HOME
The Info List - Abhinavagupta


--- Advertisement ---



Vedic philosophy

Agastya Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Vashistha Yajnavalkya

Mimamsa

Jaimini

Vedanta

Advaita

Badarayana Gaudapada Adi Shankara

Dvaita

Madhvacharya

Sri Vaishnavism

Ramanuja

Neo-Vedanta

Vivekananda Aurobindo

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Nyaya

Gotama

Navya-Nyāya

Gangesha Upadhyaya

Vaisheshika

Kanada

Nāstika (heterodox)

Ājīvika Charvaka Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism

Abhinavagupta

Pratyabhijna Tantra

Tamil

Valluvam Valluvar

Other

Chanakya

General topics

Ahimsa Atomism Atman

Ātman (Hinduism) Ātman (Buddhism) Ātman (Jainism)

Artha Anekantavada Brahman Dharma Indian logic Karma Kama Maya Metta Moksha Nondualism Samadhi Pramana Yoga

Jainism

Haribhadra Umaswati

Buddhism

Buddha

Traditions

Madhyamika

Nagarjuna

Yogacara

Vasubandhu Dharmakirti

Indian logic

Dignaga

Topics

Dukkha Anatta Anicca Nirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Emptiness

China

Confucianism Persons

Confucius Mencius

Topics

Face Filial piety Guanxi Ren Li

New Confucianism

Han Yu Wang Yangming Xiong Shili Zhu Xi

Daoism Persons

Laozi

Topics

Tao Yin yang Wu wei

Legalism

Shang Yang

Chinese Buddhism

Tientai

Zhiyi

Huayan school

Fazang Guifeng Zongmi

East Asian Mādhyamaka

Jizang

Chinese Chan

Hundred Schools of Thought

Mozi Zhuangzi

Maoism

Mao

Other

Sun Tzu

General topics

De Qi

Japan

Traditions

Japanese Zen

Sōtō

Dogen

Shingon

Kukai

Kyoto School

Kitaro Nishida

Korea

Yi Hwang Yi I

Tibet

Traditions

Sakya

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita

Nyingma

Longchenpa

Gelug

Tsongkhapa

Topics

Four Tenets system Rangtong-Shentong Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction

v t e

Part of a series on

Shaivism

Deities Paramashiva (Supreme being) Shiva
Shiva
- Shakti

Sadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga Kali

Ganesha Murugan Others

Scriptures and texts

Agamas and Tantras

Vedas Svetasvatara

Tirumurai Shivasutras Vachanas

Philosophy

Three Components

Pati Pashu Pasam

Three bondages

Anava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas Yoga

Practices

Vibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-Jangam

Schools

Adi Margam

Pashupata Kalamukha Kapalika

Mantra
Mantra
Margam

Saiddhantika

Siddhantism

Non - Saiddhantika

Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism

Pratyabhijna Vama Dakshina Kaula: Trika-Yamala-Kubjika-Netra

Others

Veerashaiva - Lingayatism Nath Siddhar Srouta Nusantara Agama Siwa

Scholars

Lakulisa Abhinavagupta Vasugupta Utpaladeva Nayanars Meykandar Nirartha Basava Sharana Srikantha Appayya Navnath

Related

Nandi Tantrism Jyotirlinga Shiva
Shiva
Temples

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
(c. 950 – 1016 AD[1][2]) was a philosopher, mystic and aesthetician from Kashmir.[3] He was also considered an influential musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logician[4][5] – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.[6][7] He was born in Kashmir[8] in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen (or more) teachers and gurus.[9] In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of which is Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula
Kaula
(known today as Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism). Another one of his very important contributions was in the field of philosophy of aesthetics with his famous Abhinavabhāratī commentary of Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata Muni.[10]

Contents

1 Life 2 Social background, family and disciples

2.1 "Magical" birth 2.2 Parents 2.3 Family 2.4 Ancestors

3 Masters 4 Lifestyle 5 Works

5.1 Religious works

5.1.1 Tantraloka 5.1.2 Tantrasara

5.2 Devotional hymns 5.3 Philosophical works 5.4 Poetical and dramatic works

6 References 7 External links

Life[edit] "Abhinavagupta" was not his real name, rather a title he earned from his master, carrying a meaning of "competence and authoritativeness".[11][12] In his analysis, Jayaratha (1150–1200 AD)[13] – who was Abhinavagupta's most important commentator – also reveals three more meanings: "being ever vigilant", "being present everywhere" and "protected by praises".[14] Raniero Gnoli, the only Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar who completed a translation of Tantrāloka
Tantrāloka
in a European language, mentions that "Abhinava" also means "new",[15] as a reference to the ever-new creative force of his mystical experience. From Jayaratha, we learn that Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
was in possession of all the six qualities required for the recipients of the tremendous level of śaktipāta, as described in the sacred texts (Śrīpūrvaśāstra):[16] an unflinching faith in God, realisation of mantras, control over objective principles (referring to the 36 tattvas), successful conclusion of all the activities undertaken, poetic creativity and spontaneous knowledge of all disciplines.[17] Abhinavagupta's creation is well equilibrated between the branches of the triad (Trika): will (icchā), knowledge (jñāna), action (kriyā); his works also include devotional songs, academical/philosophical works[11] and works describing ritual/yogic practices.[18] As an author he is considered a systematiser of the philosophical thought. He reconstructed, rationalised and orchestrated the philosophical knowledge into a more coherent form,[19] assessing all the available sources of his time, not unlike a modern scientific researcher of Indology. Various contemporary scholars have characterised Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
as a "brilliant scholar and saint",[20] "the pinnacle of the development of Kasmir Śaivism"[20] and "in possession of yogic realization".[11] Social background, family and disciples[edit] "Magical" birth[edit] The term by which Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
himself defines his origin is "yoginībhū", 'born of a yoginī'.[11][21] In Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism
Shaivism
and especially in Kaula
Kaula
it is considered that a progeny of parents "established in the divine essence of Bhairava",[22] is endowed with exceptional spiritual and intellectual prowess. Such a child is supposed to be "the depository of knowledge", who "even as a child in the womb, has the form of Shiva",[14] to enumerate but a few of the classical attributes of his kind. Parents[edit] His mother, Vimalā (Vimalakalā) died when Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
was just two years old;[23][24] as a consequence of losing his mother, of whom he was reportedly very attached,[16] he grew more distant from worldly life and focused all the more on spiritual endeavour. The father, Narasiṃha Gupta, after his wife's death favoured an ascetic lifestyle, while raising his three children. He had a cultivated mind and a heart "outstandingly adorned with devotion to Mahesvara (Shiva)"[23] (in Abhinavagupta's own words). He was Abhinavagupta's first teacher, instructing him in grammar, logic and literature.[25] Family[edit] Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
had a brother and a sister. The brother, Manoratha, was a well versed devotee of Shiva.[26] His sister, Ambā (probable name, according to Navjivan Rastogi), devoted herself to worship after the death of her husband in late life. His cousin Karṇa demonstrated even from his youth that he grasped the essence of Śaivism and was detached of the world. His wife was presumably Abhinavagupta's older sister Ambā,[27] who looked with reverence upon her illustrious brother. Ambā and Karṇa had a son, Yogeśvaridatta, who was precociously talented in yoga[28] (yogeśvar implies "lord of yoga"). Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
also mentions his disciple Rāmadeva as faithfully devoted to scriptural study and serving his master.[27] Another cousin was Kṣema, possibly the same as Abhinavagupta's illustrious disciple Kṣemarāja. Mandra, a childhood friend of Karṇa, was their host in a suburban residence; he was not only rich and in possession of a pleasing personality, but also equally learned.[29] And last but not least, Vatasikā, Mandra's aunt, who got a special mention from Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
for caring for him with exceptional dedication and concern; to express his gratitude, Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
declared that Vatasikā deserved the credit for the successful completion of his work.[30] The emerging picture here is that Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
lived in a nurturing and protected environment, where his creative energies got all the support they required. Everyone around him was filled with spiritual fervor and had taken Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
as their spiritual master. Such a supporting group of family and friends was equally necessary as his personal qualities of genius, to complete a work of the magnitude of Tantrāloka. Ancestors[edit] By Abhinavagupta's own account, his most remote known ancestor was called Atrigupta, born in Madhyadeśa: [Manusmirti (circa 1500 BC, 2/21) defines the Madhyadesh region as vast plains between Himalaya and Vindhya mountains and to the east of the river Vinasana (invisible Saraswati) and to the west of Praya]. Born in Madhyadeśa he travelled to Kashmir
Kashmir
at the request of the king Lalitāditya,[31][32] around year 740 CE .[33] Masters[edit] Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
is famous for his voracious thirst of knowledge. To study he took many teachers (as many as 15),[34] both mystical philosophers and scholars. He approached Vaiṣṇavas, Buddhists, Śiddhānta Śaivists and the Trika scholars. Among the most prominent of his teachers he enumerates four. Vāmanātha who instructed him in dualistic Śaivism[35] and Bhūtirāja in the dualist/nondualist school. Besides being the teacher of the famous Abhinavagupta, Bhūtirāja was also the father of two eminent scholars.[36] Lakṣmaṇagupta, a direct disciple of Utpaladeva, in the lineage of Trayambaka, was highly respected by Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
and taught him all the schools of monistic thought : Krama, Trika and Pratyabhijña (except Kula).[35] Śambhunātha taught him the fourth school (Ardha-trayambaka). This school is in fact Kaula, and it was emanated from Trayambaka's daughter. For Abhinavagupta, Śambhunātha was the most admired guru. Describing the greatness of his master, he compared Śambhunātha with the Sun, in his power to dispel ignorance from the heart, and, in another place, with "the Moon shining over the ocean of Trika knowledge".[37] Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
received Kaula
Kaula
initiation through Śambhunātha's wife (acting as a dūtī or conduit). The energy of this initiation is transmitted and sublimated into the heart and finally into consciousness. Such a method is difficult but very rapid and is reserved for those who shed their mental limitations and are pure. It was Śambhunātha who requested of him to write Tantrāloka. As guru, he had a profound influence in the structure of Tantrāloka[38] and in the life of its creator, Abhinavagupta.[39] As many as twelve more of his principal teachers are enumerated by name but without details.[40] It is believed that Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
had more secondary teachers. Moreover, during his life he had accumulated a large number of texts from which he quoted in his magnum opus, in his desire to create a synthetic, all inclusive system, where the contrasts of different scriptures could be resolved by integration into a superior perspective. Lifestyle[edit] Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
remained unmarried all his life,[41] we do however know him to be an adept of Kaula
Kaula
and as such, used his energy (ojas, or internally sublimated semen) as a vital force, a constant source of shakti to power the spiritual nervous system he outlined in his works. This system involves ritual union between Purusha as (Shiva) and shakti, yet this union is essentially non-physical and universal, and thus for a master such as Abhinavagupta, he was always in communion with Shiva-Shakti. We can only speculate about whether he was physically chaste, and either answer to this question is not very meaningful in the context of his life and teachings. Abhinavagupta parallels Shiva
Shiva
as both ascetic and enjoyer. He studied assiduously at least until the age of 30 or 35,[33] and to do that he travelled, but mostly inside Kashmir.[42] By his own testimony, he had attained spiritual liberation through his Kaula
Kaula
practice, under the guidance of his most admired master, Śambhunātha.[39] He lived in his home (functioning as an ashram) with his family members and disciples[43] and he did not become a wandering monk, nor did he take on the regular duties of his family. Thus, Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
lived out his life as a writer and a teacher.[37] His personality was a living realisation of his vision.[4] In an epoch pen-painting he is depicted seated in Virasana, surrounded by devoted disciples and family, performing a kind of trance inducing music at veena while dictating verses of Tantrāloka
Tantrāloka
to one of his attendees – behind him two dūtī (women yogi) waiting on him. A legend about the moment of his death (placed somewhere between 1015 and 1025 depending on the source), says that he took with him 1200 disciples and marched off to a cave (the Bhairava
Bhairava
Cave, an actual place known to this day), reciting his poem Bhairava-stava, a devotional work. They were never to be seen again, supposedly translating together in the spiritual world.[44] Works[edit]

The trident (triśūlābija maṇḍalam), symbol and yantra of Parama Shiva, representing the triadic energies of parā, parā-aparā and aparā śakti

Part of a series on

Hinduism

Hindu History

Concepts

Worldview

Hindu
Hindu
cosmology Puranic chronology Hindu
Hindu
mythology

God / Highest Reality

Brahman Ishvara God in Hinduism God and gender

Life

Ashrama (stage)

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Liberation

Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Ethics

Niti shastra Yamas Niyama Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Damah Dayā Akrodha Ārjava Santosha Tapas Svādhyāya Shaucha Mitahara Dāna

Liberation

Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Jnana
Jnana
yoga Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools

Six Astika
Astika
schools

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Advaita Dvaita Vishishtadvaita

Other schools

Pasupata Saiva Pratyabhijña Raseśvara Īśvara Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana Charvaka

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Other major Devas / Devis

Vedic Indra Agni Prajapati Rudra Devi Saraswati Ushas Varuna Vayu

Post-Vedic Durga Ganesha Hanuman Kali Kartikeya Krishna Lakshmi Parvati Radha Rama Shakti Sita

Texts

Scriptures

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Rigveda: Aitareya Kaushitaki

Yajurveda: Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara Maitri

Samaveda: Chandogya Kena

Atharvaveda: Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Other scriptures

Bhagavad Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Other texts

Vedangas

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Puranas

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana Bhagavata Purana Nāradeya Purana Vāmana Purana Matsya Purana Garuda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Purana Brahmānda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana Bhavishya Purana Padma Purana Agni
Agni
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Linga Purana Kūrma Purana Skanda Purana Varaha Purana Mārkandeya Purana

Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Shastras and Sutras

Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras Pramana
Pramana
Sutras Charaka Samhita Sushruta Samhita Natya Shastra Panchatantra Divya Prabandha Tirumurai Ramcharitmanas Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Swara yoga Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Gheranda Samhita Panchadasi Stotra Sutras

Text classification

Śruti
Śruti
Smriti

Timeline of Hindu
Hindu
texts

Practices

Worship

Puja Temple Murti Bhakti Japa Bhajana Yajna Homa Vrata Prāyaścitta Tirtha Tirthadana Matha Nritta-Nritya

Meditation and Charity

Tapa Dhyana Dāna

Yoga

Sadhu Yogi Asana Hatha yoga Jnana
Jnana
yoga Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Karma
Karma
yoga Raja yoga Kundalini Yoga

Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Balinese Hinduism Criticism Calendar Iconography Mythology Pilgrimage sites

Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Abhinavagupta's works fall into multiple sections: manuals of religious ritual, devotional songs, philosophical works and philosophy of aesthetics. Here are enumerated most of his works.[10] Bold type faced titles represent the most important ones. Religious works[edit] Tantraloka[edit] Main article: Tantraloka His most important work was Tantrāloka,(translates into "To Throw Light on Tantra"), a synthesis of all the Trika system.[11] Its only complete translation in a European language – Italian – is credited to Raniero Gnoli, now at its second edition.[45] The esoteric chapter 29 on the Kaula
Kaula
ritual was translated in English together with Jayaratha's commentary by John R. Dupuche, Rev. Dr.[14] A complex study on the context, authors, contents and references of Tantrāloka was published by Navjivan Rastogi, Prof. of the Lucknow University.[46] Though there are no English translations of Tantrāloka
Tantrāloka
to date, the last recognized master of the oral tradition of Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism, Swami Lakshman Joo, gave a condensed version of the important philosophical chapters of ‘‘Tantrāloka’‘ in his book, Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism
Shaivism
– The Secret Supreme.[47] Another important text was the commentary on Parātrīśikā, Parātrīśikāvivaraṇa, detailing the signification of the phonematic energies and their two sequential ordering systems, Mātṛkā and Mālinī. This was the last great translation project of Jaideva Singh.[48] Tantrasara[edit] Main article: Tantrasara Tantrasāra ("Essence of Tantra") is a summarised version, in prose, of Tantrāloka, which was once more summarised in Tantroccaya, and finally presented in a very short summary form under the name of Tantravaṭadhānikā – the "Seed of Tantra". Pūrvapañcikā was a commentary of Pūrvatantra, alias Mālinīvijaya Tantra, lost to this day. Mālinīvijayā-varttika ("Commentary on Mālinīvijaya") is a versified commentary on Mālinīvijaya Tantra's first verse. Kramakeli, "Krama's Play" was a commentary of Kramastotra, now lost. Bhagavadgītārtha-saṃgraha which translates "Commentary on Bhagavad Gita" has now an English translation by Boris Marjanovic.[49] Other religious works are: Parātrīśikā-laghuvṛtti, "A Short Commentary on Parātrīśikā", Paryantapañcāśīkā ("Fifty Verses on the Ultimate Reality"), Rahasyapañcadaśikā ("Fifteen Verses on the Mystical Doctrine"), Laghvī prakriyā ("Short Ceremony"), Devīstotravivaraṇa ("Commentary on the Hymn to Devi") and Paramārthasāra ("Essence of the Supreme Reality"). Devotional hymns[edit] Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
has composed a number of devotional poems, most of which have been translated into French by Lilian Silburn:[50]

Bodhapañcadaśikā – "Fifteen Verses on Consciousness"; Paramārthacarcā – "Discussion on the Supreme Reality"; Anubhavanivedana – "Tribute of the Inner Experience"; Anuttarāṣṭikā – "Eight Verses on Anuttara"; Krama-stotra – an hymn, different from the fundamental text of the Krama
Krama
school; Bhairava-stava – "Hymn to Bhairava"; Dehasthadevatācakra-stotra – "Hymn to the Wheel of Divinities that Live in the Body"; Paramārthadvādaśikā – "Twelve Verses on the Supreme Reality" and Mahopadeśa-viṃśatikā – "Twenty Verses on the Great Teaching". Another poem Śivaśaktyavinābhāva-stotra – "Hymn on the Inseparability of Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti" was lost.

Philosophical works[edit] One of the most important works of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
is Īśvarapratyabhijñā-vimarśini ("Commentary to the Verses on the Recognition of the Lord") and Īśvarapratyabhijñā-vivṛti-vimarśini ("Commentary on the explanation of Īśvarapratyabhijñā"). This treatise is fundamental in the transmission of the Pratyabhijña school (the branch of Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
based on direct recognition of the Lord) to our days. Another commentary on a Pratyabhijña work – Śivadṛṣtyā-locana ("Light on Śivadṛṣṭi") – is now lost. Another lost commentary is Padārthapraveśa-nirṇaya-ṭīkā and Prakīrṇkavivaraṇa ("Comment on the Notebook") referring to the third chapter of Vākyapadīya of Bhartrihari. Two more philosophical texts of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
are Kathāmukha-tilaka("Ornament of the Face of Discourses") and Bhedavāda-vidāraṇa ("Confrontation of the Dualist Thesis"). Abhinavagupta's thought was strongly influenced by Buddhist logic.[51] Poetical and dramatic works[edit] Main article: Abhinavabharati Abhinavagupta's most important work on the philosophy of art is Abhinavabhāratī – a long and complex commentary on Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni. This work has been one of the most important factors contributing to Abhinavagupta's fame up until present day. His most important contribution was that to the theory of rasa (aesthetic savour). Other poetical works include: Ghaṭa-karpara-kulaka-vivṛti, a commentary on "Ghaṭakarpara" of Kalidasa; Kāvyakauṭukavivaraṇa, a "Commentary to the Wonder of Poetry" (a work of Bhaṭṭa Tauta), now lost; and Dhvanyālokalocana, "Illustration of Dhvanyāloka", which is a famous work of Anandavardhana. References[edit]

^ Triadic Heart of Shiva, Paul E. Muller-Ortega, page 12 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 27 ^ " Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
– the Philosopher".  ^ a b Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 4 ^ Key to the Vedas, Nathalia Mikhailova, page 169 ^ The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, page 12 ^ Companion to Tantra, S.C. Banerji, page 89 ^ Doctrine of Divine Recognition, K. C. Pandey, page V ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 35 ^ a b Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page LXXVII ^ a b c d e Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 20 ^ The Krama
Krama
Tantricism of Kashmir; Navjivan Rastogi, page 157 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 92 ^ a b c The Kula Ritual, As Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta; John R. Dupuche, page 4 ^ Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, 1999, page 3 ^ a b Abhinavagupta, Ganesh Tryambak Deshpande, page 19 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 21 ^ Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 8 ^ Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 10 ^ a b Īśvara Pratyabhijñā Kārikā of Utpaladeva, Verses on the Recognition of the Lord; B. N. Pandit, page XXXIII ^ Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page 3 ^ Re-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 2 ^ a b Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page 4 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 31 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 30 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 22 ^ a b Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 24 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 23 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 25 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 26 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 28 ^ The Kula Ritual, As Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta; John R. Dupuche, page 3 ^ a b Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy, page 12 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 33 ^ a b Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 54 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 34 ^ a b The Kula Ritual, As Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta; John R. Dupuche, page 7 ^ The Triadic Heart of Śiva, Kaula
Kaula
Tantricism of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
in the Non-Dual Shaivism
Shaivism
of Kashmir; Paul Eduardo Muller-Ortega, page 1 ^ a b Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 44-54 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 35,54 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 32 ^ The Kula Ritual, As Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta; John R. Dupuche, page 6 ^ Īśvara Pratyabhijñā Kārikā of Utpaladeva, Verses on the Recognition of the Lord; B. N. Pandit, page XXXIV ^ Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy, page 13 ^ Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, 1999 ^ Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi ^ Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism
Shaivism
– The Secret Supreme, ed, John Hughes, SUNY press, 1985. ^ Para-trisika-Vivarana, Jaideva Singh ^ Abhinavagupta's Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, Boris Marjanovic ^ Hymnes de Abhinavagupta: Traduits et commentés, Lilian Silburn ^ Andre Padoux. Vac: The Concept of the Word In Selected Hindu Tantras. SUNY Press, 1990. page 180 "One knows that the thought of such authors as Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
was strongly influenced by Buddhist logic."

External links[edit]

Bibliography of Abhinavagupta's works, Item 582, Karl Potter, University of Washington Muktabodha Online Library – containing many of Abhinavagupta's works in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
including Tantrāloka GRETIL: a collection of Abhinavagupta's works in original, also containing other Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism
Shaivism
texts Four biographical articles on Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
by Swami Lakshman Joo, Prof. K. N. Dhar, R. K. Jalali and Geetika Kaw Kher Another Bibliography of Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
by "The New Yoga" Aspects of Abhinavagupta's Theory of Scripture by David Peter Lawrence Hymns of Abhinavagupta

v t e

Indian philosophy

Topics

Atheism Atomism Idealism Logic Monotheism Vedic philosophy

Āstika

Hindu: Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Shaiva

Pratyabhijña Pashupata Shaivism Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta

Nāstika

Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhist schools

Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

Texts

Abhinavabharati Arthashastra Bhagavad Gita Bhagavata Purana Brahma
Brahma
Sutra Buddhist texts Dharmashastra Hindu
Hindu
texts Jain Agamas Kamasutra Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras

All 108 texts Principal

Nyāya Sūtras Nyayakusumanjali Panchadasi Samkhyapravachana Sutra Shiva
Shiva
Sutras Tarka-Sangraha Tattvacintāmaṇi Upanishads

Minor

Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Vedangas Vedas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha More...

Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Raikva Sadananda Sakayanya Satyakama Jabala Madhvacharya Mahavira Guru
Guru
Nanak Vidyaranya More...

Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj Yamas Yoga More...

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 14765205 LCCN: n50034836 ISNI: 0000 0000 8358 8217 GND: 118915312 SUDOC: 026676435 BNF:

.