The ABENAKI (ABNAKI, ABINAKI, _ALNôBAK_) are a Native American tribe
and First Nation . They are one of the Algonquian -speaking peoples of
North America . The
Abenaki live in
Quebec and the
Canada and in the
New England region of the United
States, a region called _Wabanahkik_ ("Dawn Land") in the Eastern
Algonquian languages . The
Abenaki are one of the five members of the
Wabanaki Confederacy .
"Abenaki" is a linguistic and geographic grouping; historically there
was not a strong central authority. As listed below, there were
numerous smaller bands and tribes who shared many cultural traits.
They came together as a post-contact community after their original
tribes were decimated by colonization, disease, and warfare.
* 1 Name
* 2 Subdivisions
* 3 Location
* 4 Language
* 5 History
* 22.214.171.124 Official state tribal recognition
New Hampshire and minority recognition
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Hair style and other marriage traditions
* 6.2 Gender, food, division of labor, and other cultural traits
* 6.4 Mythology
* 6.5 Herbalism
* 7 Population and epidemics
* 8 Fiction
* 9 Non-fiction
* 10 Maps
* 11 Notable people
* 12 Footnotes
* 13 Bibliography
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
The word _Abenaki_, and its syncope , _Abnaki,_ are both derived from
_Wabanaki_, or _Wôbanakiak,_ meaning "People of the Dawn Land" in the
Abenaki language . While the two terms are often confused, the
Abenaki are one of several tribes in the
Wabanaki Confederacy .
_Wôbanakiak_ is derived from _wôban_ ("dawn" or "east") and _aki_
("land") (compare Proto-Algonquian _*wa·pan_ and _*axkyi_) — the
aboriginal name of the area broadly corresponding to
New England and
the Maritimes . It is sometimes used to refer to all the
Algonquian-speaking peoples of the area—Western Abenaki, Eastern
Abenaki, Wolastoqiyik -
Passamaquoddy , and Mi\'kmaq —as a single
Abenaki people also call themselves _Alnôbak_, meaning "Real
Lenape language : _Lenapek _) and by the autonym
_Alnanbal,_ meaning "men".
Historically, ethnologists have classified the
Abenaki by geographic
Western Abenaki and
Eastern Abenaki . Within these groups are
* WESTERN ABENAKI
* ARSIGANTEGOK (also _Arrasaguntacook_, _Ersegontegog_,
_Assagunticook_, _Anasaguntacook_), lived along the St. Francis River
in Québec. Principal village: St. Francis (Odanak). The people were
referred to as _St. Francis River Abenakis,_ and this term gradually
was applied to all Western Abenaki.
* COWASUCK (also _Cohass, Cohasiac, Koasek, Koasek, Coos_ –
"People of the Pines"), lived in the upper
Connecticut River Valley.
Principal village: _Cowass_, near Newbury,
* MISSIQUOI (also _Masipskwoik_, _Mazipskikskoik_, _Missique_,
_Misiskuoi_, _Missisco_, _Missiassik_ – "People of the Flint"), also
known as the Sokoki. They lived in the Missisquoi Valley , from Lake
Champlain to the headwaters. Principal village around Swanton, Vermont
* OSSIPEE , lived along the shores of
Ossipee Lake in east-central
New Hampshire. Often classed as _Eastern Abenaki_.
* PENNACOOK (also _Penacook_, _Penikoke_, _Openango_), lived in the
Merrimack Valley , therefore sometimes called _Merrimack_. Principal
New Hampshire . The
Pennacook were once a large
confederacy who were politically distinct and competitive with their
* PEQUAWKET (also _Pigwacket_, _Pequaki_), lived along the Saco
River and in the White Mountains . Principal village _Pigwacket_ was
located on the upper
Saco River near present-day Fryeburg,
Occupied an intermediate location, therefore sometimes classed as
* SOKOKI (also _Sokwaki_, _Squakheag_, _Socoquis_, _Sokoquius_,
_Zooquagese_, _Soquachjck_, _Onejagese_ – "People Who Separated"),
lived in the Middle and Upper
Connecticut River Valley. Principal
Northfield, Massachusetts , and Fort Hill.
* WINNIPESAUKEE (also _Winnibisauga_, _Wioninebeseck_,
_Winninebesakik_ – "region of the land around lakes"), lived along
the shores of Lake
Winnipesaukee , New Hampshire.
* EASTERN ABENAKI
* AMASECONTI , lived between the upper Kennebec and Androscoggin
rivers in western
* ANDROSCOGGIN (also _Alessikantekw_, _Arosaguntacock_,
_Amariscoggin_), lived in the Androscoggin Valley and along the St.
Francis River , therefore often called _St. Francis River Abenaki_.
* KENNEBEC (also _Kinipekw_, _Kennebeck_, _Caniba_, later known as
Norridgewock _), lived in the
Kennebec River Valley in northern
Maine. Principal village:
Norridgewock (Naridgewalk, Neridgewok,
Noronjawoke); other villages: Amaseconti (Amesokanti, Anmissoukanti),
Kennebec, and Sagadahoc.
* KWUPAHAG (also _Kwapahag_)
* MALISEET (also _Wolastoqiyik_, _Walastekwyk_, _Malecite_), lived
in the inland of upper
Maine and middle
New Brunswick along the St.
John River . Principal villages: Meductic, Aukpaque. Now a separate
federally recognized tribe .
* ODANAK (also known as _St. Francis, St. Francois du Lac_), lived
Trois-Rivières , Quebec, and included settlements along
the St. Francois River.
* OSSIPEE , lived along the shores of
Ossipee Lake in east-central
New Hampshire. Sometimes classed as _Western Abenaki_.
* PENOBSCOT (also _Panawahpskek_, _Pamnaouamske_, _Pentagouet_),
lived in the
Penobscot Valley . Principal villages: _Penobscot
(Pentagouet),_ now Indian Island, _Old Town_,
Maine ; other villages:
Agguncia, Asnela, Catawamtek, Kenduskeag , Mattawamkeag , Meecombe,
Negas, Olamon, Passadumkeag , Precaute, Segocket, and Wabigganus. Now
a separate federally recognized tribe .
* PASSAMAQUODDY (also _Peskotomuhktati_, _Pestomuhkati_), lived on
Passamaquoddy Bay coast and inland, between the St. John, St.
Penobscot rivers, in present-day
Maine and New Brunswick.
Principal village: Machias . Now a separate federally recognized tribe
* ROCAMECA , lived along the upper
Androscoggin River , near Canton,
* WAWINAK (also _Ouanwinak, Sheepscot, Wawenock, Wawnock, Wewenoc_),
lived in the coastal areas of southern
* WôLINAK (also _Becancour_), lived around Trois-Rivières, Quebec.
Abenaki wigwam with birch bark covering
The homeland of the Abenaki, which they call _Ndakinna_ (our land),
extended across most of northern
New England , southern
Quebec , and
Canadian Maritimes . The
Eastern Abenaki population was
concentrated in portions of
New Brunswick and
Maine east of New
Hampshire 's White Mountains . The other major tribe, the Western
Abenaki, lived in the
Connecticut River valley in Vermont, New
Hampshire and Massachusetts. The
Missiquoi lived along the eastern
Lake Champlain . The
Pennacook lived along the Merrimack
River in southern New Hampshire. The maritime
Abenaki lived around the
St. Croix and Wolastoq (Saint John River) valleys near the boundary
New Brunswick .
The English settlement of
New England and frequent wars forced many
Abenaki to retreat to
Quebec . The
Abenaki settled in the Sillery
Quebec between 1676 and 1680, and subsequently, for about
twenty years, lived on the banks of the
Chaudière River near the
falls, before settling in
Wôlinak in the early eighteenth
century. The name "Abenaki" was derived from the terms _w8bAn_ (light)
and _Aki_ (land), which mean "people in the rising sun" or "people of
the East". In those days, the
Abenaki practiced a subsistence economy
based on hunting, fishing, trapping, berry picking and on growing
corn, beans, squash, potatoes and tobacco. They also produced baskets,
made of ash and sweet grass, for picking wild berries, and boiled
maple sap to make syrup. Basket weaving remains a traditional activity
for members of both communities.
During the Anglo-French wars, the
Abenaki were allies of
having been displaced from Ndakinna by immigrating English people. An
anecdote from this period tells the story of a
Maliseet war chief
named Nescambuit or Assacumbuit , who killed more than 140 enemies of
King Louis XIV of
France and received the rank of knight. Not all
Abenaki natives fought on the side of the French, however; many
remained on their native lands in the northern colonies. Much of the
trapping was done by the people, and traded to the English colonists
for durable goods. These contributions by Native American Abenaki
peoples went largely unreported.
Two tribal communities formed in Canada, one once known as
Saint-Francois-du-lac near Pierreville,
Quebec (now called Odanak,
Abenaki for "coming home"), and the other near Bécancour (now known
as Wôlinak) on the south shore of the
Saint Lawrence River , directly
across the river from
Trois-Rivières . These two
continue to grow and develop. Since the year 2000, the total Abenaki
population (on and off reserve) has doubled to 2,101 members in 2011.
Abenaki reside on these two reserves, which cover a
total area of less than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi). The
unrecognized majority are off-reserve members, living in various
cities and towns across
Canada and the United States.
There are about 3,200
Abenaki living in
Vermont and New Hampshire,
without reservations, chiefly around
Lake Champlain . The remaining
Abenaki people live in multi-racial towns and cities across
the U.S.A., mainly in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and northern New
Abenaki tribes are located in Vermont. On April 22, 2011,
Vermont officially recognized two
Abenaki tribes: the Nulhegan Band of
Abenaki and the Elnu
Abenaki Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the
Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the
Abenaki Nation received recognition by the State of Vermont. The
Nulhegan are located in the
Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, with tribal
headquarters in Brownington , and the Elnu
Abenaki are located in
Vermont with tribal headquarters in Jamaica,
Abenaki tribe focuses mainly on carrying on the traditions of
their ancestors through their children and teaching about their
culture. The chief and political leader of the Nulhegan Band is Don
Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi) are located
Missisquoi River in northwestern Vermont, with tribal
headquarters in Swanton . Their traditional land is along the river,
extending to its outlet at
Lake Champlain .
In December 2012, Vermont's Nulhegan Abanaki Tribe created a tribal
forest in the town of Barton . This forest was established with
assistance from the
Vermont Sierra Club and the
Vermont Land Trust. It
contains a hunting camp and maple sugaring facilities which are
administered cooperatively by the Nulhegan. The forest contains 70
acres (28 ha).
The St Francis Missisquoi Tribe owns forest land in the town of
Brunswick , centered around the Brunswick Springs. These springs are
believed to be a sacred traditional religious site of the Abanaki.
Vermont forests are the only Abanaki held lands outside
of the existing reservations in
Quebec and Maine.
Abenaki language is closely related to the Panawahpskek
(Penobscot) language. Other neighboring Wabanaki tribes, the
Pestomuhkati (Passamaquoddy) , Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) , and Mi\'kmaq
, and other Eastern
Algonquian languages share many linguistic
similarities. It has come close to extinction as a spoken language.
Tribal members are working to revive the
Abenaki language at Odanak
(means "in the village"), a
Abenaki reserve near
Quebec , and throughout
New Hampshire ,
Vermont and New
The language is holophrastic, meaning that a phrase or an entire
sentence is expressed by a single word. For example, the word for
"white man" _awanoch_ is a combination of the words _awani_ meaning
"who" and _uji_ meaning "from". In this way, the word for "white man"
literally translates to "Who is this man and where does he come from?"
In _Reflections in Bullough\'s Pond _, historian
Diana Muir argues
Abenaki neighbors, pre-contact Iroquois, were an imperialist,
expansionist culture whose cultivation of the corn/beans/squash
agricultural complex enabled them to support a large population. They
made war primarily against neighboring
Algonquian peoples , including
the Abenaki. Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquois
expansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption
of agriculture. This enabled them to support their own populations
large enough to have sufficient warriors to defend against the threat
In 1614, Thomas Hunt captured 24 young
Abenaki people and took them
to England. During the European colonization of North America, the
land occupied by the
Abenaki was in the area between the new colonies
of England in Massachusetts and the French in Quebec. Since no party
agreed to territorial boundaries, there was regular conflict among
Abenaki were traditionally allied with the French ; during
the reign of Louis XIV , Chief Assacumbuit was designated a member of
the French nobility for his service.
Abenaki couple, 18th-century
Facing annihilation from English attacks and epidemics of new
infectious diseases, the
Abenaki started to emigrate to
1669. The governor of New
France allocated two seigneuries (large
self-administered areas similar to feudal fiefs). The first was on the
Saint Francis River and is now known as the _
Odanak _ Indian
Reservation; the second was founded near Bécancour and is called the
Wolinak _ Indian Reservation.
French and Indian Wars
Wampanoag people under King Philip (
Metacomet ) fought the
English colonists in
New England in 1675 in King Philip\'s War , the
Abenaki joined the Wampanoag. For three years there was fighting along
Maine frontier in the
First Abenaki War . The
Abenaki pushed back
the line of white settlement by devastating raids on scattered
farmhouses and small villages. The war was settled by a peace treaty
in 1678, with the Wampanoag more than decimated and many Native
survivors having been sold into slavery in Bermuda.
During Queen Anne\'s War in 1702, the
Abenaki were allied with the
French; they raided numerous small villages in Maine, Wells to Casco ,
killing about 300 settlers over ten years. The raids stopped when the
war ended. Some captives were adopted into the Mohawk and Abenaki
tribes; older captives were generally ransomed, and the colonies
carried on a brisk trade.
Abenaki War (1722–25), called Father Rale\'s War ,
erupted when the French
Sébastien Rale (or Rasles,
1657?-1724) encouraged the
Abenaki to halt the spread of Yankee
settlements. When the Massachusetts militia tried to seize Rasles, the
Abenaki raided the settlements at Brunswick , Arrowsick , and
Merry-Meeting Bay . The Massachusetts government then declared war and
bloody battles were fought at
Norridgewock (1724), where Rasles was
killed, and at a daylong battle at the Indian village near present-day
Maine , on the upper
Saco River (1725). Peace conferences at
Casco Bay brought an end to the war. After Rale died the
Abenaki moved to a settlement on the St. Francis River.
Abenaki from St. Francois continued to raid British settlements
in their former homelands along the
New England frontier during Father
Le Loutre\'s War (see
Northeast Coast Campaign (1750) ) and the French
and Indian War .
The development of tourism projects has allowed the Canadian Abenaki
to develop a modern economy, while preserving their culture and
traditions. For example, since 1960, the
Odanak Historical Society has
managed the first and one of the largest aboriginal museums in Quebec,
a few miles from the Quebec-Montreal axis. Over 5,000 people visit the
Abenaki Museum annually. Several
Abenaki companies include: in
Wôlinak, General Fiberglass Engineering employs a dozen natives, with
annual sales of more than $3 million Canadian dollars.
Odanak is now
active in transportation and distribution. Notable
Abenaki from this
area include the documentary filmmaker
Alanis Obomsawin (National Film
Penobscot Indian Nation and the
Passamaquoddy People have been
federally recognized as tribes in the United States.
In 2006, the state of
Vermont officially recognized the
Abenaki as a
People, but not a Tribe. The state noted that many
Abenaki had been
assimilated, and only small remnants remained on reservations during
and after the
French and Indian War , later eugenics projects further
Abenaki people of America through forced sterilization
and questionable 'miscarriages' at birth. As noted above, facing
Abenaki had begun emigrating to Canada, then under
French control, around 1669.
The Sokoki-St. Francis Band of the
Abenaki Nation organized a tribal
council in 1976 at Swanton,
Vermont granted recognition of
the council the same year, but later withdrew it. In 1982, the band
applied for federal recognition, which is still pending. Four Abenaki
communities are located in Vermont. On April 22, 2011, Vermont
officially recognized two
Abenaki bands: the Nulhegan Band of the
Abenaki and the El Nu
Abenaki Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the
Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek of the Koas Abenaki
Traditional Band received recognition by the State of Vermont. The
Abenaki who chose to remain in the
United States did not fare as well
as their Canadian counterparts. Tribal connections were lost as those
Abenaki who were tolerated by the Anglo population were assimilated
into colonial society. What familial groups remained were often
eradicated, in the early 20th century, through forced sterilization
and pregnancy termination policies in Vermont. There were over 3,400
reported cases of sterilization of
Abenaki having been performed, many
of which involved termination of an unborn fetus. No documentation of
informed consent for these procedures was found. After this period the
Abenaki that remained in the
United States were those who could
pass for white, or avoid capture and subsequent dissolution of their
families through forced internment in "schools" after their
sterilization. At the time, many of the children who were sterilized
were not even aware of what the physicians had done to them. This was
performed under the auspices of the Brandon School of the
Feeble-Minded, and the
Vermont Reform School. It was documented in the
1911 "Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of
the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best
Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human
Official State Tribal Recognition
Vermont Elnu (Jamaica ) and Nulhegan (Brownington ) bands'
application for official recognition was recommended and referred to
Vermont General Assembly by the
Vermont Commission on Native
American Affairs on January 19, 2011, as a result of a process
established by the
Vermont legislature in 2010. Recognition allows
applicants to seek scholarship funds reserved for American Indians and
to receive federal "native made" designation for the bands' arts and
On April 22, 2011,
Vermont officially recognized two
the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk-
Abenaki and the El Nu
On May 7, 2012, the
Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek
Traditional Band of the Koas
Abenaki Nation received recognition by
the State of Vermont.
New Hampshire And Minority Recognition
New Hampshire the Abenaki, along with other Native American
groups, have proposed legislation for recognition as a minority group.
This bill was debated in 2010 in the state legislature . The bill
would create a state commission on Native American relations, which
would act as an advisory group to the governor and the state
government in general. The
Abenaki want to gain formal state
recognition as a people.
Some people have opposed the bill, as they fear it may lead to
Abenaki land claims for property now owned and occupied by European
Americans. Others worry that the
Abenaki may use recognition as a step
toward opening a casino. But, the bill specifically says that "this
act shall not be interpreted to provide any Native American or Abenaki
person with any other special rights or privileges that the state does
not confer on or grant to other state residents."
New Hampshire has
considered expanding gambling separate from the Native Americans.
The council would be under the Department of Cultural Resources, so
it would be in the same department as the State Council on the Arts.
The bill would allow for the creation and sale of goods to be labeled
as Native-made, to create a source of income for the Natives in New
The numerous groups of Natives in the state have created a New
Hampshire Inter-tribal Council, which holds statewide meetings and
powwows . Dedicated to preserving the culture of the Natives in New
Hampshire, the group is one of the chief supporters of the HB 1610;
the Abenaki, the main tribe in the state, are the only people named
specifically in the bill.
Abenaki in Pan Indian (non traditional) clothing
There are a dozen variations of the name "Abenaki", such as
Abenaquiois, Abakivis, Quabenakionek, Wabenakies and others.
Abenaki were described in the _
Jesuit Relations_ as not cannibals
, and as docile, ingenious, temperate in the use of liquor, and not
Abenaki tribes lived a lifestyle similar to the
Algonquian-speaking peoples of southern New England. They cultivated
crops for food, and located their villages on or near fertile river
floodplains. Other less major, but still important, parts of their
diet included game and fish from hunting and fishing, and wild plants.
They lived in scattered bands of extended families for most of the
year. Each man had different hunting territories inherited through his
father. Unlike the
Iroquois , the
Abenaki were patrilineal . Bands
came together during the spring and summer at temporary villages near
rivers, or somewhere along the seacoast for planting and fishing.
These villages occasionally had to be fortified, depending on the
alliances and enemies of other tribes or of Europeans near the
Abenaki villages were quite small when compared to those of
the Iroquois; the average number of people was about 100.
Abenaki crafted dome-shaped, bark-covered wigwams for housing,
though a few preferred oval-shaped long houses. During the winter, the
Abenaki lived in small groups further inland. The homes there were
bark-covered wigwams shaped in a way similar to the teepees of the
Great Plains Indians. During the winter, the
Abenaki lined the inside
of their conical wigwams with bear and deer skins for warmth. The
Abenaki also built long houses similar to those of the Iroquois.
Abenaki hold on to their traditions and ways of life in several
Sokoki do so in the current constitution for their
government. It has a chief, a council of elders, and methods and means
for election to the council and chieftainship, as well as requirements
for citizenship in the tribe. They also list many of the different
traditions they uphold, such as the different dances they perform and
what those dances mean. During several of these dances there is no
photography allowed, out of respect for the culture. For several,
there are instructions such as "All stand while it is sung" or "All
Stand to Show Respect."
HAIR STYLE AND OTHER MARRIAGE TRADITIONS
Modernized traditional spiritual hairstyle for a married Abenaki
Abenaki men kept their hair long and loose. When a man
would find a girlfriend, he would tie his hair. When he married, he
would attach the hair of the scalp with a piece of leather and shave
all but the ponytail. The modernized spiritual version has the man
with a girlfriend tying his hair and braiding it. When he marries, he
keeps all his hair in a braid, shaving only the side and back of the
head. The spiritual meaning surrounding this cut is most importantly
to indicate betrothal or fidelity as a married
Abenaki man. In much
the same way as the Christian marriage tradition, there is an
(optional) exchange and blessing of wedding rings. These rings are the
outward and visible sign of the unity of this couple.
Changes in the hair style were symbolic of a complex courtship
process. The man would give the woman a box made of a fine wood, which
was decorated with the virtues of the woman; the woman would give a
similar box to the man. Everyone in the tribe must agree to the
marriage. They erect a pole planted in the earth, and if anyone
disagrees, he strikes the pole. The disagreement must be resolved or
the marriage does not happen.
GENDER, FOOD, DIVISION OF LABOR, AND OTHER CULTURAL TRAITS
Abenaki were a farming society that supplemented agriculture with
hunting and gathering. Generally the men were the hunters. The women
tended the fields and grew the crops. In their fields, they planted
the crops in groups of "sisters". The three sisters were grown
together: the stalk of corn supported the beans, and squash or
pumpkins provided ground cover and reduced weeds. The men would hunt
bears, deer, fish, he is swept away because of his pride . This story
would be used to show a child the pitfalls of pride.
Abenaki smash the flowers and leaves of
Ranunculus acris and
sniff them for headaches.
POPULATION AND EPIDEMICS
Before the Abenaki—except the
Pennacook and Mi'kmaq—had contact
with the European world, their population may have numbered as many as
40,000. Around 20,000 would have been Eastern Abenaki, another 10,000
would have been Western Abenaki, and the last 10,000 would have been
Maritime Abenaki. Early contacts with European fishermen resulted in
two major epidemics that affected
Abenaki during the 16th century. The
first epidemic was an unknown sickness occurring sometime between 1564
and 1570, and the second one was typhus in 1586. Multiple epidemics
arrived a decade prior to the English settlement of Massachusetts in
1620, when three separate sicknesses swept across
New England and the
Maine was hit very hard during the year of 1617,
with a fatality rate of 75%, and the population of the Eastern Abenaki
fell to about 5,000. The more isolated
Western Abenaki suffered fewer
fatalities, losing about half of their original population of 10,000.
The new diseases continued to strike in epidemics, starting with
smallpox in 1631, 1633, and 1639. Seven years later, an unknown
epidemic struck, with influenza passing through the following year.
Smallpox affected the
Abenaki again in 1649, and diphtheria came
through 10 years later.
Smallpox struck in 1670, and influenza in
Smallpox affected the Native Americans in 1677, 1679, 1687,
along with measles , 1691, 1729, 1733, 1755, and finally in 1758.
Abenaki population continued to decline, but in 1676, they took
in thousands of refugees from many southern
New England tribes
displaced by settlement and King Philip\'s War . Because of this,
descendants of nearly every southern
New England Algonquian tribe can
be found among the
Abenaki people. A century later, fewer than 1,000
Abenaki remained after the
American Revolution .
In the 1990 U.S. Census, 1,549 people identified themselves as
Abenaki. So did 2,544 people in the 2000 U.S census, with 6,012 people
Abenaki heritage. In 1991 Canadian
Abenaki numbered 945; by
2006 they numbered 2,164.
Lydia Maria Child wrote of the
Abenaki in her short story, "The
Church in the Wilderness" (1828). Several
Abenaki characters and much
about their 18th-century culture are featured in the Kenneth Roberts
novel _Arundel_ (1930). The film _Northwest Passage _ (1940) is based
on a novel of the same name by Roberts.
Abenaki writers as well as historical Abenaki-written
documents are featured in the anthology _Dawnland Voices_, edited by
Siobhan Senier. The collection features commonly known and less known
modern writers as well as historical documents from Abenakis and their
ancestors. The collection also includes writings from several other
New England tribes.
Abenaki are featured in
Charles McCarry 's historical novel
_Bride of the Wilderness_ (1988), and
James Archibald Houston 's novel
_Ghost Fox_ (1977), both of which are set in the eighteenth century;
Jodi Picoult 's _Second Glance_ (2003) and _Lone Wolf_ (2012)
novels, set in the contemporary world. Books for younger readers both
have historical settings:
Joseph Bruchac 's _The Arrow Over the Door_
(1998) (grades 4–6) is set in 1777; and Beth Kanell's young adult
novel, _The Darkness Under the Water_ (2008), concerns a young
Abenaki-French Canadian girl during the time of the
Project , 1931–1936.
The first sentence in
Norman Mailer 's novel Harlot\'s Ghost makes
reference to the Abenaki: "On a late-winter evening in 1983, while
driving through fog along the
Maine coast, recollections of old
campfires began to drift into the March mist, and I thought of the
Abnaki Indians of the Algonquin tribe who dwelt near Bangor a thousand
Letters and other non-fiction writing can be found in the anthology
_Dawnland Voices_. Selections include letters from leader of the early
praying town, Wamesit in Massachusetts Samuel Numphow,Sagamore
Kancamagus, and writings on the
Abenaki language by former chief of
the reserve at
Odanak in Quebec,
Joseph Laurent as well as many
Accounts of life with the
Abenaki can be found in the captivity
narratives written by women taken captive by the
Abenaki from the
New England settlements:
Mary Rowlandson (1682), Hannah Duston
(1702); Elizabeth Hanson (1728);
Susannah Willard Johnson (1754); and
Jemima Howe (1792).
Maps showing the approximate locations of areas occupied by members
Wabanaki Confederacy (from north to south):
Eastern Abenaki (
Penobscot , Kennebec,
Arosaguntacook , Pigwacket/
Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki,
Jesse Bruchac , author and linguist
Joseph Bruchac , author
Indian Joe , a scout around the time of the American Revolutionary
Billy Kidd , former alpine ski racer
Joseph Laurent , chief and author
Henry Lorne Masta , chief and author
Alanis Obomsawin , filmmaker and documentarian
Donald E. Pelotte ,
Roman Catholic Bishop of Gallup (New Mexico
Cheryl Savageau , poet
* Elijah Tahamont , silent film actor Dark Cloud
Alexis Wawanoloath , member of National Assembly of
Christine Sioui-Wawanoloath , writer and artist living in
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Lee Sultzman (July 21,
Abenaki History". Archived from the original on 11 April 2010.
Retrieved March 20, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Abenaki." _U*X*L Encyclopedia of Native
American Tribes_. U*X*L. 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from HighBeam
* ^ Snow, Dean R. 1978. "Eastern Abenaki". In _Northeast_, ed.
Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of _Handbook of North American Indians_, ed.
William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg.
137. Cited in Campbell, Lyle (1997). _American Indian Languages: The
Historical Linguistics of Native America_. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, pg. 401. Campbell uses the spelling _wabánahki_.
* ^ Colin G. Calloway: _The Western Abenakis of Vermont,
1600–1800: War, Migration, and the Survival of an Indian People,_
University of Oklahoma Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0806125688
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Who We Are".
Abenaki Nation. Archived from
the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ Waldman, Carl. _Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes: Third
Edition_ (New York: Checkmark Books, 2006) p. 1
* ^ "Elnu
Abenaki Tribe". Retrieved 11 May 2016.
* ^ Stephen Laurent (2014). "The
Abenaki of Vermont". In Senier,
Siobhan. _Dawnland Voices_. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. pp.
293–296. ISBN 9780803246867 .
* ^ Muir, Diana, _Reflections in Bullough's Pond_, University Press
of New England.
* ^ Bourne, Russell (1990). _The Red King's Rebellion, Racial
New England 1675–1678_. p. 214. ISBN 0-689-12000-1 .
* ^ "Worlds rejoined". Cape Cod online.
* ^ Kenneth Morrison, _The Embattled Northeast: the Elusive Ideal
of Alliance in Abenaki-Euramerican Relations_ (1984)
* ^ Spencer C. Tucker et al. eds. (2011). _The Encyclopedia of
North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and
Military History_. ABC-CLIO. p. 249. ISBN 9781851096978 . CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link )
* ^ "Administration". Cbodanak.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
* ^ "Tribal Directory". U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of
Indian Affairs. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
* ^ "Vermont: Eugenics: Compulsory Sterilization in 50 American
States". University of Vermont. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
* ^ "
Vermont Eugenics". Uvm.edu. 1931-03-31. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
* ^ Henrik Palmgren. "The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi
Eugenics". Redicecreations.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
* ^ Hallenbeck, Terri.
Abenaki Turn to
Vermont Legislature for
Recognition _Burlington Free Press_ January 20, 2011. Retrieved
January 20, 2011
* ^ _A_ _B_ "HB 1610-FN – As Amended by the House". NH General
Court. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ "Gambling Bill Would Create 6 Casinos, Allow Black Jack".
WMUR.com. March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ "The
New Hampshire Inter-Tribal Native American Council:
Mission Statement". Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed. (1900). _Travels and Explorations of
Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610—1791_. The Burrows
Company. Retrieved 2006-11-07.
* ^ Waldman, _Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes_ p. 1
* ^ Constitution of the Sovereign Republic of the
Abenaki Nation of
* ^ _The Encyclopedia of Native American Costume_
* ^ The Cowasuck Band of the
* ^ Verbal teachings (Oral Traditions) from the late "Berth Daigle"
* ^ "Marriage or Wedding Ceremony". Cowasuck Band of the
Abenaki People. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "What We Ate". Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki
People. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ "The Consensual Decision-Making Process". Cowasuck Band of the
Abenaki People. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
* ^ Joe Bruchac. "The
Abenaki Perspective on Storytelling". Abenaki
Nation. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved
March 22, 2010.
* ^ "
Raccoon and the Waterfall".
Abenaki Nation. Retrieved March
* ^ Rousseau, Jacques 1947 Ethnobotanique Abenakise. Archives de
Folklore 11:145–182 (p. 166)
* ^ Senier, Siobhan, ed. (2014). _Dawnland Voices_. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska. pp. 273–370. ISBN 978-0-8032-4686-7 .
* ^ Senier, Siobhan (ed.). _Dawnland Voices_. Lincoln: University
of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-8032-4686-7 .
* ^ _Women's Indian Captivity Narratives_, ed. Kathryn Zabelle
Derounian-Stodola, Penguin, London, 1998
* ^ "Alanis Obomsawin: the vision of a native filmmaker".
* ^ "Cheryl Savageau\'s Poetic Awikhiganak".
* ^ "Biography of Alexis Wawanoloath". _Dictionnaire des
parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours_ (in French). National
* ^ "Christine Sioui Wawanoloath" (in French). Terres en vues/Land
* Aubery, Joseph Fr. and Stephen Laurent, 1995. Father Aubery's
Abenaki Dictionary: English translation. S. Laurent
(Translator). Chisholm Bros. Publishing
* Baker, C. Alice, 1897. _True Stories of
New England Captives
Canada during the Old French and Indian Wars_. Press of
E.A. Hall Dec. 2009 (hardcover): Kessinger Publishings Legacy Reprint
Series; and April 2010 (paperback): Nabu Press.
* Masta, Henry Lorne, 1932. _