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Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (Kurdish: عەبدولڕەحمان قاسملوو‎, translit. Ebdulrehman Qasimlo, Persian: عبدالرحمان قاسملو‎; 22 December 1930 – 13 July 1989) was a Kurdish political leader. Ghassemlou was the leader of the Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Democratic Party of Iran
Iran
(KDPI) from 1973 until his assassination in 1989 by individuals suspected of being agents of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Books 4 Assassination
Assassination
and funerals

4.1 Investigation

5 References

Early life and education[edit] Born in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Iran
to a wealthy feudal family, his father was Mohammad Vesugh Ghassemlou, a landowning Kurdish nationalist Agha and Khan from the Shekak tribe who was born in 1875. His mother was Nana Jan Timsar, also known as Fatima, was an Assyrian Christian. His father was an adviser to the Shah of Iran, who gave him the title "Wussuq-e Divan." He completed his early education in Urmia and then on Tehran. He witnessed the era of the Republic of Mahabad and became a co-founder member of the youth wing of KDP-I
KDP-I
at the age of 15. Ghassemlou moved to France
France
to continue his studies at the Sorbonne. He meet his wife Helen Krulich in Czechoslovakia. They had two daughters together, Mina (1953) and Hewa (1955). Abd-al-Raḥmān Qāsemlu was fluent in 8 languages Kurdish, Persian, Arabic, Azerbaijani, French, English, Czech, and Russian. He was also familiar with German.[2][3][4] Career[edit] Ghassemlou went back to Kurdistan
Kurdistan
in 1952 after completing his studies. He then spent several years as an active militant in the Kurdish military fields[citation needed]. In 1973, during the Third Congress of the PDKI, he was elected to the position of secretary general of the party, a position to which he was reelected several times until his assassination. In 1979, his party supported the revolution which ended in the fall of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Khomeini
Khomeini
considered their last hour participation in the revolution as opportunistic. Militants belonging to the party had overtaken the military compounds in the Kurdish areas. Khomeini
Khomeini
demanded all armed groups to become part of one revolutionary organization and demanded Kurdish militants to return their weapons. Ghasemlou demanded autonomy for Kurds and refused to lay down weapons. The party boycotted the referendum for the new constitution which was adopted by overwhelming majority. Following two bloody confrontation between Kurds and forces loyal to Khomeini
Khomeini
the Kurdish rebellion turned into a war. Shortly, after the beginning of the armed Kurdish rebellion, Ayatollah Khomeini
Khomeini
declared a "holy war" on the PDKI
PDKI
and Kurdish rebels. This was the start of confrontation of the party and the new regime, which ended in a military defeat of the Kurdish rebels and political suppression of the Kurdish nationalist parties by the central government. Thousands[citation needed] of executions happened in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
during the rebellion. The armed conflict continued up to 1984 in the middle of Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988) where both countries supported the separatists in each other's territory. After the defeat of the armed rebellion Ghassemlou settled in Paris and joined the National Council of Resistance of Iran
Iran
that was founded by his PDKI
PDKI
and other opposition forces: the Islamist-Marxist People's Mujahedin, the liberal-leftist National Democratic Front, the United Left of small socialist groupings, and the independent Islamist-leftist Abolhassan Bani Sadr, in October 1981.[5] Books[edit] " Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and Kurd" is a book on the history of Kurds and their land written by Ghassemlou and published in 1964 in Slovaki, 1965 in English, 1967 in Arabic, 1969 in Polish, and 1973 in Kurdish.[6]

Assassination
Assassination
and funerals[edit] Further information: List of Iranian assassinations In 1988, after the war had ended, the Iranian government decided to meet with him. Several meetings followed in Vienna, on 28 December, 30 December and 20 January 1989. Another meeting was set up for 13 July, again in Vienna. The Tehran
Tehran
delegation was as before, namely Mohammed Jafar Sahraroudi and Hadji Moustafawi, except that this time there was also a third member: Amir Mansur Bozorgian who was a bodyguard. The Kurds also had a three-man delegation: Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, his aide Abdullah Ghaderi Azar (a member of the PDKI
PDKI
Central Committee) and Fadhil Rassoul, an Iraqi university professor who had acted as a mediator. The next day, 13 July 1989, in the very room where the negotiation took place, Ghassemlou was killed by three bullets fired at very close range.[7] His assistant Ghaderi Azar was hit by eleven bullets and Rassoul by five. Hadji Moustafawi succeeded in escaping. Mohammad Jafar Sahraroudi received minor injuries and was taken to hospital, questioned and allowed to go. Amir Mansur Bozorgian was released after 24 hours in police custody and took refuge in the Iranian Embassy.[8] His deputy, Sadegh Sharafkandi, succeeded Ghassemlou as secretary general until his assassination on 17 September 1992 in Mykonos restaurant in Berlin, Germany. Abdullah Ghaderi Azar and Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou were buried on July 20 in Paris
Paris
at Père Lachaise Cemetery. Investigation[edit] According to PDKI

In late November 1989 the Austrian courts issued a warrant for the arrest of the three Iranian representatives and the Austrian Government expressly accused the Iranian Government as having instigated the attack on Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou and the two other Kurds.[9]

The three Iranian representatives in the negotiations with the Kurdish leaders returned to Iran
Iran
freely. One of them had never been in custody, one was escorted by Austrian police to the Vienna
Vienna
airport nine days after the assassination, and the third, after one night of arrest, spent a few months in the Iranian embassy in Vienna
Vienna
before he disappeared from Austria. One of the suspects was Mohamed Magaby, whom the Kurdish protesters in Vienna
Vienna
requested to be arrested and be put under travel ban. Warrants for their arrest were not issued until November 1989. The warrants have never been executed. Unlike the German Mykonos trial for the assassination of Ghassemlou's successor Sadegh Sharafkandi
Sadegh Sharafkandi
in Berlin, the assassination in Vienna
Vienna
was never clarified by any court. The Mykonos verdict of 1 April 1997 put the responsibility on the Iranian government of the time for the murders in Berlin
Berlin
and in Vienna.[10] References[edit]

^ "The 1979 Assembly of Experts for the Drafting of the Constitution Election", The Iran
Iran
Social Science Data Portal, Princeton University, retrieved 10 August 2015  ^ "Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou". Sara Distribution. Retrieved 1 February 2013.  ^ Carol Prunhuber (26 May 2010). "I wrote the book to denounce the assassination by the Iranian regime and the complicity of the Austrian authorities". London, House of Lords. London, House of Lords. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013.  ^ Prunhuber, Carol (2010). The Passion and Death of Rahman the Kurd: Dreaming Kurdistan. iUniverse. ISBN 9781440178160. Retrieved 1 February 2013.  ^ Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle; Ali Mohammadi (January 1987). "Post-Revolutionary Iranian Exiles: A Study in Impotence". Third World Quarterly. 9 (1): 108–129. doi:10.1080/01436598708419964. JSTOR 3991849.  ^ Ghassemlou, D. Abdul R. (2006). Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and Kurd (Kurdish ed.). Erbil: Rojhalat. p. 349.  ^ Dan Geist (6 August 2011). "'A Darker Horizon': The Assassination
Assassination
of Shapour Bakhtiar". PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2016.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110819082151/http://kdpi-uk.org/frames/The%20life%20and%20death%20of%20Abdul%20Rahman%20Ghassemlou%20%281930-1989%29.html. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2011.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110311090654/http://kdpmedia.info/more.php?id=19. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Roya Hakakian (4 October 2007). "The End of the Dispensable Iranian". Spiegel Online International. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 

Party political offices

Preceded by Ahmad Tofiq Secretary-General of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan 1973–1989 Succeeded by Sadegh Sharafkandi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 91617878 LCCN: n81037041 ISNI: 0000 0001 0924 2629 GND: 1069204358 SUDOC: 02688979X BNF: cb1309

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