.0% by "other" (including hysterotomy and hysterectomy).[153] According to the CDC, due to data collection difficulties the data must be viewed as tentative and some fetal deaths reported beyond 20 weeks may be natural deaths erroneously classified as abortions if the removal of the dead fetus is accomplished by the same procedure as an induced abortion.[154] The Guttmacher Institute estimated there were 2,200 intact dilation and extraction procedures in the US during 2000; this accounts for 0.17% of the total number of abortions performed that year.[155] Similarly, in England and Wales in 2006, 89% of terminations occurred at or under 12 weeks, 9% between 13 and 19 weeks, and 1.5% at or over 20 weeks. 64% of those reported were by vacuum aspiration, 6% by D&E, and 30% were medical.[156] There are more second trimester abortions in developing countries such as China, India and Vietnam than in developed countries.[157] Motivation Personal The reasons why women have abortions are diverse and vary across the world.[154][158]

A bar chart depicting selected data from a 1998 AGI meta-study on the reasons women stated for having an abortion.

Some of the most common reasons are to postpone childbearing to a more suitable time or to focus energies and resources on existing children. Others include being unable to afford a child either in terms of the direct costs of raising a child or the loss of income while caring for the child, lack of support from the father, inability to afford additional children, desire to provide schooling for existing children, disruption of one's own education, relationship problems with their partner, a perception of being too young to have a child, unemployment, and not being willing to raise a child conceived as a result of rape or incest, among others.[158][159] Societal Some abortions are undergone as the result of societal pressures. These might include the preference for children of a specific sex or race,[160] disapproval of single or early motherhood, stigmatization of people with disabilities, insufficient economic support for families, lack of access to or rejection of contraceptive methods, or efforts toward population control (such as China's one-child policy). These factors can sometimes result in compulsory abortion or sex-selective abortion.[161] An American study in 2002 concluded that about half of women having abortions were using a form of contraception at the time of becoming pregnant. Inconsistent use was reported by half of those using condoms and three-quarters of those using the birth control pill; 42% of those using condoms reported failure through slipping or breakage.[162] The Guttmacher Institute estimated that "most abortions in the United States are obtained by minority women" because minority women "have much higher rates of unintended pregnancy".[163] Maternal and fetal health An additional factor is risk to maternal or fetal health, which was cited as the primary reason for abortion in over a third of cases in some countries and as a significant factor in only a single-digit percentage of abortions in other countries.[154][158] In the U.S., the Supreme Court decisions in Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
and Doe v. Bolton: "ruled that the state's interest in the life of the fetus became compelling only at the point of viability, defined as the point at which the fetus can survive independently of its mother. Even after the point of viability, the state cannot favor the life of the fetus over the life or health of the pregnant woman. Under the right of privacy, physicians must be free to use their "medical judgment for the preservation of the life or health of the mother." On the same day that the Court decided Roe, it also decided Doe v. Bolton, in which the Court defined health very broadly: "The medical judgment may be exercised in the light of all factors—physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the woman's age—relevant to the well-being of the patient. All these factors may relate to health. This allows the attending physician the room he needs to make his best medical judgment."[164]:1200–1201 Public opinion shifted in America following television personality Sherri Finkbine's discovery during her fifth month of pregnancy that she had been exposed to thalidomide. Unable to obtain a legal abortion in the United States, she traveled to Sweden. From 1962 to 1965, an outbreak of German measles left 15,000 babies with severe birth defects. In 1967, the American Medical Association
American Medical Association
publicly supported liberalization of abortion laws. A National Opinion Research Center poll in 1965 showed 73% supported abortion when the mothers life was at risk, 57% when birth defects were present and 59% for pregnancies resulting from rape or incest.[165] Cancer The rate of cancer during pregnancy is 0.02–1%, and in many cases, cancer of the mother leads to consideration of abortion to protect the life of the mother, or in response to the potential damage that may occur to the fetus during treatment. This is particularly true for cervical cancer, the most common type of which occurs in 1 of every 2,000–13,000 pregnancies, for which initiation of treatment "cannot co-exist with preservation of fetal life (unless neoadjuvant chemotherapy is chosen)". Very early stage cervical cancers (I and IIa) may be treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, radiation therapy, or both, while later stages are treated by radiotherapy. Chemotherapy may be used simultaneously. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy also involves fetal considerations, because lumpectomy is discouraged in favor of modified radical mastectomy unless late-term pregnancy allows follow-up radiation therapy to be administered after the birth.[166] Exposure to a single chemotherapy drug is estimated to cause a 7.5–17% risk of teratogenic effects on the fetus, with higher risks for multiple drug treatments. Treatment with more than 40 Gy of radiation usually causes spontaneous abortion. Exposure to much lower doses during the first trimester, especially 8 to 15 weeks of development, can cause intellectual disability or microcephaly, and exposure at this or subsequent stages can cause reduced intrauterine growth and birth weight. Exposures above 0.005–0.025 Gy cause a dose-dependent reduction in IQ.[166] It is possible to greatly reduce exposure to radiation with abdominal shielding, depending on how far the area to be irradiated is from the fetus.[167][168] The process of birth itself may also put the mother at risk. "Vaginal delivery may result in dissemination of neoplastic cells into lymphovascular channels, haemorrhage, cervical laceration and implantation of malignant cells in the episiotomy site, while abdominal delivery may delay the initiation of non-surgical treatment."[169] History and religion Main article: History of abortion

Bas-relief
Bas-relief
at Angkor Wat, Cambodia, c. 1150, depicting a demon inducing an abortion by pounding the abdomen of a pregnant woman with a pestle.[76][170]

"French Periodical Pills". An example of a clandestine advertisement published in a January 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times.

Since ancient times abortions have been done using herbal medicines, sharp tools, with force, or through other traditional methods.[14] Induced abortion has long history, and can be traced back to civilizations as varied as China under Shennong
Shennong
(c. 2700 BCE), Ancient Egypt with its Ebers Papyrus
Ebers Papyrus
(c. 1550 BCE), and the Roman Empire in the time of Juvenal
Juvenal
(c. 200 CE).[14] There is evidence to suggest that pregnancies were terminated through a number of methods, including the administration of abortifacient herbs, the use of sharpened implements, the application of abdominal pressure, and other techniques. One of the earliest known artistic representations of abortion is in a bas relief at Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
(c. 1150). Found in a series of friezes that represent judgment after death in Hindu and Buddhist culture, it depicts the technique of abdominal abortion.[76] Some medical scholars and abortion opponents have suggested that the Hippocratic Oath
Hippocratic Oath
forbade Ancient Greek physicians from performing abortions;[14] other scholars disagree with this interpretation,[14] and state that the medical texts of Hippocratic Corpus
Hippocratic Corpus
contain descriptions of abortive techniques right alongside the Oath.[171] The physician Scribonius Largus wrote in 43 CE that the Hippocratic Oath prohibits abortion, as did Soranus, although apparently not all doctors adhered to it strictly at the time. According to Soranus' 1st or 2nd century CE work Gynaecology, one party of medical practitioners banished all abortives as required by the Hippocratic Oath; the other party—to which he belonged—was willing to prescribe abortions, but only for the sake of the mother's health.[172][173] Aristotle, in his treatise on government Politics (350 BCE), condemns infanticide as a means of population control. He preferred abortion in such cases, with the restriction[174] "[that it] must be practised on it before it has developed sensation and life; for the line between lawful and unlawful abortion will be marked by the fact of having sensation and being alive".[175] In Christianity, Pope Sixtus V (1585–90) was the only Pope before 1869 to declare that abortion is homicide regardless of the stage of pregnancy;[176] and his pronouncement of 1588 was reversed three years later by his successor. Through most of its history the Catholic Church was divided on whether it believed that abortion was murder, and it did not begin vigorously opposing abortion until the 19th century.[14] In fact, several historians have written[177][178][179] that prior to the 19th century most Catholic authors did not regard termination of pregnancy before "quickening" or "ensoulment" as an abortion. A 1995 survey reported that Catholic women are as likely as the general population to terminate a pregnancy, Protestants
Protestants
are less likely to do so, and Evangelical Christians
Evangelical Christians
are the least likely to do so.[154][158] Islamic tradition has traditionally permitted abortion until a point in time when Muslims believe the soul enters the fetus,[14] considered by various theologians to be at conception, 40 days after conception, 120 days after conception, or quickening.[180] However, abortion is largely heavily restricted or forbidden in areas of high Islamic faith such as the Middle East and North Africa.[181] In Europe and North America, abortion techniques advanced starting in the 17th century. However, conservatism by most physicians with regards to sexual matters prevented the wide expansion of safe abortion techniques.[14] Other medical practitioners in addition to some physicians advertised their services, and they were not widely regulated until the 19th century, when the practice (sometimes called restellism)[182] was banned in both the United States and the United Kingdom.[14] Church groups as well as physicians were highly influential in anti-abortion movements.[14] In the US, according to some sources, abortion was more dangerous than childbirth until about 1930 when incremental improvements in abortion procedures relative to childbirth made abortion safer.[note 2] However, other sources maintain that in the 19th century early abortions under the hygienic conditions in which midwives usually worked were relatively safe.[183][184][185] In addition, some commentators have written that, despite improved medical procedures, the period from the 1930s until legalization also saw more zealous enforcement of anti-abortion laws, and concomitantly an increasing control of abortion providers by organized crime.[186][187][188][189][190] Soviet Russia (1919), Iceland (1935) and Sweden (1938) were among the first countries to legalize certain or all forms of abortion.[191] In 1935 Nazi Germany, a law was passed permitting abortions for those deemed "hereditarily ill", while women considered of German stock were specifically prohibited from having abortions.[192] Beginning in the second half of the twentieth century, abortion was legalized in a greater number of countries.[14] Society and culture Abortion
Abortion
debate Main article: Abortion
Abortion
debate Induced abortion has long been the source of considerable debate. Ethical, moral, philosophical, biological, religious and legal issues surrounding abortion are related to value systems. Opinions of abortion may be about fetal rights, governmental authority, and women's rights. In both public and private debate, arguments presented in favor of or against abortion access focus on either the moral permissibility of an induced abortion, or justification of laws permitting or restricting abortion.[193] The World Medical Association
World Medical Association
Declaration on Therapeutic Abortion
Abortion
notes, "circumstances bringing the interests of a mother into conflict with the interests of her unborn child create a dilemma and raise the question as to whether or not the pregnancy should be deliberately terminated."[194] Abortion
Abortion
debates, especially pertaining to abortion laws, are often spearheaded by groups advocating one of these two positions. Anti-abortion groups who favor greater legal restrictions on abortion, including complete prohibition, most often describe themselves as "pro-life" while abortion rights groups who are against such legal restrictions describe themselves as "pro-choice".[195] Generally, the former position argues that a human fetus is a human person with a right to live, making abortion morally the same as murder. The latter position argues that a woman has certain reproductive rights, especially the choice whether or not to carry a pregnancy to term. Modern abortion law Main article: Abortion
Abortion
law See also: History of abortion
History of abortion
law debate

International status of abortion law UN 2013 report on abortion law.[196]   Legal on request   Legal for maternal life, health, mental health, rape and/or fetal defects, and also for socioeconomic factors   Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, mental health and/or rape, and also for fetal defects   Illegal with exception for maternal life, health and/or mental health, and also for rape   Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, and/or mental health   Illegal with exception for maternal life   Illegal with no exceptions   No information[197]

Current laws pertaining to abortion are diverse. Religious, moral, and cultural sensibilities continue to influence abortion laws throughout the world. The right to life, the right to liberty, the right to security of person, and the right to reproductive health are major issues of human rights that are sometimes used as justification for the existence or absence of laws controlling abortion. In jurisdictions where abortion is legal, certain requirements must often be met before a woman may obtain a safe, legal abortion (an abortion performed without the woman's consent is considered feticide). These requirements usually depend on the age of the fetus, often using a trimester-based system to regulate the window of legality, or as in the U.S., on a doctor's evaluation of the fetus' viability. Some jurisdictions require a waiting period before the procedure, prescribe the distribution of information on fetal development, or require that parents be contacted if their minor daughter requests an abortion.[198] Other jurisdictions may require that a woman obtain the consent of the fetus' father before aborting the fetus, that abortion providers inform women of health risks of the procedure—sometimes including "risks" not supported by the medical literature—and that multiple medical authorities certify that the abortion is either medically or socially necessary. Many restrictions are waived in emergency situations. China, which has ended their[199] one-child policy, and now has a two child policy.[200][201] has at times incorporated mandatory abortions as part of their population control strategy.[202] Other jurisdictions ban abortion almost entirely. Many, but not all, of these allow legal abortions in a variety of circumstances. These circumstances vary based on jurisdiction, but may include whether the pregnancy is a result of rape or incest, the fetus' development is impaired, the woman's physical or mental well-being is endangered, or socioeconomic considerations make childbirth a hardship.[15] In countries where abortion is banned entirely, such as Nicaragua, medical authorities have recorded rises in maternal death directly and indirectly due to pregnancy as well as deaths due to doctors' fears of prosecution if they treat other gynecological emergencies.[203][204] Some countries, such as Bangladesh, that nominally ban abortion, may also support clinics that perform abortions under the guise of menstrual hygiene.[205] This is also a terminology in traditional medicine.[206] In places where abortion is illegal or carries heavy social stigma, pregnant women may engage in medical tourism and travel to countries where they can terminate their pregnancies.[207] Women without the means to travel can resort to providers of illegal abortions or attempt to perform an abortion by themselves.[208] Sex-selective abortion Main article: Sex-selective abortion Sonography and amniocentesis allow parents to determine sex before childbirth. The development of this technology has led to sex-selective abortion, or the termination of a fetus based on sex. The selective termination of a female fetus is most common. Sex-selective abortion
Sex-selective abortion
is partially responsible for the noticeable disparities between the birth rates of male and female children in some countries. The preference for male children is reported in many areas of Asia, and abortion used to limit female births has been reported in Taiwan, South Korea, India, and China.[209] This deviation from the standard birth rates of males and females occurs despite the fact that the country in question may have officially banned sex-selective abortion or even sex-screening.[210][211][212][213] In China, a historical preference for a male child has been exacerbated by the one-child policy, which was enacted in 1979.[214] Many countries have taken legislative steps to reduce the incidence of sex-selective abortion. At the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 over 180 states agreed to eliminate "all forms of discrimination against the girl child and the root causes of son preference",[215] conditions also condemned by a PACE resolution in 2011.[216] The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
and UNICEF, along with other United Nations
United Nations
agencies, have found that measures to reduce access to abortion are much less effective at reducing sex-selective abortions than measures to reduce gender inequality.[215] Anti-abortion violence Main article: Anti-abortion violence In a number of cases, abortion providers and these facilities have been subjected to various forms of violence, including murder, attempted murder, kidnapping, stalking, assault, arson, and bombing. Anti-abortion violence is classified by both governmental and scholarly sources as terrorism.[217][218] Only a small fraction of those opposed to abortion commit violence. In the United States, four physicians who performed abortions have been murdered: David Gunn (1993), John Britton (1994), Barnett Slepian (1998), and George Tiller
George Tiller
(2009). Also murdered, in the U.S. and Australia, have been other personnel at abortion clinics, including receptionists and security guards such as James Barrett, Shannon Lowney, Lee Ann Nichols, and Robert Sanderson. Woundings (e.g., Garson Romalis) and attempted murders have also taken place in the United States and Canada. Hundreds of bombings, arsons, acid attacks, invasions, and incidents of vandalism against abortion providers have occurred.[219][220] Notable perpetrators of anti-abortion violence include Eric Robert Rudolph, Scott Roeder, Shelley Shannon, and Paul Jennings Hill, the first person to be executed in the United States for murdering an abortion provider.[221] Legal protection of access to abortion has been brought into some countries where abortion is legal. These laws typically seek to protect abortion clinics from obstruction, vandalism, picketing, and other actions, or to protect women and employees of such facilities from threats and harassment. Far more common than physical violence is psychological pressure. In 2003, Chris Danze organized pro-life organizations throughout Texas to prevent the construction of a Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
facility in Austin. The organizations released the personal information online, of those involved with construction, sending them up to 1200 phone calls a day and contacting their churches.[222] Some protestors record women entering clinics on camera.[222] Other animals Further information: Miscarriage Spontaneous abortion occurs in various animals. For example, in sheep, it may be caused by crowding through doors, or being chased by dogs.[223] In cows, abortion may be caused by contagious disease, such as brucellosis or Campylobacter, but can often be controlled by vaccination.[224] Eating pine needles can also induce abortions in cows.[225][226] In horses, a fetus may be aborted or resorbed if it has lethal white syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis). Foal embryos that are homozygous for the dominant white gene (WW) are theorized to also be aborted or resorbed before birth.[227] In many species of sharks and rays, stress induced abortions occur frequently on capture.[228] Viral infection can cause abortion in dogs.[229] Cats can experience spontaneous abortion for many reasons, including hormonal imbalance. A combined abortion and spaying is performed on pregnant cats, especially in Trap-Neuter-Return
Trap-Neuter-Return
programs, to prevent unwanted kittens from being born.[230][231][232] Female rodents may terminate a pregnancy when exposed to the smell of a male not responsible for the pregnancy, known as the Bruce effect.[233] Abortion
Abortion
may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that have been mated improperly, or that have been purchased by owners who did not realize the mares were pregnant, or that are pregnant with twin foals.[234] Feticide
Feticide
can occur in horses and zebras due to male harassment of pregnant mares or forced copulation,[235][236][237] although the frequency in the wild has been questioned.[238] Male gray langur monkeys may attack females following male takeover, causing miscarriage.[239] Notes

^ Definitions of abortion, as with many words, vary from source to source. Language used to define abortion often reflects societal and political opinions (not only scientific knowledge). For a list of definitions as stated by obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) textbooks, dictionaries, and other sources, please see Definitions of abortion. ^ By 1930, medical procedures in the US had improved for both childbirth and abortion but not equally, and induced abortion in the first trimester had become safer than childbirth. In 1973, Roe v. Wade acknowledged that abortion in the first trimester was safer than childbirth:

"The 1970s". Time communication 1940–1989: retrospective. Time Inc. 1989. Blackmun was also swayed by the fact that most abortion prohibitions were enacted in the 19th century when the procedure was more dangerous than now.  Will, George (1990). Suddenly: the American idea abroad and at home, 1986–1990. Free Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-02-934435-2.  Lewis, J.; Shimabukuro, Jon O. (28 January 2001). " Abortion
Abortion
Law Development: A Brief Overview". Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.  *Schultz, David Andrew (2002). Encyclopedia of American law. Infobase Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 0-8160-4329-9. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015.  Lahey, Joanna N. (24 September 2009). "Birthing a Nation: Fertility Control Access and the 19th Century Demographic Transition" (PDF; preliminary version). Colloquium. Pomona College. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 January 2012. 

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Law, History & Religion". Childbirth
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Abortion
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Abortion clinic
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Abortion
Providers in the U.S. & Canada" (PDF). National Abortion
Abortion
Federation. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.  ^ Borger, Julian (3 February 1999). "The bomber under siege". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017.  ^ a b Alesha E. Doan (2007). Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan. p. 2.  ^ Spencer, James B. (1908). Sheep Husbandry in Canada. p. 114. OCLC 798508694.  ^ "Beef cattle and Beef production: Management and Husbandry of Beef Cattle". Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 1966. Archived from the original on 1 January 2009.  ^ Myers, Brandon; Beckett, Jonathon (2001). " Pine needle
Pine needle
abortion". Animal Health
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Care and Maintenance (PDF). Tucson, AZ: Arizona Cooperative Extension, University of Arizona. pp. 47–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2013.  ^ Kim, Ill-Hwa; Choi, Kyung-Chul; An, Beum-Soo; Choi, In-Gyu; Kim, Byung-Ki; Oh, Young-Kyoon; Jeung, Eui-Bae (2003). "Effect on abortion of feeding Korean pine needles to pregnant Korean native cows". Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. Canadian Veterinary Medical Association. 67 (3): 194–197. PMC 227052 . PMID 12889725.  ^ Overton, Rebecca (March 2003). "By a Hair" (PDF). Paint Horse Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  ^ Adams, Kye R.; Fetterplace, Lachlan C.; Davis, Andrew R.; Taylor, Matthew D.; Knott, Nathan A. (January 2018). "Sharks, rays and abortion: The prevalence of capture-induced parturition in elasmobranchs". Biological Conservation. 217: 11–27. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.10.010.  ^ "Herpesvirus in dog pups". petMD. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ "Spaying Pregnant Females". Carol's Ferals. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  ^ Coates, Jennifer (7 May 2007). "Feline abortion: often an unnerving necessity". petMD. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ Khuly, Patty (1 April 2011). "Feline abortion: often an unnerving necessity (Part 2)". petMD. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ Schwagmeyer, P. L. (1979). "The Bruce Effect: An Evaluation of Male/Female Advantages". The American Naturalist. 114 (6): 932–938. doi:10.1086/283541. JSTOR 2460564.  ^ McKinnon, Angus O.; Voss, James L. (1993). Equine Reproduction. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 563. ISBN 0-8121-1427-2. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.  ^ Berger, Joel W; Vuletić, L; Boberić, J; Milosavljević, A; Dilparić, S; Tomin, R; Naumović, P (5 May 1983). "Induced abortion and social factors in wild horses". Nature. 303 (5912): 59–61. doi:10.1038/303059a0. PMID 6682487.  ^ Pluháček, Jan; Bartos, L (2000). "Male infanticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 59 (4): 689–694. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1371. PMID 10792924. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011.  ^ Pluháček, Jan (2005). "Further evidence for male infanticide and feticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli" (PDF). Folia Zoologica. 54 (3): 258–262. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2012.  ^ Kirkpatrick, J. F.; Turner, J. W. (1991). "Changes in Herd Stallions among Feral Horse Bands and the Absence of Forced Copulation and Induced Abortion". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 29 (3): 217–219. doi:10.1007/BF00166404. JSTOR 4600608.  ^ Agoramoorthy, G.; Mohnot, S. M.; Sommer, V.; Srivastava, A. (1988). "Abortions in free ranging Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) – a male induced strategy?". Human Evolution. 3 (4): 297–308. doi:10.1007/BF02435859. 

Bibliography

Devereux, George (1976). A Study of Abortion
Abortion
in Primitive Societies. International Universities Press. ISBN 978-0823662456.  Doan, Alesha E. (2007). Opposition and Intimidation: The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan.  Riddle, John M. (1997). Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion
Abortion
in the West. Harvard University Press.  Ganatra, Bela; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Johnson Jr, Brooke R; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Temmerman, Marleen (1 March 2014). "From concept to measurement: operationalizing WHO's definition of unsafe abortion". Bulletin of the World Health
Health
Organization. 92 (3): 155–155. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.136333. PMC 3949603 . PMID 24700971.  Hartmann, Betsy (1995). Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control. South End Press. ISBN 978-0896084919.  Koblitz, Ann Hibner (2014). Sex and Herbs and Birth Control: Women and Fertility Regulation Through the Ages. Kovalevskaia Fund. ISBN 978-0989665506.  Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine (July 2016). " Abortion
Abortion
incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends". The Lancet. 388 (10041): 258–267. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4. PMC 5498988 . PMID 27179755.  UN (2002). Abortion
Abortion
Policies: A Global Review 3 vols. Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.  WHO (2005). The World Health
Health
Report 2005: Make every mother and child count. Geneva: World Health
Health
Organization. ISBN 92 4 156290 0.  WHO (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (PDF) (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health
Health
Organization. ISBN 9789241548434.  WHO (2016). " Health
Health
worker roles in providing safe abortion care and post-abortion contraception". Retrieved 8 January 2017. 

External links

First-trimester abortion in women with medical conditions. US Department of Health
Health
and Human Services Safe abortion: Technical & policy guidance for health systems, World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(2015)

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v t e

Abortion

Main topics

History of abortion Methods of abortion Abortion
Abortion
debate Abortion
Abortion
law

Movements

Abortion-rights movements Anti-abortion movements

Issues

Abortion
Abortion
and mental health Beginning of human personhood Beginning of pregnancy controversy Abortion-breast cancer hypothesis Anti-abortion violence Birth control Crisis pregnancy center Ethical aspects of abortion Eugenics Fetal rights Forced abortion Genetics and abortion Late-term abortion Legalized abortion and crime effect Libertarian perspectives on abortion Limit of viability Men's rights Minors and abortion One-child policy Paternal rights and abortion Philosophical aspects of the abortion debate Prenatal development Reproductive rights Self-induced abortion Sex-selective abortion Sidewalk counseling Societal attitudes towards abortion Toxic abortion Unsafe abortion Women's rights

By country

Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Namibia Nigeria South Africa Uganda Zimbabwe

Americas

Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Trinidad and Tobago Suriname United States Uruguay Venezuela

Asia

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor India Iran Israel Japan Kazakhstan Northern Cyprus Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Turkey

Australasia

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Europe

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Law

Case law Constitutional law History of abortion
History of abortion
law Laws by country Buffer zones Conscience clauses Fetal heartbeat bills Fetal protection Informed consent Late-term restrictions Parental involvement Spousal consent

Methods

Vacuum aspiration Dilation and evacuation Dilation and curettage Intact D&X Hysterotomy Instillation Menstrual extraction Abortifacient
Abortifacient
drugs

Methotrexate Mifepristone Misoprostol Oxytocin

Self-induced abortion Unsafe abortion

Religion

Buddhism Christianity

Catholicism

Hinduism Islam Judaism Scientology

WikiSource Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wiktionary Wikiversity

v t e

Birth control
Birth control
methods (G02B, G03A)

Comparison

Comparison of birth control methods Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)

Behavioral

Avoiding vaginal intercourse: Abstinence Anal sex Masturbation Non-penetrative sex Oral sex Including vaginal intercourse: Breastfeeding infertility (LAM) Calendar-based methods (rhythm, etc.) Fertility awareness
Fertility awareness
(Billings ovulation method Creighton Model, etc.) Withdrawal

Barrier and / or spermicidal

Cervical cap Condom Contraceptive sponge Diaphragm Female condom Spermicide

Hormonal (formulations)

Combined estrogen-progestogen

Contraceptive patch Extended cycle Injectable Combined vaginal ring Pill

Progestogen-only

Depo-Provera Etonogestrel implant (Nexplanon) Levonorgestrel implant (Norplant) Progestogen-only pill Progesterone vaginal ring

Anti-estrogen

Ormeloxifene
Ormeloxifene
(Centchroman)

Post-intercourse

Emergency contraception (Ulipristal acetate Yuzpe regimen Levonorgestrel)

Intrauterine device

Copper IUDs Hormonal IUDs
Hormonal IUDs
(progestogens)

Sterilization

Female: Essure Tubal ligation Male: Vasectomy

Experimental

Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance
Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance
(Vasalgel)

Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)

Intrauterine device
Intrauterine device
(Hormonal IUD Copper IUD) Contraceptive implant
Contraceptive implant
(Etonogestrel implant, Levonorgestrel
Levonorgestrel
implant)

v t e

Substantive human rights

Note: What is considered a human right is controversial and not all the topics listed are universally accepted as human rights.

Civil and political

Cannabis rights Equality before the law Freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention Freedom of assembly Freedom of association Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment Freedom from discrimination Freedom from exile Freedom of information Freedom of movement Freedom of religion Freedom from slavery Freedom of speech Freedom of thought Freedom from torture Legal aid Liberty LGBT rights Nationality Personhood Presumption of innocence Right of asylum Right to die Right to a fair trial Right to family life Right to keep and bear arms Right to life Right to petition Right to privacy Right to protest Right to refuse medical treatment Right of self-defense Security of person Universal suffrage

Economic, social and cultural

Digital rights Equal pay for equal work Fair remuneration Labor rights Right to an adequate standard of living Right to clothing Right to development Right to education Right to food Right to health Right to housing Right to Internet access Right to property Right to public participation Right of reply Right of return Right to science and culture Right to social security Right to water Right to work Trade union
Trade union
membership

Sexual and reproductive

Abortion Family planning Freedom from involuntary female genital mutilation Intersex human rights LGBT rights Reproductive health Right to sexuality

Violations

Corporal punishment

War and conflict

Civilian Combatant Freedom from genocide Prisoner of war War rape

v t e

Reproductive health

Rights

Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity

Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex

Education

Genetic counseling Pre-conception counseling Sex education

Planning

Assisted reproductive technology Birth control Childfree/Childlessness Parenting

Adoption Childbirth Foster care

Reproductive life plan Safe sex

Health

Men's Women's

Vulvovaginal

Research

Self-report sexual risk behaviors

Pregnancy

Abortion Maternal health Obstetrics Options counseling Pregnancy
Pregnancy
from rape Pregnant patients' rights Prenatal care Teenage pregnancy Preteen pregnancy Unintended pregnancy

Medicine

Andrology Genitourinary medicine Gynaecology Obstetrics
Obstetrics
and gynaecology Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Sexual medicine

Disorder

Disorders of sex development Infertility Reproductive system disease Sexual dysfunction Sexually transmitted infection

Clinic

By country

China India Iran Ireland Pakistan Philippines Singapore United Kingdom

Teen

United States

Teen pregnancy Birth control

History

Birth control
Birth control
movement in the United States History of condoms Social hygiene movement Timeline of reproductive rights legislation

Policy

One-child policy Two-child policy Financial

Baby bonus Bachelor tax Birth credit Child benefit Ta

.