Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus
before it can survive outside the uterus.[note 1] An abortion that
occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage. An abortion may
be caused purposely and is then called an induced abortion, or less
frequently, "induced miscarriage". The word abortion is often used to
mean only induced abortions. A similar procedure after the fetus could
potentially survive outside the womb is known as a "late termination
When allowed by law, abortion in the developed world is one of the
safest procedures in medicine. Modern methods use medication or
surgery for abortions. The drug mifepristone in combination with
prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during
the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Birth control, such
as the pill or intrauterine devices, can be used immediately following
abortion. When performed legally and safely, induced abortions do
not increase the risk of long-term mental or physical problems. In
contrast, unsafe abortions (those performed by unskilled individuals,
with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary facilities) cause 47,000
deaths and 5 million hospital admissions each year. The World
Health Organization recommends safe and legal abortions be available
to all women.
Around 56 million abortions are performed each year in the world,
with about 45% done unsafely.
Abortion rates changed little
between 2003 and 2008, before which they decreased for at least
two decades as access to family planning and birth control
increased. As of 2008[update], 40% of the world's women had access
to legal abortions without limits as to reason. Countries that
permit abortions have different limits on how late in pregnancy
abortion is allowed.
Historically, abortions have been attempted using herbal medicines,
sharp tools, forceful massage, or through other traditional
Abortion laws and cultural or religious views of
abortions are different around the world. In some areas abortion is
legal only in specific cases such as rape, problems with the fetus,
poverty, risk to a woman's health, or incest. In many places there
is much debate over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of
abortion. Those who oppose abortion often maintain that an
embryo or fetus is a human with a right to life, and so they may
compare abortion to murder. Those who favor the legality of
abortion often hold that a woman has a right to make decisions about
her own body. Others favor legal and accessible abortion as a
public health measure.
Labor induction abortion
2.4 Other methods
3.1 Mental health
3.2 Unsafe abortion
3.3 Live birth
Gestational age and method
5.3 Maternal and fetal health
6 History and religion
7 Society and culture
7.2 Modern abortion law
7.3 Sex-selective abortion
7.4 Anti-abortion violence
8 Other animals
12 External links
Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year worldwide. Over
a third are unintended and about a fifth end in induced
abortion. Most abortions result from unintended
pregnancies. In the United Kingdom, 1 to 2% of abortions are
done due to genetic problems in the fetus. A pregnancy can be
intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often
depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which
increases in size as the pregnancy progresses. Specific
procedures may also be selected due to legality, regional
availability, and doctor or a woman's personal preference.
Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as
either therapeutic or elective. An abortion is medically referred to
as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the
pregnant woman; to prevent harm to the woman's physical or mental
health; to terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child
will have a significantly increased chance of mortality or morbidity;
or to selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks
associated with multiple pregnancy. An abortion is referred to
as an elective or voluntary abortion when it is performed at the
request of the woman for non-medical reasons. Confusion sometimes
arises over the term "elective" because "elective surgery" generally
refers to all scheduled surgery, whether medically necessary or
Main article: Miscarriage
Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional
expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 24th week of gestation.
A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a
live-born infant is known as a "premature birth" or a "preterm
birth". When a fetus dies in utero after viability, or during
delivery, it is usually termed "stillborn". Premature births and
stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although
usage of these terms can sometimes overlap.
Only 30% to 50% of conceptions progress past the first trimester.
The vast majority of those that do not progress are lost before the
woman is aware of the conception, and many pregnancies are lost
before medical practitioners can detect an embryo. Between 15% and
30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage,
depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman. 80% of
these spontaneous abortions happen in the first trimester.
The most common cause of spontaneous abortion during the first
trimester is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo or fetus,
accounting for at least 50% of sampled early pregnancy losses.
Other causes include vascular disease (such as lupus), diabetes, other
hormonal problems, infection, and abnormalities of the uterus.
Advancing maternal age and a woman's history of previous spontaneous
abortions are the two leading factors associated with a greater risk
of spontaneous abortion. A spontaneous abortion can also be caused
by accidental trauma; intentional trauma or stress to cause
miscarriage is considered induced abortion or feticide.
Practice of Induced
Gestational age may determine which abortion methods are practiced.
Main article: Medical abortion
Medical abortions are those induced by abortifacient pharmaceuticals.
Medical abortion became an alternative method of abortion with the
availability of prostaglandin analogs in the 1970s and the
antiprogestogen mifepristone (also known as RU-486) in the
The most common early first-trimester medical abortion regimens use
mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analog (misoprostol
or gemeprost) up to 9 weeks gestational age, methotrexate in
combination with a prostaglandin analog up to 7 weeks gestation, or a
prostaglandin analog alone. Mifepristone–misoprostol combination
regimens work faster and are more effective at later gestational ages
than methotrexate–misoprostol combination regimens, and combination
regimens are more effective than misoprostol alone. This regime is
effective in the second trimester.
Medical abortion regiments
involving mifepristone followed by misoprostol in the cheek between 24
and 48 hours later are effective when performed before 63 days'
In very early abortions, up to 7 weeks gestation, medical abortion
using a mifepristone–misoprostol combination regimen is considered
to be more effective than surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration),
especially when clinical practice does not include detailed inspection
of aspirated tissue. Early medical abortion regimens using
mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by buccal or vaginal
misoprostol are 98% effective up to 9 weeks gestational age. If
medical abortion fails, surgical abortion must be used to complete the
Early medical abortions account for the majority of abortions before 9
weeks gestation in Britain, France, Switzerland, and
the Nordic countries. In the United States, the percentage of
early medical abortions is far lower.
Medical abortion regimens using mifepristone in combination with a
prostaglandin analog are the most common methods used for
second-trimester abortions in Canada, most of Europe, China and
India, in contrast to the United States where 96% of
second-trimester abortions are performed surgically by dilation and
A vacuum aspiration abortion at eight weeks gestational age (six weeks
1: Amniotic sac
3: Uterine lining
6: Attached to a suction pump
Up to 15 weeks' gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are
the most common surgical methods of induced abortion. Manual
vacuum aspiration (MVA) consists of removing the fetus or embryo,
placenta, and membranes by suction using a manual syringe, while
electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) uses an electric pump. These
techniques differ in the mechanism used to apply suction, in how early
in pregnancy they can be used, and in whether cervical dilation is
MVA, also known as "mini-suction" and "menstrual extraction", can be
used in very early pregnancy, and does not require cervical dilation.
Dilation and curettage
Dilation and curettage (D&C), the second most common method of
surgical abortion, is a standard gynecological procedure performed for
a variety of reasons, including examination of the uterine lining for
possible malignancy, investigation of abnormal bleeding, and abortion.
Curettage refers to cleaning the walls of the uterus with a curette.
World Health Organization
World Health Organization recommends this procedure, also called
sharp curettage, only when MVA is unavailable.
From the 15th week of gestation until approximately the 26th, other
techniques must be used.
Dilation and evacuation (D&E) consists of
opening the cervix of the uterus and emptying it using surgical
instruments and suction. After the 16th week of gestation, abortions
can also be induced by intact dilation and extraction (IDX) (also
called intrauterine cranial decompression), which requires surgical
decompression of the fetus's head before evacuation. IDX is sometimes
called "partial-birth abortion", which has been federally banned in
the United States.
In the third trimester of pregnancy, induced abortion may be performed
surgically by intact dilation and extraction or by hysterotomy.
Hysterotomy abortion is a procedure similar to a caesarean section and
is performed under general anesthesia. It requires a smaller incision
than a caesarean section and is used during later stages of
First-trimester procedures can generally be performed using local
anesthesia, while second-trimester methods may require deep sedation
or general anesthesia.
Labor induction abortion
In places lacking the necessary medical skill for dilation and
extraction, or where preferred by practitioners, an abortion can be
induced by first inducing labor and then inducing fetal demise if
necessary. This is sometimes called "induced miscarriage". This
procedure may be performed from 13 weeks gestation to the third
trimester. Although it is very uncommon in the United States, more
than 80% of induced abortions throughout the second trimester are
labor induced abortions in Sweden and other nearby countries.
Only limited data are available comparing this method with dilation
and extraction. Unlike D&E, labor induced abortions after 18
weeks may be complicated by the occurrence of brief fetal survival,
which may be legally characterized as live birth. For this reason,
labor induced abortion is legally risky in the U.S.
Historically, a number of herbs reputed to possess abortifacient
properties have been used in folk medicine. Among these are: tansy,
pennyroyal, black cohosh, and the now-extinct
silphium.:44-47,62-63,154-155,230-231 Modern scientific studies
have confirmed that many botanical substances do in fact have
However, modern users of these plants often lack knowledge of the
proper use and dosage. The historian of medicine John Riddle has
spoken of the "broken chain of knowledge,":167-205 and historian
Ann Hibner Koblitz has written,:125
U.S. women of European descent have perhaps become particularly
ignorant about the wealth of herbal remedies that previous generations
accumulated over the centuries. And sometimes their fumbling attempts
to recover the knowledge can be disastrous.
For example, in 1978 one woman in Colorado died and another was
seriously injured when they attempted to procure an abortion by taking
pennyroyal oil. Because the indiscriminant use of herbs as
abortifacients can cause serious—even lethal—side effects, such as
multiple organ failure, such use is not recommended by physicians.
Abortion is sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen. The
degree of force, if severe, can cause serious internal injuries
without necessarily succeeding in inducing miscarriage. In
Southeast Asia, there is an ancient tradition of attempting abortion
through forceful abdominal massage. One of the bas reliefs
decorating the temple of
Angkor Wat in
Cambodia depicts a demon
performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the
Reported methods of unsafe, self-induced abortion include misuse of
misoprostol, and insertion of non-surgical implements such as knitting
needles and clothes hangers into the uterus. These and other methods
to terminate pregnancy may be called "induced miscarriage". Such
methods are rarely used in countries where surgical abortion is legal
An abortion flyer in South Africa
The health risks of abortion depend principally upon whether the
procedure is performed safely or unsafely. The World Health
Organization defines unsafe abortions as those performed by unskilled
individuals, with hazardous equipment, or in unsanitary
facilities. Legal abortions performed in the developed world are
among the safest procedures in medicine. In the US, the risk of
maternal death from abortion is 0.7 per 100,000 procedures, making
abortion about 13 times safer for women than childbirth (8.8 maternal
deaths per 100,000 live births). In the United States from
2000 to 2009, abortion had a lower mortality rate than plastic
surgery. The risk of abortion-related mortality increases with
gestational age, but remains lower than that of childbirth through at
least 21 weeks' gestation. Outpatient abortion is as safe
and effective from 64 to 70 days' gestation as it is from 57 to 63
Medical abortion is safe and effective for pregnancies
earlier than 6 weeks' gestation.
Vacuum aspiration in the first trimester is the safest method of
surgical abortion, and can be performed in a primary care office,
abortion clinic, or hospital. Complications, which are rare, can
include uterine perforation, pelvic infection, and retained products
of conception requiring a second procedure to evacuate. Infections
account for one-third of abortion-related deaths in the United
States. The rate of complications of vacuum aspiration abortion in
the first trimester is similar regardless of whether the procedure is
performed in a hospital, surgical center, or office. Preventive
antibiotics (such as doxycycline or metronidazole) are typically given
before elective abortion, as they are believed to substantially
reduce the risk of postoperative uterine infection. The rate
of failed procedures does not appear to vary significantly depending
on whether the abortion is performed by a doctor or a mid-level
practitioner. Complications after second-trimester abortion are
similar to those after first-trimester abortion, and depend somewhat
on the method chosen. Second-trimester abortions are generally
There is little difference in terms of safety and efficacy between
medical abortion using a combined regimen of mifepristone and
misoprostol and surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration) in early first
trimester abortions up to 9 weeks gestation. Medical abortion
using the prostaglandin analog misoprostol alone is less effective and
more painful than medical abortion using a combined regimen of
mifepristone and misoprostol or surgical abortion.
Some purported risks of abortion are promoted primarily by
anti-abortion groups, but lack scientific support. For
example, the question of a link between induced abortion and breast
cancer has been investigated extensively. Major medical and scientific
bodies (including the World
Health Organization, National Cancer
Institute, American Cancer Society, Royal College of OBGYN and
American Congress of OBGYN) have concluded that abortion does not
cause breast cancer.
In the past even illegality has not automatically meant that the
abortions were unsafe. Referring to the U.S., historian Linda Gordon
states: "In fact, illegal abortions in this country have an impressive
safety record.":25 According to Rickie Solinger,
A related myth, promulgated by a broad spectrum of people concerned
about abortion and public policy, is that before legalization
abortionists were dirty and dangerous back-alley butchers.... [T]he
historical evidence does not support such claims.:4
Authors Jerome Bates and Edward Zawadzki describe the case of an
illegal abortionist in the eastern U.S. in the early 20th century who
was proud of having successfully completed 13,844 abortions without
any fatality.:59 In 1870s New York City the famous
Madame Restell (Anna Trow Lohman) appears to have
lost very few women among her more than 100,000 patients -- a
lower mortality rate than the childbirth mortality rate at the time.
In 1936 the prominent professor of obstetrics and gynecology Frederick
J. Taussig wrote that a cause of increasing mortality during the years
of illegality in the U.S. was that
With each decade of the past fifty years the actual and proportionate
frequency of this accident [perforation of the uterus] has increased,
due, first, to the increase in the number of instrumentally induced
abortions; second, to the proportionate increase in abortions handled
by doctors as against those handled by midwives; and, third, to the
prevailing tendency to use instruments instead of the finger in
emptying the uterus. :223
Abortion and mental health
Current evidence finds no relationship between most induced abortions
and mental-health problems other than those expected for any
unwanted pregnancy. A report by the American Psychological
Association concluded that a woman's first abortion is not a threat to
mental health when carried out in the first trimester, with such women
no more likely to have mental-health problems than those carrying an
unwanted pregnancy to term; the mental-health outcome of a woman's
second or greater abortion is less certain. Some older
reviews concluded that abortion was associated with an increased risk
of psychological problems; however, they did not use an
appropriate control group.
Although some studies show negative mental-health outcomes in women
who choose abortions after the first trimester because of fetal
abnormalities, more rigorous research would be needed to show
this conclusively. Some proposed negative psychological effects
of abortion have been referred to by anti-abortion advocates as a
separate condition called "post-abortion syndrome", but this is not
recognized by medical or psychological professionals in the United
Main article: Unsafe abortion
Soviet poster circa 1925, warning against midwives performing
abortions. Title translation: "Abortions performed by either trained
or self-taught midwives not only maim the woman, they also often lead
Women seeking to terminate their pregnancies sometimes resort to
unsafe methods, particularly when access to legal abortion is
restricted. They may attempt to self-abort or rely on another person
who does not have proper medical training or access to proper
facilities. This has a tendency to lead to severe complications, such
as incomplete abortion, sepsis, hemorrhage, and damage to internal
Unsafe abortions are a major cause of injury and death among women
worldwide. Although data are imprecise, it is estimated that
approximately 20 million unsafe abortions are performed annually, with
97% taking place in developing countries. Unsafe abortions are
believed to result in millions of injuries. Estimates of
deaths vary according to methodology, and have ranged from 37,000 to
70,000 in the past decade; deaths from unsafe abortion
account for around 13% of all maternal deaths. The World Health
Organization believes that mortality has fallen since the 1990s.
To reduce the number of unsafe abortions, public health organizations
have generally advocated emphasizing the legalization of abortion,
training of medical personnel, and ensuring access to
reproductive-health services. In response, opponents of abortion
point out that abortion bans in no way affect prenatal care for women
who choose to carry their fetus to term. The Dublin Declaration on
Maternal Health, signed in 2012, notes, "the prohibition of abortion
does not affect, in any way, the availability of optimal care to
A major factor in whether abortions are performed safely or not is the
legal standing of abortion. Countries with restrictive abortion laws
have higher rates of unsafe abortion and similar overall abortion
rates compared to those where abortion is legal and
available. For example, the 1996
legalization of abortion in South Africa had an immediate positive
impact on the frequency of abortion-related complications, with
abortion-related deaths dropping by more than 90%. Similar
reductions in maternal mortality have been observed after other
countries have liberalized their abortion laws, such as
Nepal. A 2011 study concluded that in the United States, some
state-level anti-abortion laws are correlated with lower rates of
abortion in that state. The analysis, however, did not take into
account travel to other states without such laws to obtain an
abortion. In addition, a lack of access to effective
contraception contributes to unsafe abortion. It has been estimated
that the incidence of unsafe abortion could be reduced by up to 75%
(from 20 million to 5 million annually) if modern family planning and
maternal health services were readily available globally. Rates
of such abortions may be difficult to measure because they can be
reported variously as miscarriage, "induced miscarriage", "menstrual
regulation", "mini-abortion", and "regulation of a delayed/suspended
Forty percent of the world's women are able to access therapeutic and
elective abortions within gestational limits, while an additional
35 percent have access to legal abortion if they meet certain
physical, mental, or socioeconomic criteria. While maternal
mortality seldom results from safe abortions, unsafe abortions result
in 70,000 deaths and 5 million disabilities per year. Complications
of unsafe abortion account for approximately an eighth of maternal
mortalities worldwide, though this varies by region.
Secondary infertility caused by an unsafe abortion affects an
estimated 24 million women. The rate of unsafe abortions has
increased from 44% to 49% between 1995 and 2008.
access to family planning, and improvements in health care during and
after abortion have been proposed to address this phenomenon.
Although it is very uncommon, women undergoing surgical abortion after
18 weeks gestation sometimes give birth to a fetus that may survive
briefly. Longer term survival is possible after 22
If medical staff observe signs of life, they may be required to
provide care: emergency medical care if the child has a good chance of
survival and palliative care if not. Induced fetal
demise before termination of pregnancy after 20–21 weeks gestation
is recommended to avoid this.
Death following live birth caused by abortion is given the ICD-10
underlying cause description code of P96.4; data are identified as
either fetus or newborn. Between 1999 and 2013, in the U.S., the CDC
recorded 531 such deaths for newborns, approximately 4 per
There are two commonly used methods of measuring the incidence of
Abortion rate – number of abortions per 1000 women between 15
and 44 years of age
Abortion percentage – number of abortions out of 100 known
pregnancies (pregnancies include live births, abortions and
In many places, where abortion is illegal or carries a heavy social
stigma, medical reporting of abortion is not reliable. For this
reason, estimates of the incidence of abortion must be made without
determining certainty related to standard error.
The number of abortions performed worldwide seems to have remained
stable in recent years, with 41.6 million having been performed
in 2003 and 43.8 million having been performed in 2008. The
abortion rate worldwide was 28 per 1000 women, though it was 24 per
1000 women for developed countries and 29 per 1000 women for
developing countries. The same 2012 study indicated that in 2008,
the estimated abortion percentage of known pregnancies was at 21%
worldwide, with 26% in developed countries and 20% in developing
On average, the incidence of abortion is similar in countries with
restrictive abortion laws and those with more liberal access to
abortion. However, restrictive abortion laws are associated with
increases in the percentage of abortions performed
unsafely. The unsafe abortion rate in developing
countries is partly attributable to lack of access to modern
contraceptives; according to the Guttmacher Institute, providing
access to contraceptives would result in about 14.5 million fewer
unsafe abortions and 38,000 fewer deaths from unsafe abortion annually
The rate of legal, induced abortion varies extensively worldwide.
According to the report of employees of
Guttmacher Institute it ranged
from 7 per 1000 women (Germany and Switzerland) to 30 per 1000 women
(Estonia) in countries with complete statistics in 2008. The
proportion of pregnancies that ended in induced abortion ranged from
about 10% (Israel, the Netherlands and Switzerland) to 30% (Estonia)
in the same group, though it might be as high as 36% in Hungary and
Romania, whose statistics were deemed incomplete.
The abortion rate may also be expressed as the average number of
abortions a woman has during her reproductive years; this is referred
to as total abortion rate (TAR).
Gestational age and method
Histogram of abortions by gestational age in England and Wales during
Abortion in the United States
Abortion in the United States by gestational age, 2004. (right)
Abortion rates also vary depending on the stage of pregnancy and the
method practiced. In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) reported that 26% of reported legal induced abortions
in the United States were known to have been obtained at less than 6
weeks' gestation, 18% at 7 weeks, 15% at 8 weeks, 18% at 9 through 10
weeks, 9.7% at 11 through 12 weeks, 6.2% at 13 through 15 weeks, 4.1%
at 16 through 20 weeks and 1.4% at more than 21 weeks. 90.9% of these
were classified as having been done by "curettage"
(suction-aspiration, dilation and curettage, dilation and evacuation),
7.7% by "medical" means (mifepristone), 0.4% by "intrauterine
instillation" (saline or prostaglandin), and 1.0% by "other"
(including hysterotomy and hysterectomy). According to the CDC,
due to data collection difficulties the data must be viewed as
tentative and some fetal deaths reported beyond 20 weeks may be
natural deaths erroneously classified as abortions if the removal of
the dead fetus is accomplished by the same procedure as an induced
Guttmacher Institute estimated there were 2,200 intact dilation
and extraction procedures in the US during 2000; this accounts for
0.17% of the total number of abortions performed that year.
Similarly, in England and Wales in 2006, 89% of terminations occurred
at or under 12 weeks, 9% between 13 and 19 weeks, and 1.5% at or over
20 weeks. 64% of those reported were by vacuum aspiration, 6% by
D&E, and 30% were medical. There are more second trimester
abortions in developing countries such as China, India and Vietnam
than in developed countries.
The reasons why women have abortions are diverse and vary across the
A bar chart depicting selected data from a 1998 AGI meta-study on the
reasons women stated for having an abortion.
Some of the most common reasons are to postpone childbearing to a more
suitable time or to focus energies and resources on existing children.
Others include being unable to afford a child either in terms of the
direct costs of raising a child or the loss of income while caring for
the child, lack of support from the father, inability to afford
additional children, desire to provide schooling for existing
children, disruption of one's own education, relationship problems
with their partner, a perception of being too young to have a child,
unemployment, and not being willing to raise a child conceived as a
result of rape or incest, among others.
Some abortions are undergone as the result of societal pressures.
These might include the preference for children of a specific sex or
race, disapproval of single or early motherhood, stigmatization
of people with disabilities, insufficient economic support for
families, lack of access to or rejection of contraceptive methods, or
efforts toward population control (such as China's one-child policy).
These factors can sometimes result in compulsory abortion or
An American study in 2002 concluded that about half of women having
abortions were using a form of contraception at the time of becoming
pregnant. Inconsistent use was reported by half of those using condoms
and three-quarters of those using the birth control pill; 42% of those
using condoms reported failure through slipping or breakage. The
Guttmacher Institute estimated that "most abortions in the United
States are obtained by minority women" because minority women "have
much higher rates of unintended pregnancy".
Maternal and fetal health
An additional factor is risk to maternal or fetal health, which was
cited as the primary reason for abortion in over a third of cases in
some countries and as a significant factor in only a single-digit
percentage of abortions in other countries.
In the U.S., the Supreme Court decisions in
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade and Doe v.
Bolton: "ruled that the state's interest in the life of the fetus
became compelling only at the point of viability, defined as the point
at which the fetus can survive independently of its mother. Even after
the point of viability, the state cannot favor the life of the fetus
over the life or health of the pregnant woman. Under the right of
privacy, physicians must be free to use their "medical judgment for
the preservation of the life or health of the mother." On the same day
that the Court decided Roe, it also decided Doe v. Bolton, in which
the Court defined health very broadly: "The medical judgment may be
exercised in the light of all factors—physical, emotional,
psychological, familial, and the woman's age—relevant to the
well-being of the patient. All these factors may relate to health.
This allows the attending physician the room he needs to make his best
Public opinion shifted in America following television personality
Sherri Finkbine's discovery during her fifth month of pregnancy that
she had been exposed to thalidomide. Unable to obtain a legal abortion
in the United States, she traveled to Sweden. From 1962 to 1965, an
outbreak of German measles left 15,000 babies with severe birth
defects. In 1967, the
American Medical Association
American Medical Association publicly supported
liberalization of abortion laws. A National Opinion Research Center
poll in 1965 showed 73% supported abortion when the mothers life was
at risk, 57% when birth defects were present and 59% for pregnancies
resulting from rape or incest.
The rate of cancer during pregnancy is 0.02–1%, and in many cases,
cancer of the mother leads to consideration of abortion to protect the
life of the mother, or in response to the potential damage that may
occur to the fetus during treatment. This is particularly true for
cervical cancer, the most common type of which occurs in 1 of every
2,000–13,000 pregnancies, for which initiation of treatment "cannot
co-exist with preservation of fetal life (unless neoadjuvant
chemotherapy is chosen)". Very early stage cervical cancers (I and
IIa) may be treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node
dissection, radiation therapy, or both, while later stages are treated
by radiotherapy. Chemotherapy may be used simultaneously. Treatment of
breast cancer during pregnancy also involves fetal considerations,
because lumpectomy is discouraged in favor of modified radical
mastectomy unless late-term pregnancy allows follow-up radiation
therapy to be administered after the birth.
Exposure to a single chemotherapy drug is estimated to cause a
7.5–17% risk of teratogenic effects on the fetus, with higher risks
for multiple drug treatments. Treatment with more than 40 Gy of
radiation usually causes spontaneous abortion. Exposure to much lower
doses during the first trimester, especially 8 to 15 weeks of
development, can cause intellectual disability or microcephaly, and
exposure at this or subsequent stages can cause reduced intrauterine
growth and birth weight. Exposures above 0.005–0.025 Gy cause a
dose-dependent reduction in IQ. It is possible to greatly reduce
exposure to radiation with abdominal shielding, depending on how far
the area to be irradiated is from the fetus.
The process of birth itself may also put the mother at risk. "Vaginal
delivery may result in dissemination of neoplastic cells into
lymphovascular channels, haemorrhage, cervical laceration and
implantation of malignant cells in the episiotomy site, while
abdominal delivery may delay the initiation of non-surgical
History and religion
Main article: History of abortion
Bas-relief at Angkor Wat, Cambodia, c. 1150, depicting a demon
inducing an abortion by pounding the abdomen of a pregnant woman with
"French Periodical Pills". An example of a clandestine advertisement
published in a January 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times.
Since ancient times abortions have been done using herbal medicines,
sharp tools, with force, or through other traditional methods.
Induced abortion has long history, and can be traced back to
civilizations as varied as China under
Shennong (c. 2700 BCE), Ancient
Egypt with its
Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE), and the Roman Empire in
the time of
Juvenal (c. 200 CE). There is evidence to suggest that
pregnancies were terminated through a number of methods, including the
administration of abortifacient herbs, the use of sharpened
implements, the application of abdominal pressure, and other
techniques. One of the earliest known artistic representations of
abortion is in a bas relief at
Angkor Wat (c. 1150). Found in a series
of friezes that represent judgment after death in Hindu and Buddhist
culture, it depicts the technique of abdominal abortion.
Some medical scholars and abortion opponents have suggested that the
Hippocratic Oath forbade Ancient Greek physicians from performing
abortions; other scholars disagree with this interpretation,
and state that the medical texts of
Hippocratic Corpus contain
descriptions of abortive techniques right alongside the Oath. The
Scribonius Largus wrote in 43 CE that the Hippocratic Oath
prohibits abortion, as did Soranus, although apparently not all
doctors adhered to it strictly at the time. According to Soranus' 1st
or 2nd century CE work Gynaecology, one party of medical practitioners
banished all abortives as required by the Hippocratic Oath; the other
party—to which he belonged—was willing to prescribe abortions, but
only for the sake of the mother's health.
Aristotle, in his treatise on government Politics (350 BCE), condemns
infanticide as a means of population control. He preferred abortion in
such cases, with the restriction "[that it] must be practised on
it before it has developed sensation and life; for the line between
lawful and unlawful abortion will be marked by the fact of having
sensation and being alive". In Christianity, Pope Sixtus V
(1585–90) was the only Pope before 1869 to declare that abortion is
homicide regardless of the stage of pregnancy; and his
pronouncement of 1588 was reversed three years later by his successor.
Through most of its history the Catholic Church was divided on whether
it believed that abortion was murder, and it did not begin vigorously
opposing abortion until the 19th century. In fact, several
historians have written that prior to the 19th century
most Catholic authors did not regard termination of pregnancy before
"quickening" or "ensoulment" as an abortion.
A 1995 survey reported that Catholic women are as likely as the
general population to terminate a pregnancy,
Protestants are less
likely to do so, and
Evangelical Christians are the least likely to do
so. Islamic tradition has traditionally permitted abortion
until a point in time when Muslims believe the soul enters the
fetus, considered by various theologians to be at conception, 40
days after conception, 120 days after conception, or quickening.
However, abortion is largely heavily restricted or forbidden in areas
of high Islamic faith such as the Middle East and North Africa.
In Europe and North America, abortion techniques advanced starting in
the 17th century. However, conservatism by most physicians with
regards to sexual matters prevented the wide expansion of safe
abortion techniques. Other medical practitioners in addition to
some physicians advertised their services, and they were not widely
regulated until the 19th century, when the practice (sometimes called
restellism) was banned in both the United States and the United
Kingdom. Church groups as well as physicians were highly
influential in anti-abortion movements. In the US, according to
some sources, abortion was more dangerous than childbirth until about
1930 when incremental improvements in abortion procedures relative to
childbirth made abortion safer.[note 2] However, other sources
maintain that in the 19th century early abortions under the hygienic
conditions in which midwives usually worked were relatively
safe. In addition, some commentators have written that,
despite improved medical procedures, the period from the 1930s until
legalization also saw more zealous enforcement of anti-abortion laws,
and concomitantly an increasing control of abortion providers by
Soviet Russia (1919), Iceland (1935) and Sweden (1938) were among the
first countries to legalize certain or all forms of abortion. In
1935 Nazi Germany, a law was passed permitting abortions for those
deemed "hereditarily ill", while women considered of German stock were
specifically prohibited from having abortions. Beginning in the
second half of the twentieth century, abortion was legalized in a
greater number of countries.
Society and culture
Induced abortion has long been the source of considerable debate.
Ethical, moral, philosophical, biological, religious and legal issues
surrounding abortion are related to value systems. Opinions of
abortion may be about fetal rights, governmental authority, and
In both public and private debate, arguments presented in favor of or
against abortion access focus on either the moral permissibility of an
induced abortion, or justification of laws permitting or restricting
World Medical Association
World Medical Association Declaration on
Abortion notes, "circumstances bringing the interests of a
mother into conflict with the interests of her unborn child create a
dilemma and raise the question as to whether or not the pregnancy
should be deliberately terminated."
Abortion debates, especially
pertaining to abortion laws, are often spearheaded by groups
advocating one of these two positions. Anti-abortion groups who favor
greater legal restrictions on abortion, including complete
prohibition, most often describe themselves as "pro-life" while
abortion rights groups who are against such legal restrictions
describe themselves as "pro-choice". Generally, the former
position argues that a human fetus is a human person with a right to
live, making abortion morally the same as murder. The latter position
argues that a woman has certain reproductive rights, especially the
choice whether or not to carry a pregnancy to term.
Modern abortion law
History of abortion
History of abortion law debate
International status of abortion law
UN 2013 report on abortion law.
Legal on request
Legal for maternal life, health, mental health, rape
and/or fetal defects, and also for socioeconomic factors
Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, mental
health and/or rape, and also for fetal defects
Illegal with exception for maternal life, health and/or
mental health, and also for rape
Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, and/or
Illegal with exception for maternal life
Illegal with no exceptions
Current laws pertaining to abortion are diverse. Religious, moral, and
cultural sensibilities continue to influence abortion laws throughout
the world. The right to life, the right to liberty, the right to
security of person, and the right to reproductive health are major
issues of human rights that are sometimes used as justification for
the existence or absence of laws controlling abortion.
In jurisdictions where abortion is legal, certain requirements must
often be met before a woman may obtain a safe, legal abortion (an
abortion performed without the woman's consent is considered
feticide). These requirements usually depend on the age of the fetus,
often using a trimester-based system to regulate the window of
legality, or as in the U.S., on a doctor's evaluation of the fetus'
viability. Some jurisdictions require a waiting period before the
procedure, prescribe the distribution of information on fetal
development, or require that parents be contacted if their minor
daughter requests an abortion. Other jurisdictions may require
that a woman obtain the consent of the fetus' father before aborting
the fetus, that abortion providers inform women of health risks of the
procedure—sometimes including "risks" not supported by the medical
literature—and that multiple medical authorities certify that the
abortion is either medically or socially necessary. Many restrictions
are waived in emergency situations. China, which has ended their
one-child policy, and now has a two child policy. has at
times incorporated mandatory abortions as part of their population
Other jurisdictions ban abortion almost entirely. Many, but not all,
of these allow legal abortions in a variety of circumstances. These
circumstances vary based on jurisdiction, but may include whether the
pregnancy is a result of rape or incest, the fetus' development is
impaired, the woman's physical or mental well-being is endangered, or
socioeconomic considerations make childbirth a hardship. In
countries where abortion is banned entirely, such as Nicaragua,
medical authorities have recorded rises in maternal death directly and
indirectly due to pregnancy as well as deaths due to doctors' fears of
prosecution if they treat other gynecological emergencies.
Some countries, such as Bangladesh, that nominally ban abortion, may
also support clinics that perform abortions under the guise of
menstrual hygiene. This is also a terminology in traditional
medicine. In places where abortion is illegal or carries heavy
social stigma, pregnant women may engage in medical tourism and travel
to countries where they can terminate their pregnancies. Women
without the means to travel can resort to providers of illegal
abortions or attempt to perform an abortion by themselves.
Main article: Sex-selective abortion
Sonography and amniocentesis allow parents to determine sex before
childbirth. The development of this technology has led to
sex-selective abortion, or the termination of a fetus based on sex.
The selective termination of a female fetus is most common.
Sex-selective abortion is partially responsible for the noticeable
disparities between the birth rates of male and female children in
some countries. The preference for male children is reported in many
areas of Asia, and abortion used to limit female births has been
reported in Taiwan, South Korea, India, and China. This deviation
from the standard birth rates of males and females occurs despite the
fact that the country in question may have officially banned
sex-selective abortion or even sex-screening. In
China, a historical preference for a male child has been exacerbated
by the one-child policy, which was enacted in 1979.
Many countries have taken legislative steps to reduce the incidence of
sex-selective abortion. At the International Conference on Population
and Development in 1994 over 180 states agreed to eliminate "all forms
of discrimination against the girl child and the root causes of son
preference", conditions also condemned by a PACE resolution in
World Health Organization
World Health Organization and UNICEF, along with other
United Nations agencies, have found that measures to reduce access to
abortion are much less effective at reducing sex-selective abortions
than measures to reduce gender inequality.
Main article: Anti-abortion violence
In a number of cases, abortion providers and these facilities have
been subjected to various forms of violence, including murder,
attempted murder, kidnapping, stalking, assault, arson, and bombing.
Anti-abortion violence is classified by both governmental and
scholarly sources as terrorism. Only a small fraction of
those opposed to abortion commit violence.
In the United States, four physicians who performed abortions have
been murdered: David Gunn (1993), John Britton (1994), Barnett Slepian
George Tiller (2009). Also murdered, in the U.S. and
Australia, have been other personnel at abortion clinics, including
receptionists and security guards such as James Barrett, Shannon
Lowney, Lee Ann Nichols, and Robert Sanderson. Woundings (e.g., Garson
Romalis) and attempted murders have also taken place in the United
States and Canada. Hundreds of bombings, arsons, acid attacks,
invasions, and incidents of vandalism against abortion providers have
occurred. Notable perpetrators of anti-abortion violence
include Eric Robert Rudolph, Scott Roeder, Shelley Shannon, and Paul
Jennings Hill, the first person to be executed in the United States
for murdering an abortion provider.
Legal protection of access to abortion has been brought into some
countries where abortion is legal. These laws typically seek to
protect abortion clinics from obstruction, vandalism, picketing, and
other actions, or to protect women and employees of such facilities
from threats and harassment.
Far more common than physical violence is psychological pressure. In
2003, Chris Danze organized pro-life organizations throughout Texas to
prevent the construction of a
Planned Parenthood facility in Austin.
The organizations released the personal information online, of those
involved with construction, sending them up to 1200 phone calls a day
and contacting their churches. Some protestors record women
entering clinics on camera.
Further information: Miscarriage
Spontaneous abortion occurs in various animals. For example, in sheep,
it may be caused by crowding through doors, or being chased by
dogs. In cows, abortion may be caused by contagious disease, such
as brucellosis or Campylobacter, but can often be controlled by
vaccination. Eating pine needles can also induce abortions in
cows. In horses, a fetus may be aborted or resorbed if it
has lethal white syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis). Foal
embryos that are homozygous for the dominant white gene (WW) are
theorized to also be aborted or resorbed before birth. In many
species of sharks and rays, stress induced abortions occur frequently
Viral infection can cause abortion in dogs. Cats can experience
spontaneous abortion for many reasons, including hormonal imbalance. A
combined abortion and spaying is performed on pregnant cats,
Trap-Neuter-Return programs, to prevent unwanted kittens
from being born. Female rodents may terminate a
pregnancy when exposed to the smell of a male not responsible for the
pregnancy, known as the Bruce effect.
Abortion may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal
husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that have
been mated improperly, or that have been purchased by owners who did
not realize the mares were pregnant, or that are pregnant with twin
Feticide can occur in horses and zebras due to male
harassment of pregnant mares or forced copulation,
although the frequency in the wild has been questioned. Male gray
langur monkeys may attack females following male takeover, causing
^ Definitions of abortion, as with many words, vary from source to
source. Language used to define abortion often reflects societal and
political opinions (not only scientific knowledge). For a list of
definitions as stated by obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) textbooks,
dictionaries, and other sources, please see Definitions of abortion.
^ By 1930, medical procedures in the US had improved for both
childbirth and abortion but not equally, and induced abortion in the
first trimester had become safer than childbirth. In 1973, Roe v. Wade
acknowledged that abortion in the first trimester was safer than
"The 1970s". Time communication 1940–1989: retrospective. Time Inc.
1989. Blackmun was also swayed by the fact that most abortion
prohibitions were enacted in the 19th century when the procedure was
more dangerous than now.
Will, George (1990). Suddenly: the American idea abroad and at home,
1986–1990. Free Press. p. 312. ISBN 0-02-934435-2.
Lewis, J.; Shimabukuro, Jon O. (28 January 2001). "
Development: A Brief Overview". Congressional Research Service.
Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
*Schultz, David Andrew (2002). Encyclopedia of American law. Infobase
Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 0-8160-4329-9. Archived from the
original on 9 December 2015.
Lahey, Joanna N. (24 September 2009). "Birthing a Nation: Fertility
Control Access and the 19th Century Demographic Transition" (PDF;
preliminary version). Colloquium. Pomona College. Archived (PDF) from
the original on 7 January 2012.
^ Grimes, DA; Stuart, G (2010). "
Abortion jabberwocky: the need for
better terminology". Contraception. 81 (2): 93–6.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.09.005. PMID 20103443.
^ a b c d e Grimes, DA; Benson, J; Singh, S; Romero, M; Ganatra, B;
Okonofua, FE; Shah, IH (2006). "Unsafe abortion: The preventable
pandemic" (PDF). The Lancet. 368 (9550): 1908–1919.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69481-6. PMID 17126724. Archived (PDF)
from the original on 29 June 2011.
^ a b Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B
(November 2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient
surgical procedures and common activities in the United States".
Contraception. 90 (5): 476–479.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012. PMID 25152259.
^ a b c Kulier, R; Kapp, N; Gülmezoglu, AM; Hofmeyr, GJ; Cheng, L;
Campana, A (9 November 2011). "Medical methods for first trimester
abortion". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): CD002855.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. PMID 22071804.
^ a b c Kapp, N; Whyte, P; Tang, J; Jackson, E; Brahmi, D (September
2013). "A review of evidence for safe abortion care". Contraception.
88 (3): 350–63. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.10.027.
^ a b c d Lohr, PA; Fjerstad, M; Desilva, U; Lyus, R (2014).
"Abortion". BMJ. 348: f7553. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7553.
^ a b c d Shah, I; Ahman, E (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global
and regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges" (PDF).
Gynaecology Canada. 31 (12): 1149–58.
doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34376-6. PMID 20085681. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011.
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (2012). Safe abortion: technical and
policy guidance for health systems (PDF) (2nd ed.). Geneva: World
Health Organization. p. 8. ISBN 9789241548434. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 16 January 2015.
^ Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole,
Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine;
Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston,
Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine (May 2016). "
Abortion incidence between
1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends".
The Lancet. 388: 258–67. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4.
PMC 5498988 . PMID 27179755.
^ "Worldwide, an estimated 25 million unsafe abortions occur each
Health Organization. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 29
^ a b c d e f g h Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Shah, I. H.; Åhman, E.;
Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2012). "Induced abortion: Incidence and
trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008" (PDF). The Lancet. 379 (9816):
625–632. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61786-8. PMID 22264435.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 February 2012. Because few of
the abortion estimates were based on studies of random samples of
women, and because we did not use a model-based approach to estimate
abortion incidence, it was not possible to compute confidence
intervals based on standard errors around the estimates. Drawing on
the information available on the accuracy and precision of abortion
estimates that were used to develop the subregional, regional, and
worldwide rates, we computed intervals of certainty around these rates
(webappendix). We computed wider intervals for unsafe abortion rates
than for safe abortion rates. The basis for these intervals included
published and unpublished assessments of abortion reporting in
countries with liberal laws, recently published studies of national
unsafe abortion, and high and low estimates of the numbers of unsafe
abortion developed by WHO.
^ Sedgh G, Henshaw SK, Singh S, Bankole A, Drescher J (September
2007). "Legal abortion worldwide: incidence and recent trends".
International Family Planning Perspectives. 33 (3): 106–116.
doi:10.1363/ifpp.33.106.07. PMID 17938093. Archived from the
original on 19 August 2009.
^ a b c d Culwell KR, Vekemans M, de Silva U, Hurwitz M (July 2010).
"Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health:
Contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion". International
Gynecology & Obstetrics. 110: S13–16.
doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.003. PMID 20451196.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Joffe, Carole (2009). "1.
medicine: A sociopolitical history". In M Paul, ES Lichtenberg, L
Borgatta, DA Grimes, PG Stubblefield, MD Creinin. Management of
Unintended and Abnormal
Pregnancy (PDF) (1st ed.). Oxford, United
Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4443-1293-5.
OL 15895486W. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October
2011. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
^ a b c Boland, R.; Katzive, L. (2008). "Developments in Laws on
Induced Abortion: 1998–2007". International Family Planning
Perspectives. 34 (3): 110–120. doi:10.1363/ifpp.34.110.08.
PMID 18957353. Archived from the original on 7 October
^ Nixon, edited by Frederick Adolf Paola, Robert Walker, Lois LaCivita
Medical ethics and humanities. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and
Bartlett Publishers. p. 249. ISBN 9780763760632.
OL 13764930W. Archived from the original on 6 September
2017. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Johnstone, Megan-Jane (2009). Bioethics a nursing perspective (5th
ed.). Sydney, N.S.W.: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. p. 228.
ISBN 9780729578738. Archived from the original on 6 September
2017. Although abortion has been legal in many countries for several
decades now, its moral permissibilities continues to be the subject of
heated public debate.
^ Pastor Mark Driscoll (18 October 2013). "What do 55 million people
have in common?". Fox News. Archived from the original on 31 August
2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
^ Hansen, Dale (18 March 2014). "Abortion: Murder, or Medical
Procedure?". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 14
July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
^ Sifris, Ronli Noa (2013). Reproductive freedom, torture and
international human rights: challenging the masculinisation of
torture. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis. p. 3.
ISBN 9781135115227. OCLC 869373168. Archived from the
original on 15 October 2015.
^ Swett, C. (2007). Unsafe abortion : global and regional
estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality
in 2003 (5th ed ed.). World
ISBN 9789241596121. CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
^ Cheng L. (1 November 2008). "Surgical versus medical methods for
second-trimester induced abortion". The WHO Reproductive Health
Health Organization. Archived from the original on 17
June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
^ Bankole; et al. (1998). "Reasons Why Women Have Induced Abortions:
Evidence from 27 Countries". International Family Planning
Perspectives. 24 (3): 117–127 & 152. doi:10.2307/3038208.
Archived from the original on 17 January 2006.
^ Finer, Lawrence B.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Dauphinee, Lindsay A.;
Singh, Susheela; Moore, Ann M. (2005). "Reasons U.S. Women Have
Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives" (PDF).
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 37 (3): 110–118.
doi:10.1111/j.1931-2393.2005.tb00045.x. PMID 16150658. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 17 January 2006.
^ Stubblefield, Phillip G. (2002). "10. Family Planning". In Berek,
Jonathan S. Novak's
Gynecology (13 ed.). Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-3262-8.
^ Bartlett, LA; Berg, CJ; Shulman, HB; Zane, SB; Green, CA; Whitehead,
S; Atrash, HK (2004), "Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related
mortality in the United States",
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103 (4):
^ Roche, Natalie E. (28 September 2004). "Therapeutic Abortion".
eMedicine. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Retrieved
19 June 2011.
^ a b c d Schorge, John O.; Schaffer, Joseph I.; Halvorson, Lisa M.;
Hoffman, Barbara L.; Bradshaw, Karen D.; Cunningham, F. Gary, eds.
(2008). "6. First-Trimester Abortion". Williams
Gynecology (1 ed.).
McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-147257-9.
^ "Elective surgery". Encyclopedia of Surgery. Archived from the
original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012. "An
elective surgery is a planned, non-emergency surgical procedure. It
may be either medically required (e.g., cataract surgery), or optional
(e.g., breast augmentation or implant) surgery.
Churchill Livingstone medical dictionary. Edinburgh New York:
Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 2008. ISBN 978-0-443-10412-1. The
preferred term for unintentional loss of the product of conception
prior to 24 weeks' gestation is miscarriage.
^ Annas, George J.; Elias, Sherman (2007). "51. Legal and Ethical
Issues in Obstetric Practice". In Gabbe, Steven G.; Niebyl, Jennifer
R.; Simpson, Joe Leigh. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (5
ed.). Churchill Livingstone. p. 669. ISBN 978-0-443-06930-7.
A preterm birth is defined as one that occurs before the completion of
37 menstrual weeks of gestation, regardless of birth weight.
^ "Stillbirth". Concise Medical Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. birth of a fetus
that shows no evidence of life (heartbeat, respiration, or independent
movement) at any time later than 24 weeks after conception
^ "7 FAM 1470 Documenting
Stillbirth (Fetal Death)". United States
Department of State. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 12 January
^ Annas, George J.; Elias, Sherman (2007). "24.
Pregnancy loss". In
Gabbe, Steven G.; Niebyl, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Joe Leigh. Obstetrics:
Normal and Problem Pregnancies (5 ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
^ Katz, Vern L. (2007). "16. Spontaneous and Recurrent
Abortion – Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment". In Katz, Vern L.;
Lentz, Gretchen M.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Gershenson, David M. Katz:
Gynecology (5 ed.). Mosby.
^ Stovall, Thomas G. (2002). "17. Early
Pregnancy Loss and Ectopic
Pregnancy". In Berek, Jonathan S. Novak's
Gynecology (13 ed.).
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-3262-8.
^ Cunningham, F. Gary; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Bloom, Steven L.; Spong,
Catherine Y.; Dashe, Jodi S.; Hoffman, Barbara L.; Casey, Brian M.;
Sheffield, Jeanne S., eds. (2014). Williams
Obstetrics (24th ed.).
McGraw Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-179893-8.
^ a b Stöppler, Melissa Conrad. Shiel, William C., Jr., ed.
Miscarriage (Spontaneous Abortion)". MedicineNet.com. WebMD. Archived
from the original on 29 August 2004. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
^ a b Jauniaux E, Kaminopetros P, El-Rafaey H (1999). "Early pregnancy
loss". In Whittle MJ, Rodeck CH. Fetal medicine: basic science and
clinical practice. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 837.
ISBN 978-0-443-05357-3. OCLC 42792567.
^ "Fetal Homicide Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures.
Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved 7 April
^ a b Kulier R, Kapp N, Gülmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng L, Campana A
(2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion". The Cochrane
Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD002855.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. PMID 22071804.
^ a b Creinin MD, Gemzell-Danielsson K (2009). "
Medical abortion in
early pregnancy". In Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA,
Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD. Management of unintended and abnormal
pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
pp. 111–134. ISBN 1-4051-7696-2.
^ a b Kapp N, von Hertzen H (2009). "Medical methods to induce
abortion in the second trimester". In Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta
L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD. Management of unintended
and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care. Oxford:
Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 178–192. ISBN 1-4051-7696-2.
^ Wildschut, H; Both, MI; Medema, S; Thomee, E; Wildhagen, MF; Kapp, N
(19 January 2011). "Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of
pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005216.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005216.pub2. PMID 21249669.
^ Chen, MJ; Creinin, MD (July 2015). "
Mifepristone With Buccal
Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review".
Gynecology. 126 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000897.
^ a b WHO Department of Reproductive
Health and Research (23 November
2006). Frequently asked clinical questions about medical abortion
(PDF). Geneva: World
Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-159484-5.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2011. Retrieved 22
November 2011. (subscription required)
^ Fjerstad M, Sivin I, Lichtenberg ES, Trussell J, Cleland K, Cullins
V (September 2009). "Effectiveness of medical abortion with
mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days".
Contraception. 80 (3): 282–286.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.03.010. PMC 3766037 .
PMID 19698822. The regimen (200 mg of mifepristone,
followed 24–48 hours later by 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol)
previously used by
Planned Parenthood clinics in the United States
from 2001 to March 2006 was 98.5% effective through 63 days
gestation—with an ongoing pregnancy rate of about 0.5%, and an
additional 1% of women having uterine evacuation for various reasons,
including problematic bleeding, persistent gestational sac, clinician
judgment or a woman's request. The regimen (200 mg of
mifepristone, followed 24–48 hours later by 800 mcg of buccal
misoprostol) currently used by
Planned Parenthood clinics in the
United States since April 2006 is 98.3% effective through 59 days
^ Holmquist S, Gilliam M (2008). "Induced abortion". In Gibbs RS,
Karlan BY, Haney AF, Nygaard I. Danforth's obstetrics and gynecology
(10th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
pp. 586–603. ISBN 978-0-7817-6937-2.
Abortion statistics, England and Wales: 2010". London: Department
of Health, United Kingdom. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 22 November
2011. [dead link]
Abortion statistics, year ending 31 December 2010" (PDF).
Edinburgh: ISD, NHS Scotland. 31 May 2011. Archived (PDF) from the
original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ Vilain A, Mouquet MC (22 June 2011). "Voluntary terminations of
pregnancies in 2008 and 2009" (PDF). Paris: DREES, Ministry of Health,
France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2011.
Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ . (5 July 2011). "Abortions in Switzerland 2010". Neuchâtel: Office
of Federal Statistics, Switzerland. Archived from the original on 3
October 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ Gissler M, Heino A (21 February 2011). "Induced abortions in the
Nordic countries 2009" (PDF). Helsinki: National Institute for Health
and Welfare, Finland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January
2012. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ Jones RK, Kooistra K (March 2011). "
Abortion incidence and access to
services in the United States, 2008" (PDF). Perspectives on Sexual and
Reproductive Health. 43 (1): 41–50. doi:10.1363/4304111.
PMID 21388504. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September
2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ a b c Templeton, A.; Grimes, D. A. (2011). "A Request for Abortion".
New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (23): 2198–2204.
doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1103639 . Archived from the original on 8 January
^ Hammond C, Chasen ST (2009). "Dilation and evacuation". In Paul M,
Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD.
Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive
abortion care. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 178–192.
^ Healthwise (2004). "Manual and vacuum aspiration for abortion".
WebMD. Archived from the original on 11 February 2007. Retrieved 5
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (2003). "Dilatation and curettage".
Managing Complications in
Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Guide for
Midwives and Doctors. Geneva: World
ISBN 978-92-4-154587-7. OCLC 181845530. Retrieved 5 December
^ McGee, Glenn; Jon F. Merz. "Abortion". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived
from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2008.
^ Borgatta, L (December 2014). "Labor Induction Termination of
Pregnancy". Global Library of Women's Medicine. GLOWM.10444.
doi:10.3843/GLOWM.10444. Archived from the original on 24 September
2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
^ a b c Society of Family Planning (February 2011). "Clinical
Labor induction abortion in the second trimester".
Contraception. 84 (1): 4–18.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.02.005. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
10. What is the effect of feticide on labor induction abortion
outcome? Deliberately causing demise of the fetus before labor
induction abortion is performed primarily to avoid transient fetal
survival after expulsion; this approach may be for the comfort of both
the woman and the staff, to avoid futile resuscitation efforts. Some
providers allege that feticide also facilitates delivery, although
little data support this claim. Transient fetal survival is very
unlikely after intraamniotic installation of saline or urea, which are
directly feticidal. Transient survival with misoprostol for labor
induction abortion at greater than 18 weeks ranges from 0% to 50% and
has been observed in up to 13% of abortions performed with high-dose
oxytocin. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of transient
fetal survival with labor induction abortion include increasing
gestational age, decreasing abortion interval and the use of
nonfeticidal inductive agents such as the PGE1 analogues.
^ "2015 Clinical Policy Guidelines" (PDF). National Abortion
Federation. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2015.
Retrieved 30 October 2015. Policy Statement: Medical induction
abortion is a safe and effective method for termination of pregnancies
beyond the first trimester when performed by trained clinicians in
medical offices, freestanding clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, and
hospitals. Feticidal agents may be particularly important when issues
of viability arise.
^ a b c Riddle, John M. (1997). Eve's herbs: a history of
contraception and abortion in the West. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-27024-4.
^ Heftmann, Eric; Ko, Shui-Tze; Bennett, Raymond (1966),
"Identification of estrone in pomegranate seeds", Phytochemistry, 5:
^ Kong, Yun Cheung; et al. (1989), "Antifertility principle of Ruta
graveolens", Planta Medica, 55: 176–178, PMID 2748734 CS1
maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ Sharma, M. M.; Lal, G.; Jacob, D. (1976), "Estrogenic and pregnancy
interceptory effects of carrot Daucus carota seeds", Indian Journal of
Experimental Biology, 14: 506–508, ISSN 0019-5189
^ Woo, Won Sick; et al. (1987), "Antifertility principle of Dictamnus
albus root bark", Planta Medica, 53: 399–401,
PMID 3432420 CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ Prajapati, Narayan Das; Purohit, S. S.; Sharma, Arun K.; Kumar,
Tarun (2004). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants: A Complete Source Book.
Agrobios. ISBN 9788177541342.
^ Belew, Cindy (1999), "Herbs and the childbearing woman: Guidelines
for midwives", Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 44 (3): 231–252
^ Crellin, John K.; Philpott, Jane (1990). Herbal Medicine Past and
Present. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822310198.
^ Moerman, Daniel E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber
Press. ISBN 9780881924534.
^ Koblitz, Ann Hibner (2014). Sex and Herbs and Birth Control: Women
and Fertility Regulation Through the Ages. Kovalevskaia Fund.
^ Sullivan, John B.; et al. (1979), "Pennyroyal oil poisoning and
hepatoxicity", Journal of the American Medical Association, 242 (26):
2873–2874, doi:10.1001/jama.1979.03300260043027 CS1 maint:
Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ Ciganda C, Laborde A (2003). "Herbal infusions used for induced
abortion". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 41 (3):
235–239. doi:10.1081/CLT-120021104. PMID 12807304.
^ Smith JP (1998). "Risky choices: The dangers of teens using
self-induced abortion attempts". Journal of Pediatric
Health Care. 12
(3): 147–151. doi:10.1016/S0891-5245(98)90245-0.
^ a b c d Potts, M.; Graff, M.; Taing, J. (2007). "Thousand-year-old
depictions of massage abortion". Journal of Family Planning and
Health Care. 33 (4): 233–234.
doi:10.1783/147118907782101904. PMID 17925100.
^ Thapa, S. R.; Rimal, D.; Preston, J. (2006). "Self induction of
abortion with instrumentation". Australian Family Physician. 35 (9):
697–698. PMID 16969439. Archived from the original on 8 January
^ "The Prevention and Management of Unsafe Abortion" (PDF). World
Health Organization. April 1992. Archived (PDF) from the original on
30 May 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
^ Grimes, DA; Creinin, MD (2004). "Induced abortion: an overview for
internists". Annals of Internal Medicine. 140 (8): 620–6.
doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-8-200404200-00009. PMID 15096333.
Archived from the original on 7 May 2010.
^ Raymond, E. G.; Grimes, D. A. (2012). "The Comparative Safety of
Childbirth in the United States".
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 119 (2, Part 1): 215–219.
doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823fe923. PMID 22270271.
^ Grimes DA (January 2006). "Estimation of pregnancy-related mortality
risk by pregnancy outcome, United States, 1991 to 1999". American
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 194 (1): 92–4.
doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2005.06.070. PMID 16389015.
^ Raymond, EG; Grossman, D; Weaver, MA; Toti, S; Winikoff, B (November
2014). "Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical
procedures and common activities in the United States". Contraception.
90 (5): 476–9. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2014.07.012.
^ Bartlett LA; Berg CJ; Shulman HB; et al. (April 2004). "Risk factors
for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States".
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 103 (4): 729–37.
doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000116260.81570.60. PMID 15051566.
^ Trupin, Suzanne (27 May 2010). "Elective Abortion". eMedicine.
Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
At every gestational age, elective abortion is safer for the mother
than carrying a pregnancy to term.
^ Pittman, Genevra (23 January 2012). "
Abortion safer than giving
birth: study". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012.
Retrieved 4 February 2012.
^ Abbas, D; Chong, E; Raymond, EG (September 2015). "Outpatient
medical abortion is safe and effective through 70 days gestation".
Contraception. 92 (3): 197–9.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.06.018. PMID 26118638.
^ Kapp, Nathalie; Baldwin, Maureen K.; Rodriguez, Maria Isabel
(2017-09-18). "Efficacy of medical abortion prior to 6 gestational
weeks: a systematic review". Contraception. 97: 90–99.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.09.006. ISSN 1879-0518.
^ Westfall JM, Sophocles A, Burggraf H, Ellis S (1998). "Manual vacuum
aspiration for first-trimester abortion". Arch Fam Med. 7 (6):
559–62. doi:10.1001/archfami.7.6.559. PMID 9821831. Archived
from the original on 5 April 2005.
^ Dempsey, A (December 2012). "Serious infection associated with
induced abortion in the United States". Clinical
Gynecology. 55 (4): 888–92. doi:10.1097/GRF.0b013e31826fd8f8.
^ White, Kari; Carroll, Erin; Grossman, Daniel (November 2015).
"Complications from first-trimester aspiration abortion: a systematic
review of the literature". Contraception. 92 (5): 422–438.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2015.07.013. PMID 26238336.
^ ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—
Gynecology (May 2009). "ACOG
practice bulletin No. 104: antibiotic prophylaxis for gynecologic
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 113 (5): 1180–9.
doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181a6d011. PMID 19384149.
^ Sawaya GF, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes DA (May 1996).
"Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal
prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis".
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 87
(5 Pt 2): 884–90. PMID 8677129.
^ Barnard, S; Kim, C; Park, MH; Ngo, TD (27 July 2015). "Doctors or
mid-level providers for abortion". The Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews (7): CD011242. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011242.pub2.
^ Lerma, Klaira; Shaw, Kate A. (2017-09-15). "Update on second
trimester medical abortion". Current Opinion in
Gynecology. 29: 413–418. doi:10.1097/GCO.0000000000000409.
ISSN 1473-656X. PMID 28922193.
^ Grossman D (3 September 2004). "Medical methods for first trimester
abortion: RHL commentary". Reproductive
Health Library. Geneva: World
Health Organization. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011.
Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ Chien P, Thomson M (15 December 2006). "Medical versus surgical
methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy: RHL commentary".
Health Library. Geneva: World
Archived from the original on 17 May 2010. Retrieved 1 June
^ a b Jasen P (October 2005). "Breast cancer and the politics of
abortion in the United States". Medical History. 49 (4): 423–44.
doi:10.1017/S0025727300009145. PMC 1251638 .
^ Schneider, A. Patrick II; Zainer, Christine; et al. (August 2014).
"The breast cancer epidemic: 10 facts". The Linacre Quarterly.
Catholic Medical Association. 81 (3): 244–277.
doi:10.1179/2050854914Y.0000000027 . Retrieved 11 November 2015.
...an association between [induced abortion] and breast cancer has
been found by numerous Western and non-Western researchers from around
the world. This is especially true in more recent reports that allow
for a sufficient breast cancer latency period since an adoption of a
Western life style in sexual and reproductive behavior.
^ Position statements of major medical bodies on abortion and breast
Health Organization: "Induced abortion does not increase breast
cancer risk (Fact sheet N°240)". World
Health Organization. Archived
from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
National Cancer Institute: "Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer
Risk". National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on 21
December 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
American Cancer Society: "Is
Abortion Linked to Breast Cancer?".
American Cancer Society. 23 September 2010. Archived from the original
on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011. At this time, the scientific
evidence does not support the notion that abortion of any kind raises
the risk of breast cancer.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: "The Care of Women
Requesting Induced Abortion" (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and
Gynaecologists. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July
2013. Retrieved 29 June 2008. Induced abortion is not associated with
an increase in breast cancer risk.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: "ACOG Finds No
Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk". American Congress of
Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 31 July 2003. Archived from the
original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
^ Gordon, Linda (2002). The Moral Property of Women. University of
Illinois Press. ISBN 0252027647.
^ Solinger, Rickie (1998), "Introduction", in Solinger, Rickie,
Abortion Wars: A Half Century of Struggle, 1950-2000, University of
California Press, pp. 1–9, ISBN 978-0520209527
^ Bates, Jerome E.; Zawadzki, Edward S. (1964). Criminal Abortion: A
Study in Medical Sociology. Charles C. Thomas.
^ Keller, Allan (1981). Scandalous Lady: The Life and Times of Madame
Restell. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0689112133.
^ Taussig, Frederick J. (1936).
Abortion Spontaneous and Induced:
Medical and Social Aspects. C. V. Mosby.
^ a b Horvath, S; Schreiber, CA (14 September 2017). "Unintended
Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health". Current psychiatry
reports. 19 (11): 77. doi:10.1007/s11920-017-0832-4.
^ a b "APA Task Force Finds Single
Abortion Not a Threat to Women's
Mental Health" (Press release). American Psychological Association. 12
August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved
7 September 2011.
^ "Report of the APA Task Force on Mental
Health and Abortion" (PDF).
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 13 August 2008.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2010.
^ Coleman, PK (September 2011). "
Abortion and mental health:
quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995-2009".
The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental
science. 199 (3): 180–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.077230.
Health and Abortion". American Psychological Association.
2008. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 18 April
^ Steinberg, J. R. (2011). "Later Abortions and Mental Health:
Psychological Experiences of Women Having Later Abortions—A Critical
Review of Research". Women's
Health Issues. 21 (3): S44–S48.
doi:10.1016/j.whi.2011.02.002. PMID 21530839.
^ Kelly, Kimberly (February 2014). "The spread of 'Post Abortion
Syndrome' as social diagnosis". Social Science & Medicine. 102:
^ Okonofua, F. (2006). "
Abortion and maternal mortality in the
developing world" (PDF). Journal of
28 (11): 974–979. PMID 17169222. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 11 January 2012.
^ Haddad, LB.; Nour, NM. (2009). "Unsafe abortion: unnecessary
maternal mortality". Reviews in
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2 (2):
122–6. PMC 2709326 . PMID 19609407.
^ Lozano, R (15 December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from
235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic
analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380
(9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0.
hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30050819 . PMID 23245604.
^ Darney, Leon Speroff, Philip D. (2010). A clinical guide for
contraception (5th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins. p. 406. ISBN 1-60831-610-6.
Health Organisation (2011). Unsafe abortion: global and
regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated
mortality in 2008 (PDF) (6th ed.). World
p. 27. ISBN 978-92-4-150111-8. Archived (PDF) from the
original on 28 March 2014.
^ a b Berer M (2000). "Making abortions safe: a matter of good public
health policy and practice". Bulletin of the World Health
Organization. 78 (5): 580–92. PMC 2560758 .
^ "Translations". Dublin Declaration. Archived from the original on 28
October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
^ a b Sedgh G, Henshaw S, Singh S, Ahman E, Shah IH (2007). "Induced
abortion: estimated rates and trends worldwide". Lancet. 370 (9595):
1338–45. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.454.4197 .
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61575-X. PMID 17933648.
^ a b "Unsafe abortion: Global and regional estimates of the incidence
of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2003" (PDF). World
Health Organization. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16
February 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
^ Berer M (November 2004). "National laws and unsafe abortion: the
parameters of change". Reproductive
Health Matters. 12 (24 Suppl):
1–8. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(04)24024-1. PMID 15938152.
^ Culwell, Kelly R.; Hurwitz, Manuelle (May 2013). "Addressing
barriers to safe abortion". International Journal of
Obstetrics. 121: S16–S19. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.02.003.
^ Jewkes R, Rees H, Dickson K, Brown H, Levin J (March 2005). "The
impact of age on the epidemiology of incomplete abortions in South
Africa after legislative change". BJOG: An International Journal of
Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 112 (3): 355–9.
doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00422.x. PMID 15713153.
^ Bateman C (December 2007). "Maternal mortalities 90% down as legal
TOPs more than triple". South African Medical Journal. 97 (12):
1238–42. PMID 18264602. Archived from the original on 30 August
^ Conti, Jennifer A.; Brant, Ashley R.; Shumaker, Heather D.; Reeves,
Matthew F. (November 2016). "Update on abortion policy". Current
Obstetrics and Gynecology: 1.
^ New, M. J. (15 February 2011). "Analyzing the Effect of
Abortion U.S. State Legislation in the Post-Casey Era". State
Politics & Policy Quarterly. 11 (1): 28–47.
^ Medoff, M. H.; Dennis, C. (21 July 2014). "Another Critical Review
of New's Reanalysis of the Impact of Antiabortion Legislation". State
Politics & Policy Quarterly. 14 (3): 269–276.
^ "Facts on Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn
Health" (PDF). Guttmacher Institute. 2010. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
^ Grimes, David A. "Unsafe
Abortion - The Preventable Pandemic*".
Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 16 January
^ Nations, MK (1997). "Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in
Brazil". Social Science & Medicine. 44: 1833–45.
doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(96)00293-6. PMID 9194245.
^ Maclean, Gaynor (2005). "XI. Dimension, Dynamics and Diversity: A 3D
Approach to Appraising Global Maternal and Neonatal Health
Initiatives". In Balin, Randell E. Trends in Midwifery Research. Nova
Publishers. pp. 299–300. ISBN 978-1-59454-477-4. Archived
from the original on 15 March 2015.
^ Salter, C.; Johnson, H.B.; Hengen, N. (1997). "Care for Postabortion
Complications: Saving Women's Lives". Population Reports. Johns
Hopkins School of Public Health. 25 (1). Archived from the original on
7 December 2009.
United Nations Population Fund, WHO, World Bank (2010).
"Packages of interventions: Family planning, safe abortion care,
maternal, newborn and child health". Archived from the original on 9
November 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010. CS1 maint: Uses
authors parameter (link)
^ "The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion. Evidence-Based
Clinical Guideline no. 7" (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and
Gynaecologists. November 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14
November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015. RECOMMENDATION 6.21 Feticide
should be performed before medical abortion after 21 weeks and 6 days
of gestation to ensure that there is no risk of a live birth.
^ Society of Family Planning (February 2011). "Clinical Guidelines,
Labor induction abortion in the second trimester". Contraception. 84
(1): 4–18. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.02.005. Transient
survival with misoprostol for labor induction abortion at greater than
18 weeks ranges from 0% to 50% and has been observed in up to 13% of
abortions performed with high-dose oxytocin.
^ Fletcher; Isada; Johnson; Evans (August 1992). "Fetal intracardiac
potassium chloride injection to avoid the hopeless resuscitation of an
abnormal abortus: II. Ethical issues".
Obstetrics and Gynecology. 80
(2): 310–313. PMID 1635751. ... following later abortions at
greater than 20 weeks, the rare but catastrophic occurrence of live
births can lead to fractious controversy over neonatal
^ "Termination of
Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormality" (PDF). Royal
College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: 29–31. May 2010.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 26
^ Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2007). "Critical care decisions in
fetal and neonatal medicine: a guide to the report" (PDF). Archived
(PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
Under English law, fetuses have no independent legal status. Once
born, babies have the same rights to life as other people.
^ Gerri R. Baer; Robert M. Nelson (2007). "Preterm Birth: Causes,
Consequences, and Prevention. C: A Review of Ethical Issues Involved
in Premature Birth". Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on
Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes;. Archived
from the original on 31 December 2015. In 2002, the 107th U.S.
Congress passed the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2001. This
law established personhood for all infants who are born "at any stage
of development" who breathe, have a heartbeat, or "definite movement
of voluntary muscles", regardless of whether the birth was due to
labor or induced abortion.
^ Chabot, Steve (5 August 2002). "H.R. 2175 (107th): Born-Alive
Infants Protection Act of 2002". govtrack.us. Archived from the
original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015. The term
"born alive" is defined as the complete expulsion or extraction from
its mother of that member, at any stage of development, who after such
expulsion or extraction breathes or has a beating heart, pulsation of
the umbilical cord, or definite movement of the voluntary muscles,
regardless of whether the umbilical cord has been cut, and regardless
of whether the expulsion or extraction occurs as a result of natural
or induced labor, cesarean section, or induced abortion.
^ "Practice Bulletin: Second-Trimester Abortion" (PDF). Obstetrics
& Gynecology. 121 (6): 1394–1406. June 2013.
doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000431056.79334.cc. PMID 23812485. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 30 October
2015. With medical abortion after 20 weeks of gestation, induced fetal
demise may be preferable to the woman or provider in order to avoid
transient fetal survival after expulsion.
^ Higginbotham Susan (January 2010). "Clinical Guidelines: Induction
of fetal demise before abortion" (PDF). Contraception: a publication
of Society of Family Planning. 81: 8.
doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2010.01.018. Archived (PDF) from the
original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015. Inducing
fetal demise before induction termination avoids signs of live birth
that may have beneficial emotional, ethical and legal
^ Committee on
Health Care for Underserved Women (November 2014).
"Committee Opinion 613: Increasing Access to Abortion". Obstetrics
& Gynecology. 124: 1060–1065.
doi:10.1097/01.aog.0000456326.88857.31. Archived from the original on
28 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015. “Partial-birth”
abortion bans—The federal
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003
(upheld by the Supreme Court in 2007) makes it a federal crime to
perform procedures that fall within the definition of so-called
“partial-birth abortion” contained in the statute, with no
exception for procedures necessary to preserve the health of the
woman...physicians and lawyers have interpreted the banned procedures
as including intact dilation and evacuation unless fetal demise occurs
^ "2015 Clinical Policy Guidelines" (PDF). National Abortion
Federation. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2015.
Retrieved 30 October 2015. Policy Statement: Medical induction
abortion is a safe and effective method for termination of pregnancies
beyond the first trimester when performed by trained clinicians in
medical offices, freestanding clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, and
hospitals. Feticidal agents may be particularly important when issues
of viability arise.
^ Milliez Jacques (2008). "FIGO (International Federation of
Gynecology and Obstetrics) Committee Report: Ethical aspects
concerning termination of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis".
International Journal of
Gynecology and Obstetrics. 102 (1): 97–98.
doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.03.002. PMID 18423641. Termination of
pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis after 22 weeks must be preceded
by a feticide
^ "Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2013 on CDC WONDER Online Database,
released 2015". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National
Health Statistics. Data are from the Multiple Cause of
Death Files, 1999–2013, as compiled from data provided by the 57
vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics
Cooperative Program. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015.
Retrieved 12 November 2015.
^ Pazol, Karen; et al. (27 November 2009). "
Abortion Surveillance -
United States, 2006". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Surveillance Summaries. 58 (SS08): 1–35. Archived from the original
on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
^ Shah I, Ahman E (December 2009). "Unsafe abortion: global and
regional incidence, trends, consequences, and challenges". Journal of
Gynaecology Canada. 31 (12): 1149–58.
doi:10.1016/s1701-2163(16)34376-6. PMID 20085681. However, a
woman's chance of having an abortion is similar whether she lives in a
developed or a developing region: in 2003 the rates were 26 abortions
per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 in developed areas and 29 per 1000 in
developing areas. The main difference is in safety, with abortion
being safe and easily accessible in developed countries and generally
restricted and unsafe in most developing countries
^ Rosenthal, Elizabeth (12 October 2007). "Legal or Not, Abortion
Rates Compare". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28
August 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
^ "Facts on Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn
Health" (PDF). Guttmacher Institute. November 2010. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
^ Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.; Henshaw, S. K.; Bankole, A. (2011). "Legal
Abortion Worldwide in 2008: Levels and Recent Trends". Perspectives on
Sexual and Reproductive Health. 43 (3): 188–198.
doi:10.1363/4318811. PMID 21884387. Archived from the original on
7 January 2012.
^ National Institute of Statistics, Romanian Statistical Yearbook,
chapter 2, page 62, 2011
^ Strauss, L. T.; Gamble, S. B.; Parker, W. Y.; Cook, D. A.; Zane, S.
B.; Hamdan, S.; Centers for Disease Control Prevention (2006).
Abortion surveillance—United States, 2003". Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries. 55 (SS11): 1–32.
PMID 17119534. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017.
^ a b c d "The limitations of U.S. statistics on abortion". Issues in
Brief. New York: The Guttmacher Institute. 1997. Archived from the
original on 4 April 2012.
^ Finer, L. B.; Henshaw, S. K. (2003). "
Abortion Incidence and
Services in the United States in 2000". Perspectives on Sexual and
Reproductive Health. 35 (1): 6–15. doi:10.1363/3500603.
PMID 12602752. Archived from the original on 22 January
^ Department of
Health (2007). "
Abortion statistics, England and
Wales: 2006". Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved
12 October 2007.
^ Cheng, Linan (1 November 2008). "Surgical versus medical methods for
second-trimester induced abortion: RHL commentary". The WHO
Health Library. Geneva: World
Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 10 February
2009. commentary on:
Lohr, Patricia A.; Hayes, Jennifer L.; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
(23 January 2008). "Surgical versus medical methods for second
trimester abortion". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1):
^ a b c d Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Haas, Taylor (1998).
"Reasons Why Women Have Induced Abortions: Evidence from 27
Countries". International Family Planning Perspectives. 24 (3):
117–127; 152. doi:10.2307/3038208. Archived from the original on 17
^ Finer, L. B.; Frohwirth, L. F.; Dauphinee, L. A.; Singh, S.; Moore,
A. M. (2005). "Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and
Qualitative Perspectives". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive
Health. 37 (3): 110–118. doi:10.1111/j.1931-2393.2005.tb00045.x.
PMID 16150658. Archived from the original on 7 January
^ "Nuremberg and the Crime of Abortion". U. Toledo. L. Rev. 42: 283.
Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 12 July
^ Oster, Emily (September 2005). "Explaining Asia's "Missing Women": A
New Look at the Data – Comment" (PDF). Population and Development
Review. 31 (3): 529, 535. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00082.x.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 19 May
^ Jones, R. K.; Darroch, J. E.; Henshaw, S. K. (2002). "Contraceptive
Use Among U.S. Women Having Abortions in 2000–2001" (PDF).
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 34 (6): 294–303.
doi:10.2307/3097748. PMID 12558092. Archived (PDF) from the
original on 15 June 2006.
^ Cohen, SA (2008). "
Abortion and Women of Color: The Bigger Picture".
Guttmacher Policy Review. 11 (3). Archived from the original on 15
^ George J. Annas and Sherman Elias. Legal and Ethical Issues in
Obstetrical Practice. Chapter 54 in Obstetrics: Normal and Problem
Pregnancies, 6th edition. Eds. Steven G. Gabbe, et al. 2012 Saunders,
an imprint of Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4377-1935-2
^ Doan 2007, p. 57.
^ a b Weisz, B; Schiff, E; Lishner, M (2001). "Cancer in pregnancy:
maternal and fetal implications" (PDF). Human Reproduction Update. 7
(4): 384–393. doi:10.1093/humupd/7.4.384. PMID 11476351.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October 2015.
^ Mayr, NA; Wen, BC; Saw, CB (1998). "
Radiation therapy during
Gynecology Clinics of North America. 25
(2): 301–21. doi:10.1016/s0889-8545(05)70006-1.
^ Fenig E, Mishaeli M, Kalish Y, Lishner M (2001). "
radiation". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 27 (1): 1–7.
doi:10.1053/ctrv.2000.0193. PMID 11237773.
^ Li WW, Yau TN, Leung CW, Pong WM, Chan MY (2009). "Large-cell
neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix complicating
pregnancy". Hong Kong Medical Journal. 15 (1): 69–72.
^ Mould R (1996). Mould's Medical Anecdotes. CRC Press. p. 406.
^ Miles, Steven (2005). The
Hippocratic Oath and the Ethics of
Medicine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518820-2.
^ "Scribonius Largus"
^ Soranus, Owsei Temkin (1956). Soranus' Gynecology. I.19.60: JHU
Press. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 6
^ Carrick, Paul (2001). Medical Ethics in the Ancient World.
Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-849-8.
^ Rackham, H. (1944). "Aristotle, Politics". Harvard University Press.
Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June
^ Brind'Amour, Katherine (2007). "Effraenatam".
Encyclopedia. Arizona State University. Archived from the original on
2 February 2012.
^ Joan Cadden, "Western medicine and natural philosophy," in Vern L.
Bullough and James A. Brundage, eds., Handbook of Medieval Sexuality,
Garland, 1996, p. 51-80.
^ Cyril C. Means, Jr., "A historian's view," in Robert E. Hall, ed.,
Abortion in a Changing World, vol. 1, Columbia University Press, 1970,
^ John M. Riddle, "Contraception and early abortion in the Middle
Ages," in Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage, eds., Handbook of
Medieval Sexuality, Garland, 1996, pp. 261-277, ISBN=9780815312871.
^ "Religions – Islam: Abortion". BBC. Archived from the
original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
^ Dabash, Rasha; Roudi-Fahimi, Farzaneh (2008). "
Abortion in the
Middle East and North Africa" (PDF). Population Research Bureau.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2011.
^ Dannenfelser, Marjorie (4 November 2015). "The Suffragettes Would
Not Agree With Feminists Today on Abortion". TIME. Archived from the
original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
^ Charles A. Lee, "Report of a trial for murder," American Journal of
the Medical Sciences, vol. XXII (1838), p. 351-353.
^ Benjamin Bailey, "Induction of abortion and premature labor," North
American Journal of Homeopathy, vol. XI, no. 3 (1896), p. 144-150.
^ Keith Simpson, Forensic Medicine, Edward Arnold Publishers, 1969
[first published 1947], p. 173-174.
^ Leslie J. Reagan, When
Abortion Was a Crime: Women, Medicine, and
Law in the United States, 1867-1973, University of California Press,
^ Max Evans, Madam Millie: Bordellos from Silver City to Ketchikan,
University of New Mexico Press, 2002, p. 209-218, 230, 267-286, 305.
^ James Donner, Women in Trouble: The Truth about
Abortion in America,
Monarch Books, 1959.
^ Ann Oakley, The Captured Womb, Basil Blackwell, 1984, p. 91.
^ Rickie Solinger, The Abortionist: A Woman Against the Law, The Free
Press, 1994, p. xi, 5, 16-17, 157-175.
Abortion Law, History & Religion".
Childbirth By Choice Trust.
Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 23 March
^ For sources describing abortion policy in Nazi Germany, see:
Friedlander, Henry (1995). The origins of Nazi genocide: from
euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill: University of North
Carolina Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-8078-4675-9.
OCLC 60191622. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016.
Proctor, Robert (1988). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 122, 123
and 366. ISBN 978-0-674-74578-0. OCLC 20760638.
Arnot, Margaret L.; Cornelie Usborne (1999). Gender and Crime in
Modern Europe. New York: Routledge. p. 231.
ISBN 978-1-85728-745-5. OCLC 186748539.
DiMeglio, Peter M. (1999). "Germany 1933–1945 (National Socialism)".
In Helen Tierney. Women's studies encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut:
Greenwood Press. p. 589. ISBN 978-0-313-31072-0.
OCLC 38504469. Archived from the original on 15 October
^ Farrell, Courtney (2010).
Abortion Debate. ABDO Publishing Company.
pp. 6–7. ISBN 1617852643.
^ "WMA Declaration on Therapeutic Abortion". WMA. Archived from the
original on 28 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
^ Farrell, p. 8
Abortion Policies 2013" (PDF).
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 31 July
Abortion Policies 2007, United Nations, Department of Economic
and Social Affairs, Population Division.
^ Theodore J. Joyce; Stanley K. Henshaw; Amanda Dennis; Lawrence B.
Finer; Kelly Blanchard (April 2009). "The Impact of State Mandatory
Counseling and Waiting Period Laws on Abortion: A Literature Review"
(PDF). Guttmacher Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14
January 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
^ Phillips, Tom (29 October 2015). "China ends one-child policy after
35 years". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the
original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
^ Buckley, Chris (29 October 2015). "China Ends One-Child Policy,
Allowing Families Two Children". The New York Times.
ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016.
Retrieved 30 November 2016.
^ "China to end one-child policy and allow two". BBC News. 29 October
2015. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 30
^ Restivo, Sal P., ed. (2005). Science, Technology, and Society: An
Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press. p. 2.
ISBN 9780195141931. Archived from the original on 15 March
^ "European delegation visits Nicaragua to examine effects of abortion
ban". Ipas. 26 November 2007. Archived from the original on 17 April
2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009. More than 82 maternal deaths had been
registered in Nicaragua since the change. During this same period,
indirect obstetric deaths, or deaths caused by illnesses aggravated by
the normal effects of pregnancy and not due to direct obstetric
causes, have doubled.
^ "Nicaragua: "The Women's Movement Is in Opposition"". Montevideo:
Inside Costa Rica. IPS. 28 June 2008. Archived from the original on 6
^ "Surgical Abortion: History and Overview". National Abortion
Federation. Archived from the original on 22 September 2006. Retrieved
4 September 2006.
^ Nations MK, Misago C, Fonseca W, Correia LL, Campbell OM (June
1997). "Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil". Social
Science & Medicine. 44 (12): 1833–45.
doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(96)00293-6. PMID 9194245. Two folk medical
conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida)
menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in
Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these
conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also
^ Henshaw, S. K. (1991). "The Accessibility of
Abortion Services in
the United States" (PDF). Family Planning Perspectives. 23 (6):
^ Bloom, Marcy (25 February 2008). "Need Abortion, Will Travel". RH
Reality Check. Archived from the original on 30 November 2008.
Retrieved 15 June 2009.
^ Banister, Judith. (16 March 1999). Son Preference in Asia –
Report of a Symposium Archived 16 February 2006 at the Wayback
Machine.. Retrieved 12 January 2006.
^ Reaney, Patricia. "Selective abortion blamed for India's missing
girls". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 February 2006.
Retrieved 3 December 2008.
^ Sudha, S.; Rajan, S. Irudaya (July 1999). "Female Demographic
Disadvantage in India 1981–1991: Sex Selective Abortions and Female
Infanticide". Development and Change. 30 (3): 585–618.
doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00130. PMID 20162850. Archived from the
original on 1 January 2003. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
^ "Sex Selection & Abortion: India". Library of Congress. 4 April
2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 18
^ "China Bans Sex-selection Abortion" Archived 12 February 2006 at the
Wayback Machine. (22 March 2002). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 12
^ Graham, Maureen J.; Larsen; Xu (June 1998). "Son Preference in Anhui
Province, China". International Family Planning Perspectives. 24 (2):
72–77. doi:10.2307/2991929. Archived from the original on 21 October
^ a b "Preventing gender-biased sex selection" (PDF). UNFPA. Retrieved
1 November 2011.
^ "Prenatal sex selection" (PDF). PACE. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
^ Smith, G. Davidson (1998). "Single Issue Terrorism Commentary".
Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Archived from the original on
15 October 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
^ Wilson, M.; Lynxwiler, J. (1988). "
Abortion clinic violence as
terrorism". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 11 (4): 263–273.
^ "The Death of Dr. Gunn". New York Times. 12 March 1993. Archived
from the original on 10 November 2016.
^ "Incidence of Violence & Disruption Against
in the U.S. & Canada" (PDF). National
Abortion Federation. 2009.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 9 February
^ Borger, Julian (3 February 1999). "The bomber under siege". The
Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 22 February
^ a b Alesha E. Doan (2007). Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion
wars and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan.
^ Spencer, James B. (1908). Sheep Husbandry in Canada. p. 114.
^ "Beef cattle and Beef production: Management and Husbandry of Beef
Cattle". Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 1966. Archived from the
original on 1 January 2009.
^ Myers, Brandon; Beckett, Jonathon (2001). "
Pine needle abortion".
Health Care and Maintenance (PDF). Tucson, AZ: Arizona
Cooperative Extension, University of Arizona. pp. 47–50.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 10 April
^ Kim, Ill-Hwa; Choi, Kyung-Chul; An, Beum-Soo; Choi, In-Gyu; Kim,
Byung-Ki; Oh, Young-Kyoon; Jeung, Eui-Bae (2003). "Effect on abortion
of feeding Korean pine needles to pregnant Korean native cows".
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. Canadian Veterinary Medical
Association. 67 (3): 194–197. PMC 227052 .
^ Overton, Rebecca (March 2003). "By a Hair" (PDF). Paint Horse
Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2013.
Retrieved 19 December 2012.
^ Adams, Kye R.; Fetterplace, Lachlan C.; Davis, Andrew R.; Taylor,
Matthew D.; Knott, Nathan A. (January 2018). "Sharks, rays and
abortion: The prevalence of capture-induced parturition in
elasmobranchs". Biological Conservation. 217: 11–27.
^ "Herpesvirus in dog pups". petMD. Archived from the original on 9
November 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
^ "Spaying Pregnant Females". Carol's Ferals. Archived from the
original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
^ Coates, Jennifer (7 May 2007). "Feline abortion: often an unnerving
necessity". petMD. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012.
Retrieved 18 December 2012.
^ Khuly, Patty (1 April 2011). "Feline abortion: often an unnerving
necessity (Part 2)". petMD. Archived from the original on 18 November
2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
^ Schwagmeyer, P. L. (1979). "The Bruce Effect: An Evaluation of
Male/Female Advantages". The American Naturalist. 114 (6): 932–938.
doi:10.1086/283541. JSTOR 2460564.
^ McKinnon, Angus O.; Voss, James L. (1993). Equine Reproduction.
Wiley-Blackwell. p. 563. ISBN 0-8121-1427-2. Archived from
the original on 15 March 2015.
^ Berger, Joel W; Vuletić, L; Boberić, J; Milosavljević, A;
Dilparić, S; Tomin, R; Naumović, P (5 May 1983). "Induced abortion
and social factors in wild horses". Nature. 303 (5912): 59–61.
doi:10.1038/303059a0. PMID 6682487.
^ Pluháček, Jan; Bartos, L (2000). "Male infanticide in captive
plains zebra, Equus burchelli" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 59 (4):
689–694. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1371. PMID 10792924. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011.
^ Pluháček, Jan (2005). "Further evidence for male infanticide and
feticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli" (PDF). Folia
Zoologica. 54 (3): 258–262. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22
^ Kirkpatrick, J. F.; Turner, J. W. (1991). "Changes in Herd Stallions
among Feral Horse Bands and the Absence of Forced Copulation and
Induced Abortion". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 29 (3):
217–219. doi:10.1007/BF00166404. JSTOR 4600608.
^ Agoramoorthy, G.; Mohnot, S. M.; Sommer, V.; Srivastava, A. (1988).
"Abortions in free ranging Hanuman langurs (Presbytis
entellus) – a male induced strategy?". Human Evolution. 3 (4):
Devereux, George (1976). A Study of
Abortion in Primitive Societies.
International Universities Press. ISBN 978-0823662456.
Doan, Alesha E. (2007). Opposition and Intimidation: The abortion wars
and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan.
Riddle, John M. (1997). Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and
Abortion in the West. Harvard University Press.
Ganatra, Bela; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Johnson Jr,
Brooke R; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Temmerman, Marleen (1 March 2014).
"From concept to measurement: operationalizing WHO's definition of
unsafe abortion". Bulletin of the World
Health Organization. 92 (3):
155–155. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.136333. PMC 3949603 .
Hartmann, Betsy (1995). Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global
Politics of Population Control. South End Press.
Koblitz, Ann Hibner (2014). Sex and Herbs and Birth Control: Women and
Fertility Regulation Through the Ages. Kovalevskaia Fund.
Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola;
Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts,
Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi
Bart; Alkema, Leontine (July 2016). "
Abortion incidence between 1990
and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends". The
Lancet. 388 (10041): 258–267. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30380-4.
PMC 5498988 . PMID 27179755.
Abortion Policies: A Global Review 3 vols. Population
Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United
WHO (2005). The World
Health Report 2005: Make every mother and child
count. Geneva: World
Health Organization. ISBN 92 4 156290
WHO (2012). Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health
systems (PDF) (2nd ed.). Geneva: World
WHO (2016). "
Health worker roles in providing safe abortion care and
post-abortion contraception". Retrieved 8 January 2017.
First-trimester abortion in women with medical conditions. US
Health and Human Services
Safe abortion: Technical & policy guidance for health systems,
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (2015)
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Access related topics
Find out more on's
History of abortion
Methods of abortion
Abortion and mental health
Beginning of human personhood
Beginning of pregnancy controversy
Abortion-breast cancer hypothesis
Crisis pregnancy center
Ethical aspects of abortion
Genetics and abortion
Legalized abortion and crime effect
Libertarian perspectives on abortion
Limit of viability
Minors and abortion
Paternal rights and abortion
Philosophical aspects of the abortion debate
Societal attitudes towards abortion
Trinidad and Tobago
Papua New Guinea
Bosnia and Herzegovina
History of abortion
History of abortion law
Laws by country
Fetal heartbeat bills
Dilation and evacuation
Dilation and curettage
Birth control methods (G02B, G03A)
Comparison of birth control methods
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)
Avoiding vaginal intercourse: Abstinence
Including vaginal intercourse: Breastfeeding infertility (LAM)
Calendar-based methods (rhythm, etc.)
Fertility awareness (Billings ovulation method
Creighton Model, etc.)
Barrier and / or
Combined vaginal ring
Etonogestrel implant (Nexplanon)
Levonorgestrel implant (Norplant)
Progesterone vaginal ring
Emergency contraception (Ulipristal acetate
Hormonal IUDs (progestogens)
Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance
Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (Vasalgel)
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)
Intrauterine device (Hormonal IUD
Contraceptive implant (Etonogestrel implant,
Substantive human rights
Note: What is considered a human right is controversial and not all
the topics listed are universally accepted as human rights.
Civil and political
Equality before the law
Freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention
Freedom of assembly
Freedom of association
Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment
Freedom from discrimination
Freedom from exile
Freedom of information
Freedom of movement
Freedom of religion
Freedom from slavery
Freedom of speech
Freedom of thought
Freedom from torture
Presumption of innocence
Right of asylum
Right to die
Right to a fair trial
Right to family life
Right to keep and bear arms
Right to life
Right to petition
Right to privacy
Right to protest
Right to refuse medical treatment
Right of self-defense
Security of person
Equal pay for equal work
Right to an adequate standard of living
Right to clothing
Right to development
Right to education
Right to food
Right to health
Right to housing
Right to Internet access
Right to property
Right to public participation
Right of reply
Right of return
Right to science and culture
Right to social security
Right to water
Right to work
Trade union membership
Freedom from involuntary female genital mutilation
Intersex human rights
Right to sexuality
War and conflict
Freedom from genocide
Prisoner of war
Genital modification and mutilation
Assisted reproductive technology
Reproductive life plan
Self-report sexual risk behaviors
Pregnancy from rape
Pregnant patients' rights
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility
Disorders of sex development
Reproductive system disease
Sexually transmitted infection
Birth control movement in the United States
History of condoms
Social hygiene movement
Timeline of reproductive rights legislation