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The ABENAKI (ABNAKI, ABINAKI, _ALNôBAK_) are a Native American tribe and First Nation . They are one of the Algonquian -speaking peoples of northeastern North America
North America
. The Abenaki
Abenaki
live in Quebec
Quebec
and the Maritimes of Canada
Canada
and in the New England
New England
region of the United States, a region called _Wabanahkik_ ("Dawn Land") in the Eastern Algonquian languages . The Abenaki
Abenaki
are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy .

"Abenaki" is a linguistic and geographic grouping; historically there was not a strong central authority. As listed below, there were numerous smaller bands and tribes who shared many cultural traits. They came together as a post-contact community after their original tribes were decimated by colonization, disease, and warfare.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Subdivisions * 3 Location * 4 Language

* 5 History

* 5.1 Abenaki
Abenaki
wars * 5.2 Canada
Canada

* 5.3 United States
United States

* 5.3.1 Vermont
Vermont

* 5.3.1.1 Official state tribal recognition

* 5.3.2 New Hampshire
New Hampshire
and minority recognition

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Hair style and other marriage traditions * 6.2 Gender, food, division of labor, and other cultural traits * 6.3 Storytelling * 6.4 Mythology * 6.5 Herbalism

* 7 Population and epidemics * 8 Fiction * 9 Non-fiction * 10 Maps * 11 Notable people * 12 Footnotes * 13 Bibliography * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

NAME

The word _Abenaki_, and its syncope , _Abnaki,_ are both derived from _Wabanaki_, or _Wôbanakiak,_ meaning "People of the Dawn Land" in the Abenaki language . While the two terms are often confused, the Abenaki
Abenaki
are one of several tribes in the Wabanaki Confederacy .

_Wôbanakiak_ is derived from _wôban_ ("dawn" or "east") and _aki_ ("land") (compare Proto-Algonquian _*wa·pan_ and _*axkyi_) — the aboriginal name of the area broadly corresponding to New England
New England
and the Maritimes . It is sometimes used to refer to all the Algonquian-speaking peoples of the area—Western Abenaki, Eastern Abenaki, Wolastoqiyik - Passamaquoddy , and Mi\'kmaq —as a single group.

The Abenaki
Abenaki
people also call themselves _Alnôbak_, meaning "Real People" (c.f., Lenape language : _Lenapek _) and by the autonym _Alnanbal,_ meaning "men".

SUBDIVISIONS

Historically, ethnologists have classified the Abenaki
Abenaki
by geographic groups: Western Abenaki and Eastern Abenaki . Within these groups are the Abenaki
Abenaki
bands:

* WESTERN ABENAKI

* AMOSKEAY * ARSIGANTEGOK (also _Arrasaguntacook_, _Ersegontegog_, _Assagunticook_, _Anasaguntacook_), lived along the St. Francis River in Québec. Principal village: St. Francis (Odanak). The people were referred to as _St. Francis River Abenakis,_ and this term gradually was applied to all Western Abenaki. * COCHECO * COWASUCK (also _Cohass, Cohasiac, Koasek, Koasek, Coos_ – "People of the Pines"), lived in the upper Connecticut River
Connecticut River
Valley. Principal village: _Cowass_, near Newbury, Vermont
Vermont
. * MISSIQUOI (also _Masipskwoik_, _Mazipskikskoik_, _Missique_, _Misiskuoi_, _Missisco_, _Missiassik_ – "People of the Flint"), also known as the Sokoki. They lived in the Missisquoi Valley , from Lake Champlain to the headwaters. Principal village around Swanton, Vermont . * NASHUA * OSSIPEE , lived along the shores of Ossipee Lake in east-central New Hampshire. Often classed as _Eastern Abenaki_. * PEMIGEWASSET * PENNACOOK (also _Penacook_, _Penikoke_, _Openango_), lived in the Merrimack Valley , therefore sometimes called _Merrimack_. Principal village Penacook, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
. The Pennacook were once a large confederacy who were politically distinct and competitive with their northern Abenaki
Abenaki
neighbors. * PEQUAWKET (also _Pigwacket_, _Pequaki_), lived along the Saco River and in the White Mountains . Principal village _Pigwacket_ was located on the upper Saco River near present-day Fryeburg, Maine
Maine
. Occupied an intermediate location, therefore sometimes classed as _Eastern Abenaki_. * PISCATAQUA * SOKOKI (also _Sokwaki_, _Squakheag_, _Socoquis_, _Sokoquius_, _Zooquagese_, _Soquachjck_, _Onejagese_ – "People Who Separated"), lived in the Middle and Upper Connecticut River
Connecticut River
Valley. Principal villages: _Squakheag_, Northfield, Massachusetts , and Fort Hill. * SOUHEGAN * WINNIPESAUKEE (also _Winnibisauga_, _Wioninebeseck_, _Winninebesakik_ – "region of the land around lakes"), lived along the shores of Lake Winnipesaukee , New Hampshire.

* EASTERN ABENAKI

* APIKWAHKI * AMASECONTI , lived between the upper Kennebec and Androscoggin rivers in western Maine
Maine
. * ANDROSCOGGIN (also _Alessikantekw_, _Arosaguntacock_, _Amariscoggin_), lived in the Androscoggin Valley and along the St. Francis River , therefore often called _St. Francis River Abenaki_. * KENNEBEC (also _Kinipekw_, _Kennebeck_, _Caniba_, later known as _ Norridgewock _), lived in the Kennebec River Valley in northern Maine. Principal village: Norridgewock (Naridgewalk, Neridgewok, Noronjawoke); other villages: Amaseconti (Amesokanti, Anmissoukanti), Kennebec, and Sagadahoc. * KWUPAHAG (also _Kwapahag_) * MALISEET (also _Wolastoqiyik_, _Walastekwyk_, _Malecite_), lived in the inland of upper Maine
Maine
and middle New Brunswick
New Brunswick
along the St. John River . Principal villages: Meductic, Aukpaque. Now a separate federally recognized tribe . * ODANAK (also known as _St. Francis, St. Francois du Lac_), lived southwest of Trois-Rivières , Quebec, and included settlements along the St. Francois River. * OSSIPEE , lived along the shores of Ossipee Lake in east-central New Hampshire. Sometimes classed as _Western Abenaki_. * PENOBSCOT (also _Panawahpskek_, _Pamnaouamske_, _Pentagouet_), lived in the Penobscot Valley . Principal villages: _Penobscot (Pentagouet),_ now Indian Island, _Old Town_, Maine
Maine
; other villages: Agguncia, Asnela, Catawamtek, Kenduskeag , Mattawamkeag , Meecombe, Negas, Olamon, Passadumkeag , Precaute, Segocket, and Wabigganus. Now a separate federally recognized tribe . * PASSAMAQUODDY (also _Peskotomuhktati_, _Pestomuhkati_), lived on the Passamaquoddy Bay coast and inland, between the St. John, St. Croix and Penobscot rivers, in present-day Maine
Maine
and New Brunswick. Principal village: Machias . Now a separate federally recognized tribe . * ROCAMECA , lived along the upper Androscoggin River , near Canton, Maine
Maine
. * WAWINAK (also _Ouanwinak, Sheepscot, Wawenock, Wawnock, Wewenoc_), lived in the coastal areas of southern Maine
Maine
. * WôLINAK (also _Becancour_), lived around Trois-Rivières, Quebec.

LOCATION

Abenaki
Abenaki
wigwam with birch bark covering

The homeland of the Abenaki, which they call _Ndakinna_ (our land), extended across most of northern New England
New England
, southern Quebec
Quebec
, and the southern Canadian Maritimes . The Eastern Abenaki population was concentrated in portions of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Maine
Maine
east of New Hampshire 's White Mountains . The other major tribe, the Western Abenaki, lived in the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
valley in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The Missiquoi lived along the eastern shore of Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
. The Pennacook lived along the Merrimack River in southern New Hampshire. The maritime Abenaki
Abenaki
lived around the St. Croix and Wolastoq (Saint John River) valleys near the boundary line between Maine
Maine
and New Brunswick
New Brunswick
.

The English settlement of New England
New England
and frequent wars forced many Abenaki
Abenaki
to retreat to Quebec
Quebec
. The Abenaki
Abenaki
settled in the Sillery region of Quebec
Quebec
between 1676 and 1680, and subsequently, for about twenty years, lived on the banks of the Chaudière River near the falls, before settling in Odanak and Wôlinak in the early eighteenth century. The name "Abenaki" was derived from the terms _w8bAn_ (light) and _Aki_ (land), which mean "people in the rising sun" or "people of the East". In those days, the Abenaki
Abenaki
practiced a subsistence economy based on hunting, fishing, trapping, berry picking and on growing corn, beans, squash, potatoes and tobacco. They also produced baskets, made of ash and sweet grass, for picking wild berries, and boiled maple sap to make syrup. Basket weaving remains a traditional activity for members of both communities.

During the Anglo-French wars, the Abenaki
Abenaki
were allies of France
France
, having been displaced from Ndakinna by immigrating English people. An anecdote from this period tells the story of a Maliseet war chief named Nescambuit or Assacumbuit , who killed more than 140 enemies of King Louis XIV of France
France
and received the rank of knight. Not all Abenaki
Abenaki
natives fought on the side of the French, however; many remained on their native lands in the northern colonies. Much of the trapping was done by the people, and traded to the English colonists for durable goods. These contributions by Native American Abenaki peoples went largely unreported.

Two tribal communities formed in Canada, one once known as Saint-Francois-du-lac near Pierreville, Quebec
Quebec
(now called Odanak, Abenaki
Abenaki
for "coming home"), and the other near Bécancour (now known as Wôlinak) on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River , directly across the river from Trois-Rivières . These two Abenaki
Abenaki
reserves continue to grow and develop. Since the year 2000, the total Abenaki population (on and off reserve) has doubled to 2,101 members in 2011. Approximately 400 Abenaki
Abenaki
reside on these two reserves, which cover a total area of less than 7 square kilometres (2.7 sq mi). The unrecognized majority are off-reserve members, living in various cities and towns across Canada
Canada
and the United States.

There are about 3,200 Abenaki
Abenaki
living in Vermont
Vermont
and New Hampshire, without reservations, chiefly around Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
. The remaining Abenaki
Abenaki
people live in multi-racial towns and cities across Canada
Canada
and the U.S.A., mainly in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and northern New England.

Four Abenaki
Abenaki
tribes are located in Vermont. On April 22, 2011, Vermont
Vermont
officially recognized two Abenaki
Abenaki
tribes: the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk- Abenaki
Abenaki
and the Elnu Abenaki
Abenaki
Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koas Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation received recognition by the State of Vermont. The Nulhegan are located in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, with tribal headquarters in Brownington , and the Elnu Abenaki
Abenaki
are located in southeastern Vermont
Vermont
with tribal headquarters in Jamaica, Vermont
Vermont
. The Elnu Abenaki
Abenaki
tribe focuses mainly on carrying on the traditions of their ancestors through their children and teaching about their culture. The chief and political leader of the Nulhegan Band is Don Stevens. The Sokoki (the Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation at Missisquoi) are located along the Missisquoi River in northwestern Vermont, with tribal headquarters in Swanton . Their traditional land is along the river, extending to its outlet at Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
.

In December 2012, Vermont's Nulhegan Abanaki Tribe created a tribal forest in the town of Barton . This forest was established with assistance from the Vermont
Vermont
Sierra Club and the Vermont
Vermont
Land Trust. It contains a hunting camp and maple sugaring facilities which are administered cooperatively by the Nulhegan. The forest contains 70 acres (28 ha).

The St Francis Missisquoi Tribe owns forest land in the town of Brunswick , centered around the Brunswick Springs. These springs are believed to be a sacred traditional religious site of the Abanaki. Together these Vermont
Vermont
forests are the only Abanaki held lands outside of the existing reservations in Quebec
Quebec
and Maine.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Abenaki language

The Abenaki language is closely related to the Panawahpskek (Penobscot) language. Other neighboring Wabanaki tribes, the Pestomuhkati (Passamaquoddy) , Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) , and Mi\'kmaq , and other Eastern Algonquian languages share many linguistic similarities. It has come close to extinction as a spoken language. Tribal members are working to revive the Abenaki language at Odanak (means "in the village"), a First Nations Abenaki
Abenaki
reserve near Pierreville, Quebec
Quebec
, and throughout New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, Vermont
Vermont
and New York state.

The language is holophrastic, meaning that a phrase or an entire sentence is expressed by a single word. For example, the word for "white man" _awanoch_ is a combination of the words _awani_ meaning "who" and _uji_ meaning "from". In this way, the word for "white man" literally translates to "Who is this man and where does he come from?"

HISTORY

In _Reflections in Bullough\'s Pond _, historian Diana Muir argues that Abenaki
Abenaki
neighbors, pre-contact Iroquois, were an imperialist, expansionist culture whose cultivation of the corn/beans/squash agricultural complex enabled them to support a large population. They made war primarily against neighboring Algonquian peoples , including the Abenaki. Muir uses archaeological data to argue that the Iroquois expansion onto Algonquian lands was checked by the Algonquian adoption of agriculture. This enabled them to support their own populations large enough to have sufficient warriors to defend against the threat of Iroquois
Iroquois
conquest.

In 1614, Thomas Hunt captured 24 young Abenaki
Abenaki
people and took them to England. During the European colonization of North America, the land occupied by the Abenaki
Abenaki
was in the area between the new colonies of England in Massachusetts and the French in Quebec. Since no party agreed to territorial boundaries, there was regular conflict among them. The Abenaki
Abenaki
were traditionally allied with the French ; during the reign of Louis XIV , Chief Assacumbuit was designated a member of the French nobility for his service. Abenaki
Abenaki
couple, 18th-century

Facing annihilation from English attacks and epidemics of new infectious diseases, the Abenaki
Abenaki
started to emigrate to Quebec
Quebec
around 1669. The governor of New France
France
allocated two seigneuries (large self-administered areas similar to feudal fiefs). The first was on the Saint Francis River and is now known as the _ Odanak _ Indian Reservation; the second was founded near Bécancour and is called the _ Wolinak _ Indian Reservation.

ABENAKI WARS

Main article: French and Indian Wars

When the Wampanoag people under King Philip ( Metacomet ) fought the English colonists in New England
New England
in 1675 in King Philip\'s War , the Abenaki
Abenaki
joined the Wampanoag. For three years there was fighting along the Maine
Maine
frontier in the First Abenaki War . The Abenaki
Abenaki
pushed back the line of white settlement by devastating raids on scattered farmhouses and small villages. The war was settled by a peace treaty in 1678, with the Wampanoag more than decimated and many Native survivors having been sold into slavery in Bermuda.

During Queen Anne\'s War in 1702, the Abenaki
Abenaki
were allied with the French; they raided numerous small villages in Maine, Wells to Casco , killing about 300 settlers over ten years. The raids stopped when the war ended. Some captives were adopted into the Mohawk and Abenaki tribes; older captives were generally ransomed, and the colonies carried on a brisk trade.

The Third Abenaki
Abenaki
War (1722–25), called Father Rale\'s War , erupted when the French Jesuit missionary Sébastien Rale (or Rasles, 1657?-1724) encouraged the Abenaki
Abenaki
to halt the spread of Yankee settlements. When the Massachusetts militia tried to seize Rasles, the Abenaki
Abenaki
raided the settlements at Brunswick , Arrowsick , and Merry-Meeting Bay . The Massachusetts government then declared war and bloody battles were fought at Norridgewock (1724), where Rasles was killed, and at a daylong battle at the Indian village near present-day Fryeburg, Maine
Maine
, on the upper Saco River (1725). Peace conferences at Boston and Casco Bay
Casco Bay
brought an end to the war. After Rale died the Abenaki
Abenaki
moved to a settlement on the St. Francis River.

The Abenaki
Abenaki
from St. Francois continued to raid British settlements in their former homelands along the New England
New England
frontier during Father Le Loutre\'s War (see Northeast Coast Campaign (1750) ) and the French and Indian War .

CANADA

The development of tourism projects has allowed the Canadian Abenaki to develop a modern economy, while preserving their culture and traditions. For example, since 1960, the Odanak Historical Society has managed the first and one of the largest aboriginal museums in Quebec, a few miles from the Quebec-Montreal axis. Over 5,000 people visit the Abenaki
Abenaki
Museum annually. Several Abenaki
Abenaki
companies include: in Wôlinak, General Fiberglass Engineering employs a dozen natives, with annual sales of more than $3 million Canadian dollars. Odanak is now active in transportation and distribution. Notable Abenaki
Abenaki
from this area include the documentary filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (National Film Board of Canada
Canada
).

UNITED STATES

The Penobscot Indian Nation and the Passamaquoddy People have been federally recognized as tribes in the United States.

Vermont

In 2006, the state of Vermont
Vermont
officially recognized the Abenaki
Abenaki
as a People, but not a Tribe. The state noted that many Abenaki
Abenaki
had been assimilated, and only small remnants remained on reservations during and after the French and Indian War , later eugenics projects further decimated the Abenaki
Abenaki
people of America through forced sterilization and questionable 'miscarriages' at birth. As noted above, facing annihilation, many Abenaki
Abenaki
had begun emigrating to Canada, then under French control, around 1669.

The Sokoki-St. Francis Band of the Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation organized a tribal council in 1976 at Swanton, Vermont
Vermont
. Vermont
Vermont
granted recognition of the council the same year, but later withdrew it. In 1982, the band applied for federal recognition, which is still pending. Four Abenaki communities are located in Vermont. On April 22, 2011, Vermont officially recognized two Abenaki
Abenaki
bands: the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk- Abenaki
Abenaki
and the El Nu Abenaki
Abenaki
Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek of the Koas Abenaki Traditional Band received recognition by the State of Vermont. The Abenaki
Abenaki
who chose to remain in the United States
United States
did not fare as well as their Canadian counterparts. Tribal connections were lost as those Abenaki
Abenaki
who were tolerated by the Anglo population were assimilated into colonial society. What familial groups remained were often eradicated, in the early 20th century, through forced sterilization and pregnancy termination policies in Vermont. There were over 3,400 reported cases of sterilization of Abenaki
Abenaki
having been performed, many of which involved termination of an unborn fetus. No documentation of informed consent for these procedures was found. After this period the only Abenaki
Abenaki
that remained in the United States
United States
were those who could pass for white, or avoid capture and subsequent dissolution of their families through forced internment in "schools" after their sterilization. At the time, many of the children who were sterilized were not even aware of what the physicians had done to them. This was performed under the auspices of the Brandon School of the Feeble-Minded, and the Vermont
Vermont
Reform School. It was documented in the 1911 "Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population."

Official State Tribal Recognition

The Vermont
Vermont
Elnu (Jamaica ) and Nulhegan (Brownington ) bands' application for official recognition was recommended and referred to the Vermont
Vermont
General Assembly by the Vermont
Vermont
Commission on Native American Affairs on January 19, 2011, as a result of a process established by the Vermont
Vermont
legislature in 2010. Recognition allows applicants to seek scholarship funds reserved for American Indians and to receive federal "native made" designation for the bands' arts and crafts.

On April 22, 2011, Vermont
Vermont
officially recognized two Abenaki
Abenaki
bands: the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk- Abenaki
Abenaki
and the El Nu Abenaki
Abenaki
Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koas Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation received recognition by the State of Vermont.

New Hampshire
New Hampshire
And Minority Recognition

In New Hampshire
New Hampshire
the Abenaki, along with other Native American groups, have proposed legislation for recognition as a minority group. This bill was debated in 2010 in the state legislature . The bill would create a state commission on Native American relations, which would act as an advisory group to the governor and the state government in general. The Abenaki
Abenaki
want to gain formal state recognition as a people.

Some people have opposed the bill, as they fear it may lead to Abenaki
Abenaki
land claims for property now owned and occupied by European Americans. Others worry that the Abenaki
Abenaki
may use recognition as a step toward opening a casino. But, the bill specifically says that "this act shall not be interpreted to provide any Native American or Abenaki person with any other special rights or privileges that the state does not confer on or grant to other state residents." New Hampshire
New Hampshire
has considered expanding gambling separate from the Native Americans.

The council would be under the Department of Cultural Resources, so it would be in the same department as the State Council on the Arts. The bill would allow for the creation and sale of goods to be labeled as Native-made, to create a source of income for the Natives in New Hampshire.

The numerous groups of Natives in the state have created a New Hampshire Inter-tribal Council, which holds statewide meetings and powwows . Dedicated to preserving the culture of the Natives in New Hampshire, the group is one of the chief supporters of the HB 1610; the Abenaki, the main tribe in the state, are the only people named specifically in the bill.

CULTURE

An Abenaki
Abenaki
in Pan Indian (non traditional) clothing

There are a dozen variations of the name "Abenaki", such as Abenaquiois, Abakivis, Quabenakionek, Wabenakies and others.

The Abenaki
Abenaki
were described in the _ Jesuit Relations_ as not cannibals , and as docile, ingenious, temperate in the use of liquor, and not profane.

All Abenaki
Abenaki
tribes lived a lifestyle similar to the Algonquian-speaking peoples of southern New England. They cultivated crops for food, and located their villages on or near fertile river floodplains. Other less major, but still important, parts of their diet included game and fish from hunting and fishing, and wild plants.

They lived in scattered bands of extended families for most of the year. Each man had different hunting territories inherited through his father. Unlike the Iroquois
Iroquois
, the Abenaki
Abenaki
were patrilineal . Bands came together during the spring and summer at temporary villages near rivers, or somewhere along the seacoast for planting and fishing. These villages occasionally had to be fortified, depending on the alliances and enemies of other tribes or of Europeans near the village. Abenaki
Abenaki
villages were quite small when compared to those of the Iroquois; the average number of people was about 100.

Most Abenaki
Abenaki
crafted dome-shaped, bark-covered wigwams for housing, though a few preferred oval-shaped long houses. During the winter, the Abenaki
Abenaki
lived in small groups further inland. The homes there were bark-covered wigwams shaped in a way similar to the teepees of the Great Plains Indians. During the winter, the Abenaki
Abenaki
lined the inside of their conical wigwams with bear and deer skins for warmth. The Abenaki
Abenaki
also built long houses similar to those of the Iroquois.

The Abenaki
Abenaki
hold on to their traditions and ways of life in several ways. The Sokoki do so in the current constitution for their government. It has a chief, a council of elders, and methods and means for election to the council and chieftainship, as well as requirements for citizenship in the tribe. They also list many of the different traditions they uphold, such as the different dances they perform and what those dances mean. During several of these dances there is no photography allowed, out of respect for the culture. For several, there are instructions such as "All stand while it is sung" or "All Stand to Show Respect."

HAIR STYLE AND OTHER MARRIAGE TRADITIONS

Modernized traditional spiritual hairstyle for a married Abenaki man

Traditionally, Abenaki
Abenaki
men kept their hair long and loose. When a man would find a girlfriend, he would tie his hair. When he married, he would attach the hair of the scalp with a piece of leather and shave all but the ponytail. The modernized spiritual version has the man with a girlfriend tying his hair and braiding it. When he marries, he keeps all his hair in a braid, shaving only the side and back of the head. The spiritual meaning surrounding this cut is most importantly to indicate betrothal or fidelity as a married Abenaki
Abenaki
man. In much the same way as the Christian marriage tradition, there is an (optional) exchange and blessing of wedding rings. These rings are the outward and visible sign of the unity of this couple.

Changes in the hair style were symbolic of a complex courtship process. The man would give the woman a box made of a fine wood, which was decorated with the virtues of the woman; the woman would give a similar box to the man. Everyone in the tribe must agree to the marriage. They erect a pole planted in the earth, and if anyone disagrees, he strikes the pole. The disagreement must be resolved or the marriage does not happen.

GENDER, FOOD, DIVISION OF LABOR, AND OTHER CULTURAL TRAITS

The Abenaki
Abenaki
were a farming society that supplemented agriculture with hunting and gathering. Generally the men were the hunters. The women tended the fields and grew the crops. In their fields, they planted the crops in groups of "sisters". The three sisters were grown together: the stalk of corn supported the beans, and squash or pumpkins provided ground cover and reduced weeds. The men would hunt bears, deer, fish, he is swept away because of his pride . This story would be used to show a child the pitfalls of pride.

MYTHOLOGY

See also: Abenaki mythology

HERBALISM

The Abenaki
Abenaki
smash the flowers and leaves of Ranunculus acris and sniff them for headaches.

POPULATION AND EPIDEMICS

Before the Abenaki—except the Pennacook and Mi'kmaq—had contact with the European world, their population may have numbered as many as 40,000. Around 20,000 would have been Eastern Abenaki, another 10,000 would have been Western Abenaki, and the last 10,000 would have been Maritime Abenaki. Early contacts with European fishermen resulted in two major epidemics that affected Abenaki
Abenaki
during the 16th century. The first epidemic was an unknown sickness occurring sometime between 1564 and 1570, and the second one was typhus in 1586. Multiple epidemics arrived a decade prior to the English settlement of Massachusetts in 1620, when three separate sicknesses swept across New England
New England
and the Canadian Maritimes. Maine
Maine
was hit very hard during the year of 1617, with a fatality rate of 75%, and the population of the Eastern Abenaki fell to about 5,000. The more isolated Western Abenaki suffered fewer fatalities, losing about half of their original population of 10,000.

The new diseases continued to strike in epidemics, starting with smallpox in 1631, 1633, and 1639. Seven years later, an unknown epidemic struck, with influenza passing through the following year. Smallpox affected the Abenaki
Abenaki
again in 1649, and diphtheria came through 10 years later. Smallpox struck in 1670, and influenza in 1675. Smallpox affected the Native Americans in 1677, 1679, 1687, along with measles , 1691, 1729, 1733, 1755, and finally in 1758.

The Abenaki
Abenaki
population continued to decline, but in 1676, they took in thousands of refugees from many southern New England
New England
tribes displaced by settlement and King Philip\'s War . Because of this, descendants of nearly every southern New England
New England
Algonquian tribe can be found among the Abenaki
Abenaki
people. A century later, fewer than 1,000 Abenaki
Abenaki
remained after the American Revolution
American Revolution
.

In the 1990 U.S. Census, 1,549 people identified themselves as Abenaki. So did 2,544 people in the 2000 U.S census, with 6,012 people claiming Abenaki
Abenaki
heritage. In 1991 Canadian Abenaki
Abenaki
numbered 945; by 2006 they numbered 2,164.

FICTION

Lydia Maria Child wrote of the Abenaki
Abenaki
in her short story, "The Church in the Wilderness" (1828). Several Abenaki
Abenaki
characters and much about their 18th-century culture are featured in the Kenneth Roberts novel _Arundel_ (1930). The film _Northwest Passage _ (1940) is based on a novel of the same name by Roberts.

Modern Abenaki
Abenaki
writers as well as historical Abenaki-written documents are featured in the anthology _Dawnland Voices_, edited by Siobhan Senier. The collection features commonly known and less known modern writers as well as historical documents from Abenakis and their ancestors. The collection also includes writings from several other native New England
New England
tribes.

The Abenaki
Abenaki
are featured in Charles McCarry 's historical novel _Bride of the Wilderness_ (1988), and James Archibald Houston 's novel _Ghost Fox_ (1977), both of which are set in the eighteenth century; and in Jodi Picoult 's _Second Glance_ (2003) and _Lone Wolf_ (2012) novels, set in the contemporary world. Books for younger readers both have historical settings: Joseph Bruchac 's _The Arrow Over the Door_ (1998) (grades 4–6) is set in 1777; and Beth Kanell's young adult novel, _The Darkness Under the Water_ (2008), concerns a young Abenaki-French Canadian girl during the time of the Vermont
Vermont
Eugenics Project , 1931–1936.

The first sentence in Norman Mailer 's novel Harlot\'s Ghost makes reference to the Abenaki: "On a late-winter evening in 1983, while driving through fog along the Maine
Maine
coast, recollections of old campfires began to drift into the March mist, and I thought of the Abnaki Indians of the Algonquin tribe who dwelt near Bangor a thousand years ago."

NON-FICTION

Letters and other non-fiction writing can be found in the anthology _Dawnland Voices_. Selections include letters from leader of the early praying town, Wamesit in Massachusetts Samuel Numphow,Sagamore Kancamagus, and writings on the Abenaki language by former chief of the reserve at Odanak in Quebec, Joseph Laurent as well as many others.

Accounts of life with the Abenaki
Abenaki
can be found in the captivity narratives written by women taken captive by the Abenaki
Abenaki
from the early New England
New England
settlements: Mary Rowlandson (1682), Hannah Duston (1702); Elizabeth Hanson (1728); Susannah Willard Johnson (1754); and Jemima Howe (1792).

MAPS

Maps showing the approximate locations of areas occupied by members of the Wabanaki Confederacy (from north to south):

* Mi\'kmaq

* Maliseet , Passamaquoddy * Eastern Abenaki ( Penobscot , Kennebec, Arosaguntacook , Pigwacket/ Pequawket ) * Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook )

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Jesse Bruchac , author and linguist * Joseph Bruchac , author * Indian Joe , a scout around the time of the American Revolutionary War * Billy Kidd
Billy Kidd
, former alpine ski racer * Joseph Laurent , chief and author * Henry Lorne Masta , chief and author * Alanis Obomsawin , filmmaker and documentarian * Donald E. Pelotte , Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Bishop of Gallup (New Mexico and Arizona) * Cheryl Savageau , poet * Elijah Tahamont , silent film actor Dark Cloud * Alexis Wawanoloath , member of National Assembly of Quebec
Quebec
* Christine Sioui-Wawanoloath , writer and artist living in Quebec
Quebec

FOOTNOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Lee Sultzman (July 21, 1997). " Abenaki
Abenaki
History". Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Abenaki." _U*X*L Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes_. U*X*L. 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3048800002.html * ^ Snow, Dean R. 1978. "Eastern Abenaki". In _Northeast_, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of _Handbook of North American Indians_, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 137. Cited in Campbell, Lyle (1997). _American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America_. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pg. 401. Campbell uses the spelling _wabánahki_. * ^ Colin G. Calloway: _The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600–1800: War, Migration, and the Survival of an Indian People,_ University of Oklahoma Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0806125688 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Who We Are". Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ Waldman, Carl. _Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes: Third Edition_ (New York: Checkmark Books, 2006) p. 1 * ^ "Elnu Abenaki
Abenaki
Tribe". Retrieved 11 May 2016. * ^ Stephen Laurent (2014). "The Abenaki
Abenaki
of Vermont". In Senier, Siobhan. _Dawnland Voices_. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. pp. 293–296. ISBN 9780803246867 . * ^ Muir, Diana, _Reflections in Bullough's Pond_, University Press of New England. * ^ Bourne, Russell (1990). _The Red King's Rebellion, Racial Politics in New England
New England
1675–1678_. p. 214. ISBN 0-689-12000-1 . * ^ "Worlds rejoined". Cape Cod online. * ^ Kenneth Morrison, _The Embattled Northeast: the Elusive Ideal of Alliance in Abenaki-Euramerican Relations_ (1984) * ^ Spencer C. Tucker et al. eds. (2011). _The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History_. ABC-CLIO. p. 249. ISBN 9781851096978 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ "Administration". Cbodanak.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30. * ^ "Tribal Directory". U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Retrieved December 26, 2012. * ^ "Vermont: Eugenics: Compulsory Sterilization in 50 American States". University of Vermont. Retrieved December 31, 2014. * ^ " Vermont
Vermont
Eugenics". Uvm.edu. 1931-03-31. Retrieved 2012-10-30. * ^ Henrik Palmgren. "The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics". Redicecreations.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30. * ^ Hallenbeck, Terri. Abenaki
Abenaki
Turn to Vermont
Vermont
Legislature for Recognition _Burlington Free Press_ January 20, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011 * ^ _A_ _B_ "HB 1610-FN – As Amended by the House". NH General Court. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ "Gambling Bill Would Create 6 Casinos, Allow Black Jack". WMUR.com. March 4, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ "The New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Inter-Tribal Native American Council: Mission Statement". Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed. (1900). _Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610—1791_. The Burrows Company. Retrieved 2006-11-07. * ^ Waldman, _Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes_ p. 1 * ^ Constitution of the Sovereign Republic of the Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation of Missisquoi * ^ _The Encyclopedia of Native American Costume_ * ^ The Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook Abenaki
Abenaki
People * ^ Verbal teachings (Oral Traditions) from the late "Berth Daigle" * ^ "Marriage or Wedding Ceremony". Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook- Abenaki
Abenaki
People. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "What We Ate". Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ "The Consensual Decision-Making Process". Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook- Abenaki
Abenaki
People. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ Joe Bruchac. "The Abenaki
Abenaki
Perspective on Storytelling". Abenaki Nation. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ " Raccoon and the Waterfall". Abenaki
Abenaki
Nation. Retrieved March 22, 2010. * ^ Rousseau, Jacques 1947 Ethnobotanique Abenakise. Archives de Folklore 11:145–182 (p. 166) * ^ Senier, Siobhan, ed. (2014). _Dawnland Voices_. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. pp. 273–370. ISBN 978-0-8032-4686-7 . * ^ Senier, Siobhan (ed.). _Dawnland Voices_. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-8032-4686-7 . * ^ _Women's Indian Captivity Narratives_, ed. Kathryn Zabelle Derounian-Stodola, Penguin, London, 1998 * ^ "Alanis Obomsawin: the vision of a native filmmaker". * ^ "Cheryl Savageau\'s Poetic Awikhiganak". * ^ "Biography of Alexis Wawanoloath". _Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours_ (in French). National Assembly of Quebec
Quebec
. * ^ "Christine Sioui Wawanoloath" (in French). Terres en vues/Land InSights.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Aubery, Joseph Fr. and Stephen Laurent, 1995. Father Aubery's French Abenaki
Abenaki
Dictionary: English translation. S. Laurent (Translator). Chisholm Bros. Publishing * Baker, C. Alice, 1897. _True Stories of New England
New England
Captives Carried to Canada
Canada
during the Old French and Indian Wars_. Press of E.A. Hall Dec. 2009 (hardcover): Kessinger Publishings Legacy Reprint Series; and April 2010 (paperback): Nabu Press. * Masta, Henry Lorne, 1932. _ Abenaki
Abenaki
Legends, Grammar and Place Names._ Victoriaville , PQ: La Voix Des Bois-Franes. Reprinted 2008: Toronto: Global Language Press, ISBN 978-1-897367-18-6 * Maurault, Joseph-Anselme (Abbot), 1866. _Histoire des Abénakis, depuis 1605 jusqu\'à nos jours_. Published at L\'Atelier typographique de la "Gazette de Sorel", QC * Moondancer and Strong Woman, 2007. _A Cultural History of the Native Peoples of Southern New England: Voices from Past and Present_. Boulder, CO : Bauu Press, ISBN 0-9721349-3-X

FURTHER READING

Other grammar books and dictionaries include:

* Dr. Gordon M. Day's two-volume _ Western Abenaki Dictionary_ (August 1994), Paperback: 616 pages, Publisher: Canadian Museum Of Civilization * Chief Henry Lorne Masta's _ Abenaki
Abenaki
Legends, Grammar, and Place Names_ (1932), Odanak, Quebec, reprinted in 2008 by Global Language Press * Joseph Aubery 's _Father Aubery's French- Abenaki
Abenaki
Dictionary_ (1700), translated into English- Abenaki
Abenaki
by Stephen Laurent, and published in hardcover (525 pp.) by Chisholm Bros. Publishing.

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