Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti
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Sheikh Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti, (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: عبدالرحمن بن اسماعيل الجبرتي) also known as Daarood, (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
:دارود) Dawud or Da'ud, is the common ancestor of the
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...

Somali
Darod The Darod ( so, Daarood, ar, دارود) is a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Ho ...
clan. According to early Islamic books and local tradition, Abdirahman descended from
Aqeel ibn Abi Talib Aqeel ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَقِيل ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ) was a sahaba, companion and first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was known by the ''Kunya (Arabic), kunya'' Abu Yazid. He is also said to be the common a ...
, a member of the
Banu Hashim ) , type = Banu Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) are a mercantile Arab tribe The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic p ...
and the cousin of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
.


Biography

Authors such as
Ibn Hawqal File:Ibn Hawqal’s map 1 wiki.jpg, 10th century map of the Caspian sea by Ibn Hawqal Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (), also known as Abū al-Qāsim b. ʻAlī Ibn Ḥawqal al-Naṣībī, born in Nisibis, Al-Jazira (caliphal province) ...
,
Al-Muqaddasi , birth_date = c. 945/946 CE , birth_place = Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλ ...
and Ibn Said have confirmed the early presence of Arabian tribes in municipalities such as
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
,
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
, Jabarta (an old metropolis now in ruins), and
Massawa Massawa ( ; ti, ምጽዋዕ, məṣṣəwaʿ; gez, ምጽዋ; ar, مصوع; it, Massaua; pt, Maçuá) is a port city in the Northern Red Sea Region, Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea, located on the Red Sea at the northern end of the Gulf of ...
in the northern
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fr ...

Horn of Africa
.I.M. Lewis, ''Peoples of the Horn of Africa-Somali, Afar and Saho'', (The Red Sea Press: 1998), pp.140-142.
Al-Masudi Al-Mas'udi ( ar, أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْمَسْعُودِيّ, '; –956) was an Historiography of early Islam, Arab historian, geographer and Explorer, traveler. He is ...
wrote about the specific Arabian families and tribes that lived in Jabarta and Zeila in his 9th century book ''Aqeeliyoon''. This book sheds light on one individual, a Sufi Sheikh of the
Qadiriyyah The Qadiriyya ( ar, القادِرية, also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek ...
order called Isma'il ibn Ibrahim al-Jabarti, who fathered several children, one of which was named Abdirahman.Islam in Somali History Fact and Fiction revisited , the Arab Factor
According to such early Islamic books and Somali tradition, Muhammad ibn Aqil's descendant Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Darood) fled his homeland in the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
after an argument with his uncle.
Rima Berns-McGown Rima Berns-McGown is a Canadians, Canadian politician, who was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in the 2018 Ontario general election, 2018 provincial election. She represents the riding of Beaches—East York (provincial electoral di ...
, ''Muslims in the diaspora'', (University of Toronto Press: 1999), pp.27-28
During the 10th or 11th century CE, he is believed to have then settled in
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya 𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒖), also known as Far Soomaali (𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒝𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒘, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah ...

Somalia
just across the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northe ...

Red Sea
. He subsequently married
Dobira Dobira ( ar, دُومبِرَ بِنت دَغَالَ), also known as Dobira or Dombiro was a Somali historical figure, known for being the wife of the progenitor of the Darod The Darod ( so, Daarood, ar, دارود) is a Somali clan. The foref ...
, the daughter of the
Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the Roman emperors from 27 BC to 1453 AD * Detroit International Riverfront, an area of Detroit, Michigan in the United States * Develop ...
clan chief, which is said to have given rise to the Darood clan family. Thus, it established matrilateral ties with the
Samaale Samaale, also spelled Samali or Samale ( so, Samaale) is traditionally considered to be the oldest common forefather of several major Somali clan The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushi ...
main stem. According to the British anthropologist and Somali Studies veteran I.M. Lewis, while the traditions of descent from noble Arab families related to
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
are most probably expressions of the importance of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
in Somali society, "there is a strong historically valid component in these legends which, in the case of the Darood, is confirmed in the current practice of a Dir representative officiating at the ceremony of installation of the chief of the Darod family."I.M. Lewis, ''Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho, Issue 1'', (International African Institute: 1955), p.18-19 Another tradition holds that Darod is connected with the extinct
Harla The Harla, also known as Harala, Karala, or Arla, were an ethnic group that inhabited , , and . They spoke the now-extinct Harla language, which belonged to either the or branches of the . There are existing books like "The Book of Obligations ...
people. According to Arabic documents preserved by the Darod clans of Afar region, the Darut, a forefather of Harla founded the current Somali Darod clan. The text further states that he arrived from Mecca and settled in Zeila, his father was Ismāʻīl b. Ibrāhīm al-Ǧabartī, from Yemen. A similar clan story exists for the
Isaaq The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) ( so, Reer Sheekh Isxaaq, ar, بني إسحاق, Banī Isḥāq) is a Somali clan. It is one of the major Somali clans in the Horn of Africa, with a large and densely populated traditional territory. Perry ...
, who are descended from one Ishaq ibn Ahmad al-'Alawi, another
Banu Hashim ) , type = Banu Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) are a mercantile Arab tribe The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic p ...
who came to Somaliland around the same time.I.M. Lewis, ''A Modern History of the Somali'', fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 22 As with Sheikh Isaaq, there are also numerous existing hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Darood's travels, works and overall life in Somaliland, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival. Besides historical sources such as Al-Masudi's ''Aqeeliyoon'', a modern ''manaaqib'' (a collection of glorious deeds) printed in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , : ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the and of . The , with a population of 21.3 million, is the 2nd and in the , and the in the world. Cairo is associated with , as the famous and the ancient city of are ...

Cairo
in 1945 by Sheikh Ahmad bin Hussen bin Mahammad titled ''Manaaqib as-Sheikh Ismaa'iil bin Ibraahiim al-Jabarti'' also discusses Sheikh Darod and his proposed father Isma'il al-Jabarti, the latter of whom is reportedly buried in Bab Siham situated in the
Zabid District Zabid District ( ar, مُدِيْرِيَّة زَبِيد) is a Districts of Yemen, district of the Al Hudaydah Governorate in western Yemen. Overview The Yemeni Sufism, Sufi Sheikh Isma'il al-Jabarti of the Qadiriyyah order is buried in the Zabi ...
of western
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
.I. M. Lewis, ''A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa'', (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.131. Sheikh Darod's own tomb is in
HaylaanHaylaan is one of nine administrative provinces of Puntland Puntland ( so, Buntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Puntland ee Soomaaliya, ar, ولاية ...
, situated in the Hadaaftimo Mountains in the Sanaag region of Somaliland, and is the scene of frequent pilgrimages. Sheikh Isaaq is buried nearby in Maydh, as is Sheikh Harti, a descendant of Sheikh Darod and the progenitor of the Harti (Darod), Harti Darod sub-clan, whose tomb is located in the ancient town of Qa’ableh. Sheikh Darod's ''mawlid'' (birthday) is also celebrated every Friday with a public reading of his ''manaqib, manaaqib''.


Sons of Sheikh Darod Ismail

*Ahmed bin Abdirahman: Sade Darood *Muhammad bin Abdirahman: Kablalax Darood *Hussien bin Abdirahman: Tanade Darod *Yousuf bin Abdirahman: Awrtable Darood *Eissa bin Abdirahman: Cisse Darood


Lineage

According to many medieval and modern Islamic historians, Darood is descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of Muhammad and brother of Ali ibn Abi Talib. An ancient Islamic history book, called ''Aqeeliyoon'' by Al-Masudi, talks in detail about the descendants of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, wherein Darood is also mentioned. The book gives Sheikh Darood's lineage as Abdurahmaan Bin Ismaa'iil Bin Ibraahim Bin Abdurahmaan Bin Muhammed Bin AbduSamad Bin Hanbal Bin Mahdi Bin Ahmad Bin Abdallah Bin Muhammed Bin Aqeel Bin Abu-Talib Bin Abdul-Mutalib Bin Hashim. According to ''Allaa'i Alsuniyah Fi Al-Aqab Al-Aqeeliyah'' (2006) by Ahmad bin Ali Al-Rajihi Al-Aqeeli, the lineage of Sheikh Darood/Dawoud is: "Dawoud ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn Abdulsamad ibn Ahmed ibn Abdallah ibn Ahmad Ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn Abdallah ibn Isma'il ibn Ali ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Hamid ibn Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Abdallah ibn Muslim ibn Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Aqeel ibn Abi-Talib Al-Hashimi Al-Qurashi". Al-Aqeeli adds that Sheikh Isma'il's sons include Abi-Bakar, Dawoud, Ahmad and Abdusamad, whose other offspring inhabit the Hadhramaut and Al Mahrah Governorate, Mahra regions in Southern Arabia.


References


References


Islam in Somali History Fact and Fiction revisited, the Arab Factor
{{DEFAULTSORT:Abdirahman Bin Ismail Al-Jabarti Year of birth missing Year of death missing 10th-century Somali people 11th-century Somali people Darod Ethnic Somali people Somali people of Arab descent