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Abdullah Gül[1] (/ɡuːl/ ( listen); Turkish: [abduɫˈɫɑh ˈɟyl]; born 29 October 1950) is a Turkish politician who served as the 11th President of Turkey, in office from 2007 to 2014. He previously served for four months as Prime Minister
Prime Minister
from 2002 to 2003, and concurrently served as both Deputy Prime Minister and as Foreign Minister between 2003 and 2007. He is currently a member of the Advisory Panel for the President of the Islamic Development Bank.[2] Advocating staunch Islamist
Islamist
political views during his university years, Gül became a Member of Parliament for Kayseri
Kayseri
in 1991 and was re-elected in 1995, 1999, 2002 and 2007. Initially a member of the Islamist
Islamist
Welfare Party, Gül joined the Virtue Party in 1998 after the former was banned for anti-secular activities. When the party split into hardline Islamist
Islamist
and modernist factions in 2000, Gül joined fellow party member Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
in advocating the need for reform and moderation. He ran against serving leader Recai Kutan
Recai Kutan
for the Virtue Party leadership on behalf of Erdoğan, who was banned from holding political office at the time. As the candidate for the modernist camp, he came second with 521 votes while Kutan won 633. He co-founded the moderate Justice and Development Party (AKP) with Erdoğan in 2001 after the Virtue Party was shut down in the same year, while hardline conservative members founded the Felicity Party instead. Gül became Prime Minister
Prime Minister
after the AKP won a landslide victory in the 2002 general election, since Erdoğan was still banned from office. His government had removed Erdoğan's political ban by March 2003, after which Erdoğan became an MP for Siirt
Siirt
in a by-election and took over as Prime Minister. Gül subsequently served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister until 2007. His subsequent bid for the Presidency drew strong and highly vocal opposition from ardent supporters of secularism in Turkey
Turkey
and was initially blocked by the Constitutional Court due to concerns over his Islamist
Islamist
political background.[3] He was eventually elected Turkey's first Islamist President after the 2007 snap general election.[4][5][6] As President, Gül came under criticism for giving assent to controversial laws which have been regarded by the political opposition as unconstitutional.[7][8] In June 2013, he signed a bill restricting alcohol consumption into law despite initially indicating a possible veto, which was seen as a contributing factor to sparking the 2013–14 anti-government protests.[9] Other controversies included a law tightening internet regulation in 2013,[10] a law increasing political control over the judiciary in 2014[11] and a law giving the National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) controversial new powers also in 2014.[12] Gül took a mediating approach during anti-government protests and government corruption scandals.[13]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Education 1.2 Entry into politics

2 AKP career

2.1 Prime minister 2.2 Foreign minister

3 Presidency: 2007–14 4 Statements on the Middle East 5 History of titles 6 Honours and medals

6.1 National honours 6.2 Foreign honours

7 Quotes 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Early life[edit] Gül was born in Kayseri, central Anatolia
Anatolia
on the 26th anniversary of the proclamation of Turkish independence. His father is Ahmet Hamdi Gül, a retired air force mechanic, and his mother is Adviye Satoğlu.[14][15] Education[edit] Gül studied economics at the Istanbul
Istanbul
University. During his graduate education, he studied for two years in London
London
and Exeter
Exeter
in the United Kingdom. Whilst in the UK he was on the Executive Committee of the Federation of Student Islamic Societies
Federation of Student Islamic Societies
(FOSIS). He pursued an academic career after that and worked at the higher education facilities in Adapazarı, collaborating in the establishment of the Department for Industrial Engineering
Industrial Engineering
and teaching management courses at the ITU Sakarya Engineering Faculty, which later became the Sakarya University in 1992. He served at Faculty of Political Sciences at Sakarya University, then Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, for a while.[16] He received a PhD from the Istanbul University in 1983. He was conferred an honorary PhD degree from Amity University, Noida on 8 February 2009, and a LL.D from the University of Dhaka on 13 February 2010.[17] Between 1983 and 1991, he worked at the Islamic Development Bank
Islamic Development Bank
(IDB) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In 1991, he became a lecturer in international management. Entry into politics[edit] Gül became acquainted with politics early during his high school years. During his university education, he became a member of the Islamist-nationalist Millî Türk Talebe Birliği (National Turkish Students' Union) in the line of Necip Fazıl's Büyük Doğu (Grand Orient) current.[18] He was elected a member of the Turkish parliament for the Refah Partisi (RP, "the Welfare Party") from the Kayseri
Kayseri
electoral district in 1991 and 1995. During these years, he made statements about the political system of Turkey
Turkey
that was designed by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the Turkish National Movement, which included "This is the end of the republican period" and "The secular system has failed and we definitely want to change it".[19] These statements caused controversy when his candidacy for the 2007 presidential election was announced by Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[20] In 1999, he kept his seat as a member of the Fazilet Partisi (FP, "the Virtue Party") which was subsequently outlawed by the Constitutional Court for its violation of the Constitution. Its predecessor, the Refah Partisi, was also outlawed by the Constitutional Court for its violation of the Constitution, especially the principle of secularism. By this time, Gül had apparently moderated his views and was reportedly considered to be part of the Virtue Party's reformist faction. He was a co-founder of the Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (Justice and Development Party), a party which billed itself as a moderate conservative party in the European tradition. He was elected once again to represent Kayseri
Kayseri
in 2002.[21] An interview he gave in 2002 summarizes his criticisms of the Refah Partisi under the leadership of Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan
and his portrayal of the AKP as a moderate party:

In the Welfare Party, there were groups demanding sharia rule. Welfare did not represent the local values we are now cultivating. The ideology of the party was partially shaped by alien imports. [He was referring to the impact of the Islamist
Islamist
ideology of the Iranian Revolution and Arab states on Welfare's ideology.] Our vision was at odds with the rest of the party. The despotic rule of Erbakan Hoca made it impossible for us to realize our vision under the rubric of the National View. We believe that modernization and being Muslim complement each other. We accept the modern values of liberalism, human rights, and market economy.[22]

AKP career[edit] Prime minister[edit]

U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld
Donald H. Rumsfeld
and Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
in the Pentagon, Washington, D.C., 2003

After the Justice and Development Party (AKP) won the most votes in the November 2002 general election, Gül was appointed Prime Minister, as AKP leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
was unable to assume the role due to a ban on his participation in politics. After Gül's government secured legislation allowing Erdoğan's return to politics, the latter took over as prime minister on 14 March 2003. He was appointed deputy prime minister and foreign minister.[citation needed] Foreign minister[edit] After becoming foreign minister in March 2003, Gül became the key player in Turkey's attempts to receive an accession date for the European Union
European Union
and in its attempts to improve relations with Syria
Syria
and maintaining its relationship with the Turkic-speaking countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. On 8 January 2008, Gül flew to the United States to meet with U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.[23] Presidency: 2007–14[edit]

Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
in 2010.

Gül with U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
on Obama's first visit to Ankara, 6 April 2009.

Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Erdoğan announced on 24 April 2007 that Gül would be the Justice and Development Party candidate in the 2007 presidential election. Previously, there had been speculation that Erdoğan himself would be the party's candidate, which had provoked substantial opposition from secularists.[24][25] When a boycott of opposition parties in Parliament deadlocked the election process, Gül formally withdrew his candidacy on 6 May 2007. If elected he would be the first president to have been involved with Islamist
Islamist
parties. But a few days later, on 11 May 2007 when he inquired after the alterations to the Turkish constitution
Turkish constitution
which now allowed the people to elect the president directly rather than a parliamentary vote, Gül announced that he was still intending to run.[26][27] Following the July 2007 parliamentary election, the AKP renominated Gül as its presidential candidate on 13 August; the election was again held as a vote of parliament.[28] On 14 August, Gül submitted his candidacy application to parliament and expressed his commitment to secularism at a news conference.[29] On 28 August 2007, he was elected president in the third round of voting; in the first two rounds, a two-thirds majority of MPs had been required, but in the third round he needed only a simple majority. Gül was sworn in immediately thereafter.[30] The process was a very low-key affair.[31] Gül's swearing-in was not attended by the Chief of the Turkish General Staff and was boycotted by the opposition Republican People's Party; then the hand-over of power at the presidential palace was held behind closed doors. Gül's wife was not present. The traditional evening reception hosted by the new president at the presidential palace for the country's highest authorities was announced for 11:30 in the morning and wives were not invited.[32] His presidency was described as a "new era in Turkish politics", for being the first president of Turkey
Turkey
with an Islamist
Islamist
background.[33]

Gül awarded "Statesman of the Year" by Queen Elizabeth II, 2010.

Gül received messages of congratulation from the US, EU and German authorities while Turkey's prime minister Tayyip Erdoğan
Tayyip Erdoğan
made a statement saying "a structure doomed to uncertainty has been overcome".[34] In September 2008 Gül became the first Turkish leader to visit Armenia, sparking a major debate in Turkey.[35] In November 2011, President Gül led a state visit to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a guest of Queen Elizabeth II.[36] The President met political and business leaders, visited the Olympic Park and was guest of honour at a state banquet at Buckingham Palace. In November 2013, Gül called on Muslim countries to fight against what he called Islamophobia during his address at the 29th session of the COMCEC in Istanbul. he said:

Islamophobia remains a critical problem, which instigates unsubstantial prejudices against our region and Muslims. Terror plays a role in the persistence of such problems. We have to combat any form of deviation playing into the hands of people who equate terrorism with Islam, the religion of love, tolerance and conciliation.[37]

Statements on the Middle East[edit]

Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
speaking on the Middle East at the Halifax International Security Forum 2014

Gül has been a critic of Israel and Western countries which established relations with Israel at the expense of Palestine.[38] After the Israeli raid on the MV Mavi Marmara
MV Mavi Marmara
in 2010, he advocated the complete ending of diplomatic relations with Israel, stating that "Israel will turn into a complete apartheid regime in the next 50 years if it does not allow for the establishment of an independent and proud Palestinian state with its capital in east Jerusalem. That is why we are exerting efforts to achieve a fair peace with a strategic point of view, which is to Israel's own interests."[39] On 31 December 2012, he stated with respect to the Arab spring
Arab spring
and democratization of the Arab world: "But democracy is not only about elections. The task of creating essential democratic institutions – the rule of law, habits of accountability, gender equality, and freedom of expression and faith – still awaits these countries".[40][41] History of titles[edit]

1949–1983: Abdullah Gül 1983–1991: Dr. Abdullah Gül 1991–1996: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdullah Gül, MP 1996–1997: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdullah Gül, Minister of State of Turkey 2002–2003: His Excellency
Excellency
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdullah Gül, Prime Minister of Turkey 2003–2007: His Excellency
Excellency
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdullah Gül, Deputy Prime Minister
Prime Minister
and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey 2007–2014: His Excellency
Excellency
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdullah Gül, President of the Republic of Turkey[42]

Honours and medals[edit] National honours[edit]

Ribbon bar Award or decoration Country Date Place Note Ref.

Medal of Honor of the Republic of Turkey  Turkey 7007201408280000000♠ 28 August 2014 Ankara

[43][44]

Foreign honours[edit]

Ribbon bar Award or decoration Country Date Place Note Ref.

Pro Merito medal by European Council  European Union 7007200200000000000♠ 2002 Brussels

[45]

First Class Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud  Saudi Arabia 7007200711090000000♠9 November 2007 Ankara The order was named after Abdulaziz Al Saud. [46]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath  United Kingdom 7007200805130000000♠13 May 2008 Ankara British order of chivalry. [47]

Medal of the tenth anniversary of the capital city of Astana  Kazakhstan 7007200807040000000♠ 4 July 2008 Astana

[48]

Necklace of Independence  Qatar 7007200908170000000♠ 17 August 2009 Istanbul

[45][49]

Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry  Portugal 7007200905120000000♠ 12 May 2009 Ankara Portuguese National Order of Knighthood. [50]

Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic  Italy 7007200911170000000♠ 17 November 2009 Ankara The highest ranking honour of the Italian Republic [51]

Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great  Kuwait 7007200912210000000♠ 21 December 2009 Kuwait
Kuwait
City

[52]

2010 Chatham House Prize  United Kingdom 7007201003200000000♠ 20 March 2010 London Gul awarded "Statesman of the Year" by Queen Elizabeth II. [53]

Order of Valour  Cameroon 7007201003310000000♠ 16 March 2010 Yaoundé Second highest order in Cameroon. [54]

Nishan-e-Pakistan  Pakistan 7007201003160000000♠ 31 March 2010 Islamabad Pakistan's highest civil order. [55][56]

Grand Cross with Chain Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary  Hungary 7007201111150000000♠ 15 November 2011 Ankara The highest state order and second class of Hungary. [57]

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Lion  The Netherlands 7007201204160000000♠ 16 April 2012 Amsterdam Netherlands' Lion, established in 1815. [58]

Order of the Golden Eagle  Kazakhstan 7007201210110000000♠ 11 October 2012 Ankara The highest decoration of Kazakhstan. [59]

Knight of the Order of the Seraphim  Sweden 7007201303110000000♠ 11 March 2013 Stockholm The highest order awarded by Swedish Royalty [60][61]

St. George's Order of Victory  Georgia 7007201304190000000♠ 19 April 2013 Ankara Second highest state decoration awarded by President of Georgia. [62]

Star of President Order  Turkmenistan 7007201305290000000♠ 29 May 2013 Ashgabat The first order given to foreign president in Turkmenistan. [63][64]

Grand Cross with Collar of Order of St. Olav  Norway 7007201311050000000♠ 5 November 2013 Ankara The highest ranking honour of the Kingdom of Norway. [65]

Heydar Aliyev Order  Azerbaijan 7007201311120000000♠ 12 November 2013 Ankara The highest national order of Azerbaijan. [66][67]

Knights of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau  Luxembourg 7007201311180000000♠ 18 November 2013 Ankara The highest national order in Luxembourg. [68][69]

Magtymguly International Prize  Turkmenistan 7007201406030000000♠ 3 June 2014 Ankara

[70][71]

Order of the State of Northern Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 7007201407190000000♠ 19 July 2014 Northern Nicosia The highest national order in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. [72][73]

Danaker Order  Kyrgyzstan 7007201409080000000♠ 8 September 2014 Istanbul The highest national order in Kyrgyzstan. [74][75]

Quotes[edit] 2012 - After a Turkish warplane was shot down by Syria
Syria
due to violations of borders:, ... It is not possible to cover over a thing like this, whatever is necessary will be done ... It is routine for jet fighters to sometimes fly in and out over (national) borders ... when you consider their speed over the sea ... These are not ill-intentioned things but happen beyond control due to the jets' speed.[76] See also[edit]

Çankaya Köşkü
Çankaya Köşkü
The Presidency of the Republic of Turkey List of presidential trips made by Abdullah Gül Abdullah Gul Interchange

References[edit]

^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey : Abdullah GÜL Archived 6 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Islamic Development Bank". Retrieved 24 May 2016.  ^ Ercan Yavuz (31 July 2008) "Evidence indicates Ergenekon tried to block presidential election" Archived 14 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine., todayszaman.com; retrieved 9 February 2009. ^ "Gül'ün adaylığını doğru bulmuyoruz". CNN Türk
CNN Türk
(in Turkish). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.  ^ Turks elect ex- Islamist
Islamist
president, bbc.co.uk; retrieved 9 February 2009. ^ Gul sworn in as Turkey's first former Islamist
Islamist
president, dailymail.co.uk; retrieved 9 February 2009. ^ President Gül bids farewell to rule of law Archived 22 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine., todayszaman.com; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Turkish main opposition takes judicial bill to constitutional court, hurriyetdailynews.com; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ 2013–14 anti-government protests in Turkey
Turkey
over restrictions on alcohol, eurasianet.org; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Turkey
Turkey
passes law tightening internet regulation, reuters.com; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Gül signs judicial law increasing political control over the judiciary, hurriyetdailynews.com; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Gül signs law giving MİT new powers Archived 22 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine., todayszaman.com; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Rifts emerge between Erdoğan and Gül, voanews.com; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Kurt, Süleyman. "'Cumhur' İkinci Kez Köşk Yolunda". Zaman (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.  ^ "'Ergenekon davasında mahkemeler görevini yapacak'". Milliyet
Milliyet
(in Turkish). 27 July 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2008.  ^ Sakarya Üniversitesi » Yazılım Grubu. "Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi - Değerlerimiz". Retrieved 24 May 2016.  ^ " Doctor of Laws
Doctor of Laws
degree conferred on Abdullah Gül". The Daily Star. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "Abdullah Gul's Unknown Sides/Exclusive". World Bulletin (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007.  ^ "Cumhuriyet bitmiş". Milliyet. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  ^ "Abdullah Gül: The Man Who Would be Turkey's President". Deutsche Welle (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2007.  ^ Abdullah Gül's historic profile, Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (24 March 2014); retrieved 25 March 2014. ^ Güneş Murat Tezcür, Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010, p. 157. ^ President Bush Meets with President Gul of Turkey, The White House Archives, 8 January 2008. ^ "Turkey's ruling party announces FM Gül as presidential candidate", Xinhua (People's Daily Online), 24 April 2007. ^ " Turkey
Turkey
'must have secular leader'", BBC News, 24 April 2007. ^ "Gül: Adaylığımız devam ediyor". Hurriyet
Hurriyet
(in Turkish). Retrieved 11 May 2007.  ^ "Gül adaylıktan çekildi". Hurriyet
Hurriyet
(in Turkish). Retrieved 11 May 2007.  ^ "Turkey's ruling party renominates Gül as presidential candidate", Xinhua (People's Daily Online), 13 August 2007. ^ "Turkey's Gül vows secular agenda", BBC News, 14 August 2007. ^ "Turkish foreign minister wins presidency, in victory for Islamic-rooted government", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune, 28 August 2007. ^ "Generals Protest Against Gül's Presidency". Turkish Daily News. Hürriyet. 29 August 2007. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017.  ^ Koylu, Hilal. "Köşk'e ilk davet eşsiz". Radikal (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Amberin Zaman (29 August 2007). " Turkey
Turkey
elects Islamist
Islamist
president Abdullah Gül", Telegraph.co.uk; retrieved 10 February 2009. ^ "Türkiye'nin 11. Cumhurbaşkanı Abdullah Gül". Radikal (in Turkish). 29 August 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.  ^ "Gül in landmark visit to Armenia". BBC News. 6 September 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009.  ^ British Monarchy website "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.  ^ Speech by Gül against Islamophobia, worldbulletin.net; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Abdullah, Gul to discuss Palestine, bilateral relations, Turkish News, 3 February 2009. ^ "Turkish president warns Israel". Hürriyet
Hürriyet
Daily News. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ "Europe and the Middle East in 2013", project-syndicate.org; accessed 15 February 2015. ^ Profile Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine., tccb.gov.tr; accessed 15 February 2015.(in Turkish) ^ "T.C. CUMHURBAŞKANLIĞI : Abdullah Gül". Tccb.gov.tr. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "Türkiye'nin İlk Seçilmiş Cumhurbaşkanı" (in Turkish). Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ Photo ^ a b "Biography of Abdullah Gül". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.  ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey ^ "Foreign visits:Kazakhstan". www.abdullahgul.gen.tr. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.  ^ "Türkiye-Katar: Her Konuda Tam Mutabakat". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 17 August 2009. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Photo (President Napolitano present Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.) Archived 1 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Presidency of the Republic of Turkey ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Photo) ^ "Gül winner of prestigious Chatham House award". Today's Zaman. 20 March 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ Photo (President Paul Biya present th award.) Presidency of the Republic of Turkey ^ "Turkish President awarded Nishan-i-Pakistan". Associated Press
Associated Press
of Pakistan. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2010.  ^ Photo of Nishan-e-Pakistan ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Photo) ^ Photo of President receiving the Order. His wife has received The Order of the Crown ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Photo) ^ Noblesse et Royautes Archived 15 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (French), State visit of Turkey
Turkey
in Sweden, Gala dinner, March 2013 ^ Photo ^ "Biography of Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
(Turkish)". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-11.  ^ "Туркменистан: золотой век". Retrieved 24 May 2016.  ^ Photo ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Photo) Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Çankaya köşkündə Azərbaycan və Türkiyə prezidentlərinin təltif edilməsi mərasimi olmuşdur. president.az" (in Azerbaijani).  ^ Photo ^ "Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
at the Çankaya Presidential Palace". Presidency of the Republic of Turkey. 19 November 2013. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2013.  ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Photo) Archived 12 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "President Gül Hosts Official Dinner in Honor of President Berdimuhamedov". Presidency of the Republic of Turkey. 3 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2013.  ^ Presidency of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Photo) ^ "President Gül Decorated with KKTC's Order of State". Presidency of Republic of Turkey. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Eroğlu'ndan Gül'e "KKTC Devlet Nişanı"" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Kırgızistan'dan 11. Cumhurbaşkanı Gül'e devlet nişanı" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Түркиянын экс-Президенти Абдуллах Гүл "Данакер" ордени менен сыйланды" (in Kyrgyz). www.president.kg. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Turkish warplane downed by Syria
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'may have crossed border'". BBC News. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abdullah Gül.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Abdullah Gül

Presidency of the Republic of Turkey Abdullah Gul News Index https://twitter.com/cbabdullahgul

Party political offices

New office Deputy Leader of the Justice and Development Party 2001–2007 Succeeded by Cemil Çiçek

Political offices

Preceded by Bülent Ecevit Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Turkey 2002–2003 Succeeded by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Preceded by Mehmet Ali Şahin First Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey 2003–2007 Succeeded by Cemil Çiçek

Preceded by Yaşar Yakış Minister of Foreign Affairs 2003–2007 Succeeded by Ali Babacan

Preceded by Ahmet Necdet Sezer President of Turkey 2007–2014 Succeeded by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

v t e

Presidents of Turkey
Turkey
(List)

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk İsmet İnönü Celâl Bayar Cemal Gürsel Cevdet Sunay Fahri Korutürk Kenan Evren Turgut Özal Süleyman Demirel Ahmet Necdet Sezer Abdullah Gül Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

v t e

Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Turkey

Government of the Grand National Assembly (1920–1923)

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Fevzi Çakmak Rauf Orbay Fethi Okyar

Republic of Turkey (since 1923)

İsmet İnönü Fethi Okyar İsmet İnönü Celâl Bayar Refik Saydam Ahmet Fikri Tüzer Şükrü Saracoğlu Recep Peker Hasan Saka Şemsettin Günaltay Adnan Menderes Cemal Gürsel Fahri Özdilek İsmet İnönü Suat Hayri Ürgüplü Süleyman Demirel Nihat Erim Ferit Melen Naim Talu Bülent Ecevit Sadi Irmak Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ecevit Süleyman Demirel Bülent Ulusu Turgut Özal Ali Bozer Yıldırım Akbulut Mesut Yılmaz Süleyman Demirel Erdal İnönü Tansu Çiller Mesut Yılmaz Necmettin Erbakan Mesut Yılmaz Bülent Ecevit Abdullah Gül Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Ahmet Davutoğlu Binali Yıldırım

Italics denote acting prime ministers.

v t e

Foreign Ministers of Turkey

Bekir Sami Kunduh
Bekir Sami Kunduh
(1920–21) Ahmet Muhtar Mollaoğlu
Ahmet Muhtar Mollaoğlu
(1921) Yusuf Kemal Tengirşenk (1921–22) İsmet İnönü
İsmet İnönü
(1922–24) Şükrü Kaya(1924–25) Tevfik Rüştü Aras
Tevfik Rüştü Aras
(1925–38) Şükrü Saracoğlu
Şükrü Saracoğlu
(1938–42) Hüseyin Numan Menemencioğlu
Hüseyin Numan Menemencioğlu
(1942–44) Hasan Saka (1944–47) Necmettin Sadak (1947–50) Mehmet Fuat Köprülü
Mehmet Fuat Köprülü
(1950–56) Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes
(1956–57) Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
(1957–60) Selim Sarper
Selim Sarper
(1960–62) Feridun Cemal Erkin
Feridun Cemal Erkin
(1962–65) Hasan Esat Işık
Hasan Esat Işık
(1965) İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
(1965–71) Osman Olcay (1971) Ümit Haluk Bayülken
Ümit Haluk Bayülken
(1971–74) Turan Güneş
Turan Güneş
(1974) Melih Esenbel (1974–75) İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
(1975–77) Gündüz Ökçün (1977) İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil
(1977–78) Ahmet Gündüz Ökçün (1978–79) Hayrettin Erkmen (1979–80) İlter Türkmen
İlter Türkmen
(1980–83) Vahit Melih Halefoğlu (1983–87) Mesut Yılmaz (1987–90) Ali Bozer (1990) Ahmet Kurtcebe Alptemoçin (1990–91) Safa Giray (1991) Hikmet Çetin
Hikmet Çetin
(1991–94) Mümtaz Soysal (1994) Murat Karayalçın
Murat Karayalçın
(1994–95) Erdal İnönü (1995) Coşkun Kırca
Coşkun Kırca
(1995) Deniz Baykal
Deniz Baykal
(1995–96) Emre Gönensay (1996) Tansu Çiller
Tansu Çiller
(1996–97) İsmail Cem (1997–2002) Şükrü Sina Gürel
Şükrü Sina Gürel
(2002) Yaşar Yakış
Yaşar Yakış
(2002–03) Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
(2003–07) Ali Babacan
Ali Babacan
(2007–09) Ahmet Davutoğlu
Ahmet Davutoğlu
(2009–14) Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
(2014–15) Feridun Sinirlioğlu
Feridun Sinirlioğlu
(2015–15) Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu
(2015–

v t e

Cabinet of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Abdullah Gül
Abdullah Gül
(2002–2003)

Cabinet

Deputy Prime Ministers

Mehmet Ali Şahin Abdüllatif Şener Ertuğrul Yalçınbayır

Minister of State

Mehmet Aydın Beşir Atalay Ali Babacan Kürşad Tüzmen

Minister of Justice

Cemil Çiçek

Minister of National Defense

Mehmet Vecdi Gönül

Minister of the Interior

Abdülkadir Aksu

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Yaşar Yakış

Minister of Finance

Kemal Unakıtan

Minister of National Education

Erkan Mumcu

Minister of Public Works and Settlement

Zeki Ergezen

Minister of Health

Recep Akdağ

Minister of Transport and Communication

Binali Yıldırım

Minister of Agriculture

Sami Güçlü

Minister of Labour and Social Security

Murat Başesgioğlu

Minister of Industry and Commerce

Ali Coşkun

Minister of Energy and Natural Resources

Mehmet Hilmi Güler

Minister of Culture

Hüseyin Çelik

Minister of Tourism

Güldal Akşit

Minister of Environment

İmdat Sütlüoğlu

Minister of Forestry

Osman Pepe

v t e

Erdoğan Cabinet I (2003–2007)

Abdullah GülD Mehmet Ali ŞahinD Abdüllatif ŞenerD Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Ali BabacanS Güldal AkşitS Nimet ÇubukçuSE Mehmet AydınS Kürşad TüzmenS Beşir AtalayS Cemil Çiçek Fahri KasırgaE Mehmet Vecdi Gönül Abdülkadir Aksu Osman GüneşE Kemal Unakıtan Hüseyin Çelik Zeki Ergezen Faruk Nafız ÖzakC Recep Akdağ Binali Yıldırım İsmet YılmazE Sami Güçlü Mehmet Mehdi EkerC Murat Başesgioğlu Ali Coşkun Mehmet Hilmi Güler Erkan Mumcu Atilla KoçC Osman Pepe

D: Deputy Prime Minister; Bold: Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Turkey; S: State Minister; C: served from 2005; E: served from 2007

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 40465230 LCCN: n87133103 GND: 12979467

.