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FIELD MARSHAL ABDEL FATTAH SAEED HUSSEIN KHALIL EL-SISI (Arabic : عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي‎‎ Abdu'l-Fattāḥ Sa'īd Ḥusayn Khalīl as-Sīsī, IPA: ; born 19 November 1954) is the sixth and incumbent President of Egypt
President of Egypt
, in office since 2014.

Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Sisi was born in Cairo
Cairo
and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
before enrolling in the Egyptian Army's Command and Staff College. In 1992, Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College at Watchfield , Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
, in the United Kingdom , and then in 2006 trained at the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and then as director of military intelligence . After the Egyptian revolution of 2011
Egyptian revolution of 2011
and election of Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
to the Egyptian presidency, Sisi was appointed Minister of Defence by Morsi
Morsi
on 12 August 2012, replacing the Mubarak-era Hussein Tantawi .

As Minister of Defence, and ultimately Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
, Sisi was involved in the military coup that removed Morsi
Morsi
from office on July 3, 2013, in response to June 2013 Egyptian protests , called a revolution by its proponents. He dissolved the Egyptian Constitution of 2012
Egyptian Constitution of 2012
and proposed, along with leading opposition and religious figures, a new political road map, which included the voting for a new constitution, and new parliamentary and presidential elections. Morsi
Morsi
was replaced by an interim president, Adly Mansour , who appointed a new cabinet .

The interim government cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and its Islamist supporters in the months that followed, and later on certain liberal opponents of the post- Morsi
Morsi
administration. On 14 August 2013, police carried out the August 2013 Rabaa massacre
August 2013 Rabaa massacre
, killing hundreds of civilians and wounding thousands, leading to international criticism. On 26 March 2014, in response to calls from supporters to run for presidency, Sisi retired from his military career, announcing that he would run as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election . The election, held between 26 and 28 May, featured one sole opponent, Hamdeen Sabahi
Hamdeen Sabahi
, saw 47% participation by eligible voters, and resulted in Sisi winning in a landslide victory with more than 97% of the vote. Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt
President of Egypt
on 8 June 2014. Sisi's government has given the Egyptian military
Egyptian military
unchecked power, and many have labeled him a dictator or strongman , comparing him to Egypt's former dictators.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life and military education

* 2 Military career, 1977–2014

* 2.1 Main command positions * 2.2 Minister of Defense

* 2.3 Civil uprising, coup d\'état and transition

* 2.3.1 Civil liberties * 2.3.2 Cult of personality

* 3 Presidency (2014–present)

* 3.1 Domestic policy

* 3.1.1 Economic reforms * 3.1.2 Energy policy * 3.1.3 National projects * 3.1.4 Opinion polls

* 3.2 Foreign policy

* 3.2.1 Africa * 3.2.2 Israel
Israel
and Palestine * 3.2.3 Turkey
Turkey
* 3.2.4 Arab world * 3.2.5 Russia * 3.2.6 United States

* 4 Personal life

* 5 Recognition

* 5.1 Military * 5.2 Civil

* 6 Publications * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

EARLY LIFE AND MILITARY EDUCATION

Sisi was born in Old Cairo
Cairo
on 19 November 1954, to parents Said Hussein Khalili al-Sisi and Soad Mohamed. He grew up in Gamaleya, near the al-Azhar Mosque , in a quarter where Muslims
Muslims
, Jews
Jews
and Christians
Christians
resided and in which he later recalled how, during his childhood, he heard church bells and watched Jews
Jews
flock to the synagogue unhindered. Sisi would later enroll in the Egyptian Military Academy , and upon graduating he held various command positions in the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
and served as Egypt's military attaché in Riyadh
Riyadh
. In 1987 he attended the Egyptian Command and Staff College. In 1992 he continued his military career by enrolling in the British Command and Staff College , and in 2006 enrolled in the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
(SCAF) during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
, serving as the director of military intelligence and reconnaissance department. He was later chosen to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
and serve as the commander-in-chief and Minister of Defence and Military Production on 12 August 2012.

Sisi's family originated from Monufia Governorate. He is the second of eight siblings (his father later had six additional children with a second wife). His father, a conservative but not radical Muslim, had a wooden antiques shop for tourists in the historic bazaar of Khan el-Khalili .

He and his siblings studied at the nearby library at al-Azhar University . Unlike his brothers – one of whom is a senior judge, another a civil servant – el-Sisi went to a local army-run secondary school, where concurrently his relationship with his maternal cousin Entissar Amer started to develop. They were married upon Sisi's graduation from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977. He attended the following courses:

* General Command and Staff Course, Egyptian Command and Staff College, 1987; * General Command and Staff Course, Joint Command and Staff College , United Kingdom, 1992; * War Course, Fellowship of the Higher War College, Nasser Military Academy , Egypt, 2003; * War Course, United States Army War College , United States, 2006; * Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
military attaché in Riyadh
Riyadh
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
;

* Basic Infantry Course, US

MILITARY CAREER, 1977–2014

El-Sisi received his commission as a military officer in 1977 serving in the mechanised infantry , specialising in anti-tank warfare and mortar warfare. He became Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria in 2008 and then Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance. El-Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt
Egypt
. While a member of the Supreme Council, he made controversial statements regarding allegations that Egyptian soldiers had subjected detained female demonstrators to forced virginity tests . He is reported to have told Egypt's state-owned newspaper that "the virginity-test procedure was done to protect the girls from rape as well as to protect the soldiers and officers from rape accusations." He was the first member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
to admit that the invasive tests had been carried out. US- Egypt
Egypt
Bright Star exercise in 2009. Sisi was sitting on the left back seat.

MAIN COMMAND POSITIONS

* Commander, 509th Mechanized Infantry Battalion * Chief of Staff, 134th Mechanized Infantry Brigade * Commander, 16th Mechanized Infantry Brigade * Chief of Staff, 2nd Mechanized Infantry Division * Chief of Staff, Northern Military Zone * Deputy Director, Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance Department * Director, Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance Department

Also reported is commander of the 23rd Mechanized Division, Third Field Army.

MINISTER OF DEFENSE

Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Sisi as Minister of Defence, 2014

On 12 August 2012, Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
made a decision to replace the Mubarak-era Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
, the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
, with then little-known el-Sisi. He also promoted him to the rank of colonel general. Sisi was then described by the official website of FJP as a "Defense minister with revolutionary taste". El-Sisi also took the post of Minister of Defense and Military Production in the Qandil Cabinet . US Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
meets with Egyptian Defense Minister el-Sisi in Cairo
Cairo
, 3 March 2013

After el-Sisi was appointed as minister of defence on 12 August 2012, there were concerns in Egypt
Egypt
regarding rumours that General el-Sisi was the hand of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the army, though el-Sisi has always declared that the Egyptian army
Egyptian army
stands on the side of the Egyptian people. On 28 April 2013, during celebrations for Sinai Liberation Day, el-Sisi said that "the hand that harms any Egyptian must be cut". This statement was taken by Morsi
Morsi
opponents as a clarification that the Army is in support of them. However, the statement was interpreted by Morsi
Morsi
supporters as a warning to Morsi opponents that el-Sisi would not allow an overthrow of the government. He remained in office under the new government formed after the deposition of Morsi, and led by Hazem al-Beblawi . He was also appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Egypt. On 27 January 2014, he was promoted to the rank of field marshal .

CIVIL UPRISING, COUP D\'éTAT AND TRANSITION

Main articles: June 2013 Egyptian protests
June 2013 Egyptian protests
and 2013 Egyptian coup d\'état

Mass demonstrations occurred on June 30 as tens of millions of Egyptians took to the streets to denounce Mohamed Morsi. Clashes took place around Egypt. Soon afterwards, the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
issued a 48-hour ultimatum which aired on television that gave the country's political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the anti-Morsi demonstrators. The Egyptian military
Egyptian military
also threatened to intervene if the dispute was not resolved by then.

On 3 July 2013, the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
declared that as the political parties had failed to meet the deadline and Morsi
Morsi
had failed to build a national consensus for his leadership, the army had to overthrow Morsi
Morsi
in a coup d'état. The army then installed Adly Mansour as the interim head of state in his place until a new president could be elected, and ordered the arrest of many members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
on charges of "inciting violence and disturbing general security and peace." El-Sisi announced on television that the president had "failed to meet the demands of the Egyptian people" and declared that the constitution would be temporarily suspended, which was met by acceptance from anti- Morsi
Morsi
demonstrations and condemnation from pro- Morsi
Morsi
supporters in Rabaa al-Adawiya.

On 24 July 2013, during a speech at a military parade, el-Sisi called for mass demonstrations to grant the Egyptian military
Egyptian military
and police a "mandate" to crack down on terrorism. While supporters interpreted this to mean that el-Sisi felt the need of the people to prove to the world that it was not a coup but the popular will, the statement was seen by opponents as contradicting the military's pledges to hand over power to civilians after removing Morsi
Morsi
and as indicating an imminent crackdown against Islamists.

The reactions to el-Sisi's announcement ranged from open support from the Egyptian presidency and the Tamarod movement to rejection, not only by the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
, but also by the Salafi Nour Party
Nour Party
, the Islamist Strong Egypt
Egypt
Party , the liberal April 6 Youth Movement
April 6 Youth Movement
and some Egyptian human rights groups.

During the August 2013 Cairo
Cairo
sit-ins dispersal , the Egyptian military under el-Sisi's command was involved in assisting the national police in dispersing two sit-ins held by Muslim Brotherhood/ Morsi
Morsi
supporters from sit-ins in Rabaa el-Adaweya and Nahda squares. This action resulted in rapidly escalating violence that eventually led to deaths of 638 people , of whom 595 were peaceful protestors with at least 3,994 injured (according to the Ministry of Health) in addition to several violent incidents in various cities including Minya and Kerdasa . Writing for the now-defunct British newspaper The Independent
The Independent
in August 2013, Robert Fisk described then-General el-Sisi as being at a loss, but that a massacre - as Fisk called the sit-in dispersal - would go down in history as an infamy. Writing for the American magazine Time , Lee Smith concluded that "Egypt's new leader is unfit to rule", referring not to the actual head of government at the time, interim president Adly Mansour , but to Sisi. In a file published by the State Information Services, the government explained the raids by stating that "police went on to use force dispersing the sit-in on 14 August 2013 with the least possible damage, causing hundreds of civilians and police to fall as victims, while Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
supporters imposed a blockade for 46 days against the people in al-Nahda and Rabaa al-Adawiya squares under the name of sit-in where tens of protesters took to the street daily hindered the lives of the Egyptians, causing unrest and the death or injury of many victims as well as damage to public and private properties".

On 3 August 2013, el-Sisi gave his first interview since the overthrow of President Mohamed Morsi. Speaking to The Washington Post , he criticised the US response and accused the Obama administration of disregarding the Egyptian popular will and of providing insufficient support amid threats of a civil war, saying, "You left the Egyptians. You turned your back on the Egyptians, and they won't forget that."

On the 6 October war anniversary in 2013, el-Sisi announced that the army was committed to the popular mandate of 26 July 2013: "We are committed, in front of God, to the Egyptian and Arab people that we will protect Egypt, the Egyptians and their free will."

During the anniversary celebration that year, General el-Sisi invited the Emirati , Iraqi , Bahraini , Moroccan and Jordanian defence ministers to celebrate with Egypt
Egypt
. During his speech he said in a warning way that the Egyptian people "will never forget who stood with them or against them". El-Sisi described 6 October as "a day to celebrate for all Arabs", hoping for the "unification of Arabs". He also thanked "Egypt's Arab brothers, who stood by its side." El-Sisi commented on the relationship between the Egyptian army
Egyptian army
and Egyptian people, saying that it is hard to break. El-Sisi said: "We would die before you would feel pain". He also compared the Egyptian army
Egyptian army
to the Pyramid, saying that "it cannot be broken".

Civil Liberties

Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated pro- Morsi
Morsi
protesters holding the Rabia sign
Rabia sign
in a protest in October 2013; the sign and associated gesture originated shortly after the sit-in dispersal

After Sisi had ousted president Morsi
Morsi
and disbanded the Shura Council, in September 2013 interim president Adly Mansour temporarily decreed that ministers could award contracts without tender process. In the next month, the government awarded building contracts worth approximately one billion dollars to the Egyptian Army. In April 2014, the interim government's Investment Law banned appeals against government contracts.

Also in September 2013, the interim government removed detention limits without trial for certain crimes, allowing certain unconvicted political dissidents to remain in detention indefinitely. In November 2013, el-Sisi's government banned protests in an attempt to combat the growing pro-Brotherhood unrest; the police arrested thousands of Egyptians using the new law.

On 24 March 2014, an Egyptian court sentenced 529 members of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
to death , following an attack on a police station in 2013, an act described by Amnesty International
Amnesty International
as "the largest single batch of simultaneous death sentences we've seen in recent years anywhere in the world". The BBC
BBC
claims that byMay 2016, approximately 40,000 people, mostly Brotherhood members or loyalists, have been imprisoned since Morsi's overthrow.

Cult Of Personality

The anti- Morsi
Morsi
demonstrators on the streets welcomed el-Sisi's announcement of the overthrow of Morsi
Morsi
with celebrations and carried posters of el-Sisi, chanting "The Army and the People are one hand" and supporting General el-Sisi. On social networks, thousands of Egyptians changed their profile pictures to pictures of el-Sisi, while others started campaigns requesting that El-Sisi be promoted to the rank of field marshal , while others hoped he would be nominated in the next presidential elections.

Cupcakes, chocolate and necklaces bearing the "CC" initials were created, restaurants in Egypt
Egypt
named sandwiches after him, blogs shared his pictures, and columns, op-eds, television shows and interviews discussed the "new idol of the Nile valley" in the Egyptian mainstream media. On 6 December 2013, el-Sisi was named "Time Person of the Year " in Time magazine's annual reader poll. The accompanying article noted "Sisi's success reflected the genuine popularity of a man who led what was essentially a military coup in July against the democratically elected government of then President Mohammed Morsi."

The "Kamel Gemilak" (Finish Your Favor) and "El-Sisi for President" campaigns were started to gather signatures to press el-Sisi, who had said he had no desire to govern, to run for presidency. Many politicians and parties including Egyptians and non-Egyptians had announced their support for el-Sisi in the event of his running for president, including the National Salvation Front , Tamarod , Amr Moussa , a previous candidate for the presidency, Abdel-Hakim Abdel-Nasser son of late President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
, unsuccessful presidential candidate Ahmed Shafik , Prime Minister Hazem Al Beblawi , Naguib Sawiris
Naguib Sawiris
, the Free Egyptians Party , the Revolutionary Forces Bloc, and the Russian president Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
. However, Hamdeen Sabahi
Hamdeen Sabahi
ran against him in the presidential race. Subsequently, Sabahi issued criticisms of Sisi and his candidacy by expressing doubt about Sisi's commitment to democracy, arguing that the general bears a measure of direct and indirect responsibility for the human rights violations carried out during the period of the interim government. He also denounced what he deemed to be the transitional government's hostility toward the goals of the revolution.

Kamel Gemilak states to have collected 26 million signatures asking Sisi to run for president. On 21 January 2014, Kamel Gemilak organised a mass conference call in Cairo
Cairo
International Stadium to call on el-Sisi to run for president. On 6 February 2014, the Kuwaiti newspaper al-Seyassah claimed that el-Sisi would run for president, saying that he had to meet the wishes of the Egyptian people for him to run. El-Sisi confirmed on 26 March 2014 that he would run for president in the presidential election . Shortly after his announcement, popular hashtags were started for and against el-Sisi's presidential bid. The presidential election, which took place between 26 and 28 May 2014, saw el-Sisi win 96 percent of votes counted; it was held without the participation of the controversial Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
's Freedom police and soldiers shut down the square outlets with barbed wires and barricades, as well as electronic portals for detecting any explosives that could spoil the festivities. Sisi's oath of office was administered in the morning in Egypt\'s Supreme constitutional court in front of the deputy head of the constitutional court, Maher Sami, who described el-Sisi as a "rebel soldier" and a "revolutionary hero"; ex-president Adly Mansour ; other constitutional court members; and a group of Egypt's top politicians. Sisi later moved to the Heliopolis Palace , where a 21-gun salute welcomed the new president, before the ex-president received Sisi near the palace's stairway. Sisi then presided over a reception for the foreign presidents, emirs, kings, and official delegations who had been invited. Turkey
Turkey
, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Qatar
Qatar
were not invited because of their governments' critical stances regarding then-recent events in Egypt. Israel
Israel
was also not invited. Sisi later gave a speech in front of the attendees and, for the first time in Egyptian history, signed the handover of power document with ex-president Adly Mansour . After the ceremony at Heliopolis Palace , Sisi moved to Koubbeh Palace , where the final ceremony was held and where Sisi gave the final speech of the day in front of 1,200 attendees representing different spectra of the Egyptian people and the provinces of Egypt. In the speech, he presented the problems facing Egypt
Egypt
and his plan, saying "In its next phase, Egypt
Egypt
will witness a total rise on both internal and external fronts, to compensate what we have missed and correct the mistakes of the past". Sisi also issued the first Presidential decree, giving ex-president Adly Mansour the Order of the Nile
Order of the Nile
.

DOMESTIC POLICY

Further information: Human rights in Egypt
Egypt

President Sisi, who repeatedly during his presidential campaign encouraged Egyptians to work harder and to wake up at 5am, urged Egyptians to be ready for what he called "the hard work phase". In his first meeting with his cabinet , Sisi told his ministers they must set an example by being in the office by 07:00. Sisi's first street appearance after the cabinet was sworn in saw him participate in a surprising 20-kilometer bike marathon wearing sporting gear and followed by his cabinet ministers as well as many celebrities, military and police students to encourage low consumption of fuel which is costing the government billions of dollars every year. Sisi encouraged Egyptians to help rebuild the Egyptian economy saying that he would make an example by donating half his salary and half his personal assets (including his inheritance) to support the Egyptian economy; a move that would encourage senior officials and prominent businessmen to do the same. After his call, Colonel General Sedki Sobhi announced that the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
would help support the economy by donating $140m (£82m). Sisi also ordered the ministry of finance to enforce rules on maximum wages estimated at 42,000 EGP ($5,873) per month. Sisi also formed the advisory council of Egypt\'s scientists and experts to advise him on national projects.

Sisi has expressed his personal concerns about the issue of sexual assault in the country. He was photographed during a hospital visit to a woman receiving treatment after an assault during celebrations in Cairo
Cairo
's Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
, ordering the army , the police , and the media to counter the issue.

El-Sisi has called for the reform and modernisation of Islam; to that end, he has taken measures within Egypt
Egypt
such as regulating mosque sermons and changing school textbooks (including the removal of some content on Saladin
Saladin
and Uqba ibn Nafi
Uqba ibn Nafi
inciting or glorifying hatred and violence). He has also called for an end to the Islamic verbal divorce ; however, this was rejected by a council of scholars from Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
.

El-Sisi also became the first Egyptian president in the country's history to attend Christmas Mass and gave a speech at the Coptic Orthodox Christmas service in Cairo
Cairo
in January 2015 calling for unity and wishing the Christians
Christians
a merry Christmas. Coinciding with Sisi's visit an Arabic hashtag that translates to "you are a leader, Sisi" has been tweeted 14,486 times, and the hashtag "Sisi in the Cathedral" has been tweeted 3,609 times accompanied with pictures of a cross and a crescent symbolising the national unity.

Economic Reforms

al-Sisi Listens as Secretary Kerry Addresses Audience of Several Thousand Attending the Egypt
Egypt
Economic Development Conference (EEDC)

Sisi, who is reportedly facing a severe economic ordeal in Egypt, has decided to raise fuel prices by 78 percent as an introduction to cut the subsidies on basic food stuffs and energy, which eat up nearly a quarter of the state budget. The Egyptian government has always provided these subsidies as a crucial aid to millions of people who live in poverty, fearing people's anger in five years time. Egypt
Egypt
has spent $96 billion on energy subsidies in a decade which made petrol in Egypt
Egypt
among the world's cheapest. Cutting the energy subsidies will save 51 billion pounds. The government hopes the decision will benefit services such as health and education. Sisi also raised taxes on alcohol and cigarettes, applying a flat tax on local and imported cigarettes to between 25 and 40 cents per pack, as well as new property taxes, and plans to introduce a new scheme for value-added taxes. Chicken prices would reportedly rise by 25 percent days after the decision because of added transportation costs. Mini-bus and taxi fares were raised by about 13 percent. Slashing subsidies was recommended by international financial institutions, but no Egyptian leader had managed to broach the issue, fearing unrest in a country where nearly 50 percent of the population live in poverty and rely on government aid. President Sisi defended the decision to raise fuel prices, saying it was "bitter medicine" that should have been taken before and was "50 years late" but was not taken, as governments feared a backlash like the Bread Riots of 1977 . Sisi, who had previously accepted only half of his own pay, called on Egyptians to make sacrifices, vowing to repair an economy growing at the slowest pace in two decades. Sisi warned Egyptians of more pain over the next two years from economic problems that he said had accumulated over the last four decades and needed to be fixed. Egypt
Egypt
also paid more than $6 billion it owed to foreign oil companies within two months. By March 2015 after 8 months of Sisi's rule, Egypt's external debt fell to $39.9 billion, a drop of 13.5 percent.

As a result of the economic reforms, Moody\'s raised Egypt's credit ratings outlook to stable from negative and Fitch Ratings
Fitch Ratings
upgraded Egypt's credit rating one step to "B" from "B-". Standard "> Secretary Kerry, Egyptian Foreign Minister Shoukry Discuss Gaza Ceasefire With Egyptian President al-Sisi in Cairo
Cairo

Relations with Israel
Israel
have improved significantly following Mohamed Morsi
Morsi
's removal, with Sisi saying he talks to Israel's prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu , "a lot." Sisi has been described by The Economist
The Economist
as "the most pro-Israeli Egyptian leader ever." With continuous support for Palestine , the Sisi administration supports the two-state solution establishing a Palestinian state on lands that were occupied in 1967 with Eastern Jerusalem as its capital for the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
achieving the Palestinians needs and granting Israel
Israel
the security it wants. The first months of Sisi's presidency witnessed the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
. Egypt
Egypt
also criticised the IDF operation in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
as "oppressive policies of mass punishment rejecting 'the irresponsible Israeli escalation' in the occupied Palestinian territory, which comes in the form of 'excessive' and unnecessary use of military force leading to the death of innocent civilians." It also demanded Israel
Israel
adopt self-restraint and to keep in mind that being an "occupation force", it has a legal and moral duty to protect civilian lives.

After Egypt
Egypt
proposed an initiative for a ceasefire later accepted by Israel
Israel
and rejected by Hamas, the Sisi administration urged the world to intervene and stop the crisis when it stated that its ceasefire efforts have been met with "obstinacy and stubbornness". Egypt
Egypt
also hosted several meetings with both Israeli and Palestinian officials in Cairo
Cairo
to mediate a ceasefire. President Sisi also ordered the Egyptian Armed Forces to transport 500 tons of aid, consisting of food and medical supplies, to Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. A statement was also released by the military saying that Egypt
Egypt
is pursuing its efforts to "stop the Israeli aggression on the Gaza Strip" under the president's supervision. The conflict ended with an Egyptian-brokered ceasefire on 26 August, 2014. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
sit together at the Congress Center in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, on March 13, 2015

Egypt
Egypt
also hosted the international donor conference in Cairo
Cairo
aiming to raise 4 billion (3.2 billion euros) to reconstruct the Gaza Strip. Sisi described the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
as a great chance to end the 66-year-old conflict calling on Israel
Israel
to reach a peace deal with the Palestinians and saying "I call on the Israeli people and the government: now is the time to end the conflict ... so that prosperity prevails, so that we all can have peace and security". Sisi mainly blames the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
for the extremism in the Middle East describing it as a "fertile environment for the growth and spread of extremism, violence and terrorism". Sisi also promised that Egypt
Egypt
would guarantee Palestine would not violate the peace treaty when reached expressing Egypt's willingness to deploy Egyptian observer forces in the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Sisi also stipulated that the Palestinian Authority would take power in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
in future peace plans and conditioned an easing of transit restrictions at the Rafah checkpoint on the presence of a force from the Palestinian Authority's Presidential Guard being stationed on the Gaza side of the crossing as the Sisi administration considers Hamas
Hamas
an enemy, blaming them for the killing of 16 Egyptian soldiers in 2012 and over the alleged involvement in the prisons' storming in the wake of Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
.

Turkey

Further information: Egypt– Turkey
Turkey
relations

Relations between Egypt
Egypt
and Turkey
Turkey
deteriorated significantly after Morsi's ouster. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
, then Prime Minister, was the only leader to call Morsi's ouster as a coup, calling for the immediate release of Morsi
Morsi
and insisting he is the legitimate president of Egypt. Turkish Minister for European Affairs Egemen Bagis also called for the UN Security Council to "take action" in Egypt. Erdoğan was said not to recognise Sisi as president of Egypt
Egypt
and called him an "illegitimate tyrant" in response to the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict and alleged Egyptian support for Israel
Israel
in its war against Hamas
Hamas
. In response to Erdoğan's remarks, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry warned that the Egypt– Turkey
Turkey
relationship would be worsened while Sisi refused to respond. Egypt's foreign ministry accused Erdogan of provocation and interfering in Egypt's internal affairs. In November 2013, Egypt
Egypt
told the Turkish ambassador to leave the country, a day after Erdoğan called for Morsi
Morsi
to be freed. Relations with Ankara was also lowered to chargé d'affaires. The Egyptian foreign ministry also said that Egypt
Egypt
has cancelled joint naval drils with Turkey
Turkey
over Turkey's interference in Egypt's domestic affairs. In September 2014, Egypt's foreign minister cancelled a meeting with now-President Erdoğan requested by Turkey
Turkey
after Erdoğan made a speech critical of Egypt
Egypt
in the UN General Assembly. An advisor to the Turkish president has denied that the countries' leaders were planning to meet. However, later Egypt's foreign ministry handed out a scanned document of Turkey's meeting proposal to the media and was published by Egypt's Youm7 newspaper. Sisi's administration also decided to cancel the " Roll-on/roll-off
Roll-on/roll-off
" agreement with Turkey, blocking Turkey
Turkey
from transporting Turkish containers to the Gulf via Egyptian ports. An intense campaign started by Egypt
Egypt
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
against Turkey
Turkey
made it lose its predicted easy victory of membership in the United Nations Security Council .

Arab World

Further information: Egypt– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
relations , Egypt–Syria relations , and Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen

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Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
reported in June 2014: " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, the world's top oil exporter, and its wealthy Gulf Arab partners Kuwait
Kuwait
and the United Arab Emirates have given more than $20 billion to help Egypt
Egypt
since Morsi's overthrow, Sisi said last month, and are likely to pledge more." In 2015, Egypt
Egypt
participated in the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen.

In April 2016 King Salman of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
made a five-day visit to Egypt, during which the two countries signed economic agreements worth approximately $25 billion and also made an agreement to "return" Tiran and Sanafir , two Egyptian-administered islands in the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
, to Saudi control. The announcement of the transfer of the islands provoked a backlash in both social media and traditional media, including outlets which had been firmly pro-Sisi.

In November 2016, Sisi admitted that he supported the presidency of Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
in Syria
Syria
for the sake of stability. In a February 2017 article in Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
, Oren Kessler , the Deputy Director for Research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies
Foundation for Defense of Democracies
, suggests there are three reasons for Sisi's pro-Assad position: Egypt's common enemies with Syria
Syria
(ISIS and the Muslim Brotherhood) as opposed to Saudi Arabia's antagonism with Iran; Egypt
Egypt
and Syria's shared opposition to the policies of Erdogan in Turkey; and Egypt's growing relations with Russia, a close ally of Syria. Kessler concludes that the sentiment of "revolution fatigue" amplifies Sisi's support for Assad.

Russia

Further information: Egypt–Russia relations
Egypt–Russia relations
President Sisi (left) with President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2nd right)

Both military and political relations between Egypt
Egypt
and Russia witnessed significant improvements after Morsi
Morsi
's overthrow coinciding with the deterioration in relations between the United States and Egypt, once considered its important ally in the Middle East. Unlike the US, Russia supported Sisi's actions from the start, including his presidential bid. Russia reportedly offered Egypt
Egypt
a huge military weapons deal after the US had suspended some military aid and postponed weapons delivery to Egypt. The Russian President Vladimir Putin was the first to congratulate Sisi on his inauguration. Sisi made Russia his first destination abroad as defence minister after being promoted to the rank of Field Marshal
Field Marshal
where he met with the Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and the Russian Minister of Defence General Sergey Shoygu
Sergey Shoygu
to negotiate an arms deal with Russia instead of the United States. Sisi and Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
meeting on 10 February 2015

Sisi also visited Russia as an Egyptian President at the invitation of Russian President Vladimir Putin. The visit was described by Putin as reflective of "the special nature" of the relation between the two countries. Sisi was welcomed by General Sergey Shoygu
Sergey Shoygu
who showed him different Russian-made military vehicles and weapons in the airport. Moscow's Vedemosti business daily reported that Russia and Egypt
Egypt
are nearing a $3 billion (2.2 billion euro) weapons agreement. President Putin also accompanied him to visit the Russian cruiser Moskva before they gave a joint televised statement. Sisi announced in his statement that there was a new plan of "renewing and developing" giant projects established by the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. President Putin announced that an agreement has been reached to increase Egypt's supply of agricultural goods to Russia by 30 percent while his country will provide Egypt
Egypt
with 5 to 5.5 million tons of wheat. In addition, a free trade zone was also being discussed.

United States

Further information: Egypt–United States relations el-Sisi with Secretary of Defense James Mattis
James Mattis
, in Washington, D.C., on 5 April 2017

Relations between Egypt
Egypt
and the United States witnessed tensions after Morsi
Morsi
's overthrow. The United States strongly condemned Sisi's administration on several occasions before deciding to delay selling four F-16 fighter jets, Apaches and Abrams' kits to Egypt. The US also cancelled the Bright Star joint military exercise with the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
. Sisi's administration also showed unusual actions dealing with the US, calling on Obama's administration to exercise restraint in dealing with "racially charged" unrest in Ferguson, echoing language the US used to caution Egypt
Egypt
previously as it cracked down on Islamist protesters. US Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
sits with el-Sisi at the Congress Center in Sharm el-Sheikh , Egypt, on 13 March 2015

They also checked US Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
and his top aides through a stationary metal detector as well as with a handheld wand before meeting with el-Sisi in an unusual screening for a senior State Department official. Sisi also skipped Obama 's invitation to the American-African summit. However, in a 2014 news story, BBC
BBC
reported: "The US has revealed it has released $575m (£338m) in military aid to Egypt
Egypt
that had been frozen since the ousting of President Mohammed Morsi
Morsi
last year." In September 2014 Sisi visited the US to address the UN General assembly in New York. An extensive media campaign produced billboards which were distributed all over New York City, welcoming the Egyptian president. In August 2015, Secretary of State John Kerry
John Kerry
was in Cairo
Cairo
for a "U.S.- Egypt
Egypt
strategic dialogue".

Following the election of Republican Donald Trump
Donald Trump
as the President of the United States , the two countries are looking to improve the Egyptian-American relations . al-Sisi and Trump had met during the opening of the seventy-first session of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2016. The absence of Egypt
Egypt
in President Trump's travel ban towards seven Muslim countries was noted in Washington although the Congress has voiced human rights concerns over the handling of dissidents. On March 22, 2017 it was reported that al-Sisi would be traveling to Washington to meet with Trump on April 3, 2017.

PERSONAL LIFE

Unlike Hosni Mubarak, el-Sisi has been protective of the privacy of his family. He is married and the father of three sons and one daughter. He comes from a religious family and frequently quotes Quranic verses into informal conversations; El-Sisi's wife wears the Islamic Hijab
Hijab
. He is known to be quiet and is often called the Quiet General. Even as a young man he was often called "General Sisi" due to his perceived orderly demeanor.

According to Sherifa Zuhur , a professor at the War College, when el-Sisi attended, many American officers expressed doubts that Muslims could be democratic. El-Sisi disputed this opinion; he and others were critical of decisions made in Iraq
Iraq
and Libya. Zuhur also had the impression that el-Sisi supported a gradual move towards pluralism.

RECOGNITION

MILITARY

* 25 April Decoration (Liberation of Sinai) * Distinguished Service Decoration * Military Duty Decoration, Second Class * Military Duty Decoration, First Class * Longevity and Exemplary Medal * Kuwait
Kuwait
Liberation Medal * Kuwait
Kuwait
Liberation Medal (Egypt) * Silver Jubilee of October War Medal * Golden Jubilee of 23 July Revolution * Silver Jubilee of the Liberation of Sinai Medal * 25 January Revolution Medal * Military Courage Decoration * The Republic's military Decoration * The Training's Decoration * The Army's Day Decoration

CIVIL

* Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud * Order of Mubarak the Great * Medal of Arab tourism * Honorary PhD from National University of Public Service
National University of Public Service

PUBLICATIONS

Written by Sisi when he was a Brigardier General:

* "Democracy in the Middle East" (Archive). U.S. Army War College (USAWC) Strategy Research Project. Advised by Colonel Stephen J. Gerras. - Obtained through the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) by Judicial Watch
Judicial Watch

SEE ALSO

* Abd al-Halim Abu Ghazala * Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
* Post-coup unrest in Egypt
Egypt
(2013–2014)

REFERENCES

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Egypt
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Saudi Arabia
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Egypt
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Syria
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Egypt
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FURTHER READING

* Hessler, Peter (January 2, 2017). "The shadow general : President Sisi has unwittingly revealed more about the way Egypt
Egypt
now works than anyone could have imagined". Letter from Cairo. The New Yorker. 92 (43): 44–55. Online version is titled "Egypt’s Failed Revolution".

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikiquote has quotations related to: ABDEL FATTAH EL-SISI

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* Official Facebook page (in Arabic) * Official Twitter page (in Arabic) * Abdel Fattah el-Sisi\'s channel on YouTube
YouTube
(in Arabic) * Official Instagram Page * Official Google+ Page (in Arabic) * Egyptian State

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