Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz (Arabic: عبد العزيز بن
عبد الله بن باز) (November 21, 1910 – May 13, 1999),
was a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar and a leading proponent of the
Wahhabi form of Islam. He was the
Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from
1993 until his death in 1999. According to French political scientist
Gilles Kepel, Baz was a "figurehead for institutional" whose "immense
religious erudition and his reputation for intransigence" gave him
prestige among the population of
Saudi Arabia and he "could reinforce
the Saud family's policies through his influence with the masses of
believers", and his death left the government without a comparable
figure from within the
Salafi clergy to "fill his shoes".
Bin Baz issued a fatwa authorizing a wealth tax to support the
Mujahideen during the anti-Soviet jihad. His endorsement of In
Muslim Lands, principally written by Abdullah Azzam, was a
powerful influence in the successful call for jihad against the Soviet
Union. It is said to be the first official call for jihad by a nation
state against another nation state in modern times.
Many of Ibn Baz's views and rulings are considered controversial (both
inside and outside Saudi Arabia), including those relating to
cosmology, women's rights, Saudi Arabia's support for the Oslo
Accords, and the acceptability of stationing non-Islamic troops in the
Land of the Two Holy Mosques (Haramayn) during and after the Persian
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden bitterly condemned Bin Baz and his rulings
that supported Saudi Arabia's foreign policy and alliances with
5 Personal life
7.3 Women's rights
7.4 Persian Gulf War
7.5 Osama bin Laden
8 See also
11 External links
Part of a series on:
Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia
Ideology and influences
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab
Founders and key figures
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
Ibn al Uthaymeen
Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i
Umm al-Qura University
Islamic University of Madinah
Ibn Baz was born in the city of
Riyadh during the month of Dhu
al-Hijjah, 1910 to a family with a reputation for their interest in
Islam. His father died when he was only three. By the time he was
thirteen he had begun working, selling clothing with his brother in a
market. He also took lessons of the Qur’an, Hadith, Fiqh, and
Tafsir, with the man who would precede him as the country's top
religious official, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh. In 1927,
when he was sixteen, he started losing his eyesight after being
afflicted with a serious infection in his eyes. By the time he was
twenty, he had totally lost his sight and had become blind.
At that time,
Saudi Arabia lacked a modern university system. Ibn Baz
received a traditional education in
Islamic literature with Islamic
He had assumed a number of posts and responsibilities such as:
The judge of
Al Kharj district upon the recommendation of Muhammad ibn
'Abdul-Lateef ash-Shaikh from 1938 to 1951.
In 1992 he was appointed
Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia and Head of the
Council of Senior Scholars and was granted presidency of the
administration for scientific research and legal rulings.
President and member of the Constituent Assembly of the
In 1981 he was awarded the
King Faisal International Prize for Service
to Islam. He was the only
Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia not to
come from the
Al ash-Sheikh family.
Ibn Bāz had undertaken a number of charitable and other activities
His support for
Dawah organizations and Islamic centers in many parts
of the world.
The popular radio program, Nurun Ala Darb ("light on the path"), in
which he discussed current issues and answered questions from
listeners as well as providing fatwa if needed.
Bin Baz urged donations be given to the
Taliban in Afghanistan, who in
the late 1990s were seen by many Saudis as "pure, young Salafi
warriors" fighting against destructive warlords.
Ibn Bāz was considered by many to be prolific speaker both in public
and privately at his mosque. He also used to invite people after Isha
prayer to share a meal with him. Ibn Bāz was among the Muslim
scholars who opposed regime change using violence. He called for
obedience to the people in power unless they ordered something that
went against God.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September
The number of books written by Ibn Bāz exceeds sixty and the subject
matter covered topics such as Hadith, Tafsir, Fara'ed, Tawheed, Fiqh,
Salat, Zakat, Dawah,
Hajj and Umrah. He also authored a criticism
of the concept of nationhood.
Bin Baz wives and children lived in the Shumaysi neighborhood of
Riyadh in "a little cluster of modern two-story buildings". Like all
senior Saudi clerics, his home was a gift from a wealthy benefactor or
a religious foundation for his distinguished religious work.
On Thursday morning, 13 May 1999, Ibn Bāz died at the age of 88. He
was buried in Al Adl cemetery, Mecca.
King Fahd issued a decree appointing Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal
ash-Shaikh as the new Grand Mufti after Ibn Bāz's death.
In his career as the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, he attempted to both
legitimize the rule of the ruling family and to support calls for the
Islam in line with
Salafi ideals. Many criticized him for
supporting the Saudi government when, after the Persian Gulf War, it
muzzled or imprisoned those regarded as too critical of the
government, such as
Safar al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda. His influence
Salafi movement was large, and most of the prominent judges and
religious scholars of
Saudi Arabia today are former students of his.
His obituary in
The Independent said "His views and fatwas (religious
rulings) were controversial, condemned by militants, liberals and
progressives alike". He was also criticized by hardline Salafists
and jihadists for supporting the decision to permit U.S. troops to be
Saudi Arabia in 1991.
See also: Orbit of the sun, Geocentric model, Astronomy in Islam, and
Apostasy in Islam
In 1966, when Ibn Baz was vice-president of the Islamic University of
Medina, he wrote an article denouncing
Riyadh University for teaching
the "falsehood" that the earth rotates and orbits the sun.
Robert Lacey quotes a fatwa by bin Baz urging caution towards
claims that the Americans had landed on the moon. "We must make
careful checks whenever the kuffar [unbelievers] or faseqoon [immoral
folk] tell us something: we cannot believe or disbelieve them until we
get sufficient proof on which the Muslims can depend." Lacey
states that "after extensive research" of bin Baz's fatawa, he (Lacey)
had only been able to find this one fatwa on the subject, and no
statement in it that the earth was flat. Lacey does however say
that according to his source, Bin Baz gave an interview after
publishing the article "in which he mused on how we operate day to day
on the basis that the ground beneath us is flat ... and it led him to
the belief that he was not afraid to voice and for which he became
Though satirized for his belief, "the sheikh was unrepentant. If
Muslims chose to believe the world was round, that was their business,
he said, and he would not quarrel with them religiously. But he was
inclined to trust what he felt beneath his feet rather than the
statements of scientists he did not know."
According to Lacey, bin Baz changed his mind about the earth's
flatness after talking to Prince
Sultan bin Salman Al Saud
Sultan bin Salman Al Saud who had
spent time in a space shuttle flight in 1985. 
Malise Ruthven and others state that it is incorrect to
report that Ibn Baz believed "the earth is flat" Professor Werner
Ende, a German expert on ibn Baz's fatwas, states he has never
asserted this. Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî calls those that
attribute the flat earth view to ibn Baz "rumor mongers". He points
out that ibn Baz issued a fatwa declaring that the Earth is
round, and, indeed, in 1966 ibn Baz wrote "The quotation I
cited [in his original article] from the speech of the great scholar
Ibn Al-Qayyim (may
Allah be merciful to him) includes proof that the
earth is round."
In his 1966 article, ibn Baz did claim that the sun orbited the
earth, and that "the earth is fixed and stable, spread out
by God for mankind and made a bed and cradle for them, fixed down by
mountains lest it shake". As a result of the publication of his
first article, ibn Baz was ridiculed by Egyptian journalists as an
example of Saudi primitiveness, and King Faisal was reportedly so
angered by the first article that he ordered the destruction of every
unsold copy of the two papers that had published it. In 1982
Ibn Baz published a book, Al-adilla al-naqliyya wa al-ḥissiyya ʿala
imkān al-ṣuʾūd ila al-kawākib wa ʾala jarayān al-shams wa
al-qamar wa sukūn al-arḍ ("Treatise on the textual and rational
proofs of the rotation of the sun and the motionlessness of the earth
and the possibility of ascension to other planets"). In it, he
republished the 1966 article, together with a second article on the
same subject written later in 1966, and repeated his belief that
the sun orbited the earth. In 1985, he changed his mind concerning
the rotation of the earth (and, according to Lacey, ceased to assert
its flatness), when Prince
Sultan bin Salman
Sultan bin Salman returned home after a
week aboard the space shuttle Discovery to tell him that he had seen
the earth rotate.
In addition, there was controversy concerning the nature of the takfir
(the act of declaring other Muslims to be kafir or unbelievers) which
it was claimed Ibn Baz had pronounced. According to Malise Ruthven, he
threatened all who did not accept his "pre-Copernican" views with a
fatwa, declaring them infidels. Ibn Baz wrote a letter to a
magazine in 1966 responding to similar accusations:
I only deemed it lawful to kill whoever claims that the sun is static
(thābita la jāriya) and refuses to repent of this after
clarification. This is because denying the circulation of the sun
constitutes a denial of
Allah (Glorified be He), His Great Book, and
His Honorable Messenger. It is well established in the Din (religion
of Islam) by way of decisive evidence and Ijma` (consensus) of
scholars that whoever denies Allah, His Messenger or His Book is a
Kafir (disbeliever) and their blood and wealth become violable. It is
the duty of the responsible authority to ask them to repent of this;
either they repent or be executed. Thanks to
Allah that this issue is
not debatable among scholars.
Ibn Baz's second article written in 1966 also responded to similar
I did not declare those who believe that the earth rotates to be
infidels, nor those who believe that the sun moving around itself, but
I do so for those who say that the sun is static and does not move
(thābita la jāriya), which is in my last article. Whoever says so
being an infidel is obvious from the Quran and the Sunnah, because God
almighty says: 'And the sun runs on (tajri) to a term appointed for
it' ... As for saying that the Sun is fixed in one position but still
moving around itself, ..., I did not deal with this issue in my first
article, nor have I declared as infidel anyone who says so.
Western writers subsequently have drawn parallels between their
perception of ibn Baz and the trial of Galileo by the Catholic Church
in the 16th century.
Bin Baz has been associated with some members of the 20 November–4
December 1979 takeover of the Grand
Mosque (Masjid al-Haram) in Mecca.
The two-week-long armed takeover left over 250 dead, including
hostages taken by the militants. According to interviews taken by
author Robert Lacey, the militants (known as Beit Al-Ikhwan) led by
Juhayman al-Otaybi, were students of bin Baz and other high ulema.
Juhayman declared his brother-in-law, Mohammed al-Qahtani, to be the
Mabahith (secret police) of the minister of interior Prince
Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud
had identified Mohammed al-Qahtani and a number of the Ikhwan as
troublemakers. They had got them all safely locked up months before --
only to release them at the request of Sheikh Bin Baz. 
Islam forbids any violence within the Grand Mosque. Ibn Baz found
himself in a delicate situation, especially as he had previously
taught al-Otaybi in Medina. The situation was compounded and
complicated by the fact the Saudi government found itself unprepared
and incapable of dislodging the militants from the Mosque. They
asked for outside assistance from the non-Islamic French
Pakistani SSG. Non-Muslims are not permitted within the
Meccan city limits, let alone the Grand Mosque. When asked for a fatwa
by the government to condemn the militants, the language of bin Baz
and other senior ulama "was curiously restrained." The invaders of the
Masjid al-Haram were not declared non-Muslims, despite their killings
and violation of the sanctity of the Masjid, but only called
"al-jamaah al-musallahah" (the armed group). Regardless, the ulema
issued a fatwa allowing deadly force to be used in retaking the
mosque. The senior scholars also insisted that before security
forces attack them, the authorities must offer the option 'to
surrender and lay down their arms.' Bin Baz, through a loophole,
issued another fatwa allowing the French
Special Operations Forces
Special Operations Forces to
do a last minute, if only temporary, conversion to Islam, to be able
to enter the city and the Grand
Mosque to shed the blood of militants
Bin Baz refused to condemn as non-Muslim.
See also: Women's rights in
Saudi Arabia and Women in Islam
Ibn Baz has been described as having harsh and inflexible attitudes
towards women and being a bulwark against the expansion of rights
for women. Commenting on the Sharia rule that the testimony in
court of one woman was insufficient, Ibn Baz said: "The Prophet (Peace
Be Upon Him) explained that their shortcoming in reasoning is found in
the fact that their memory is weak and that their witness is in need
of another woman to corroborate it." He also issued a fatwa
against women driving cars, which in the West may have been his most
well known ruling. He declared: "Depravity leads to the innocent
and pure women being accused of indecencies.
Allah has laid down one
of the harshest punishments for such an act to protect society from
the spreading of the causes of depravity. Women driving cars, however,
is one of the causes that lead to that."
Persian Gulf War
Persian Gulf War
Persian Gulf War Ibn Bāz issued a fatwa allowing the
deployment of non-
Muslim troops on Saudi Arabian soil to defend the
kingdom from the Iraqi army. Some noted that this was in contrast to
his opinion in the 1940s, when he contradicted the government policy
of allowing non-Muslims to be employed on Saudi soil. However,
according to The New York Times, his fatwa overruled more radical
clerics. In response to criticism, ibn Baz condemned those who
"whisper secretly in their meetings and record their poison over
cassettes distributed to the people."
Another key issue was to allow the wearing of the cross by non-Muslim
soldiers and the carrying of New Testaments into battle against other
Muslims from the holiest land in Islam. This ruling shook Saudi
society like an earthquake, and remains at the heart of many violent
Salafi jihadis have with the
House of Saud
House of Saud till this day.
The radical cleric
Abdullah el-Faisal declared Bin Baz takfir (a
Muslim traitor) who died unrepentant.
Osama bin Laden
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Open Letter to Shaykh Bin Baz on the Invalidity of his
Fatwa on Peace
with the Jews
According to his obituary in The Independent, Ibn Baz held
ultra-conservative views and strongly maintained the puritan and
non-compromising traditions of Wahabism. However, his views were
not strict enough for
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden who condemned ibn Baz for "his
weakness and flexibility and the ease of influencing him with the
various means which the interior ministry practices". Ibn Bāz was
the subject of Osama bin Laden's first public pronouncement intended
for the general
Muslim public. This open letter condescendingly
criticized him for endorsing the Oslo peace accord between the PLO and
Israeli government. Ibn Baz defended his decision to endorse the
Oslo Accords by citing the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, saying that a peace
treaty with non-Muslims has historical precedent if it can avoid the
loss of life.
Ibn Baz deemed it mandatory to destroy media that promoted Bin Laden's
views, and declared that it was forbidden for anyone to co-operate
with him. He wrote:
...It is obligatory to destroy and annihilate these publications that
have emanated from al-Faqeeh, or from al-Mas'aree, or from others of
the callers of falsehood (bin Laadin and those like him), and not to
be lenient towards them. And it is obligatory to advise them, to guide
them towards the truth, and to warn them against this falsehood. It is
not permissible for anyone to co-operate with them in this evil. And
it is obligatory upon them to be sincere and to come back to guidance
and to leave alone and abandon this falsehood. So my advice to
al-Mas'aree, al-Faqeeh and Bin Laadin and all those who traverse their
ways is to leave alone this disastrous path, and to fear Allaah and to
beware of His vengeance and His Anger, and to return to guidance and
to repent to Allaah for whatever has preceded from them. And Allaah,
Glorified, has promised His repentant servants that He will accept
their repentance and be good to them. So
Allah the Glorified said:
"Say, 'O My servants who have transgressed against themselves. Do not
despair of the Mercy of Allaah; verily, Allaah forgives all sins.'
Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [39:53].
Islam in Saudi Arabia
Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
^ a b c d e
Who's Who in
Saudi Arabia 1978-1979, pg. 53. Part of the
Who's Who series. Edited by M. Samir Sarhan.
Jeddah and London: Tihama
and Europa Publications. ISBN 0905118286
^ a b c d e
Who's Who in the Arab World 1990-1991, pg. 123. Part of
Who's Who series. Edited by Gabriel M. Bustros. Beirut: Publitec
Publications, 10th ed. ISBN 2903188076
^ Kepel (2004), p. 186.
^ "اغتيال قائد جيش الإسلام زهران علوش
بغارة يعتقد أنها روسية". أنا برس.
^ "الشيخ المجاهد "زهران علوش".. سيرة قائد
طلب الشهادة فنالها". هيئة الشام
الإسلامية. January 28, 2016.
^ Kepel (2006), p. 186: "Bin Baz had become the grand mufti of
Saudi Arabia at the beginning of the decade. Along with Sheikh
Muhammad bin Uthaymin (who died two years later, in January 2001), he
had become a figurehead for institutional Wahhabism." His death in May
of 1999 gave a boost to more radical Sahwa Islamic dissidents and hurt
the government in Saudi despite his being a figurehead for
institutional Wahhabiism because: "... thanks to his immense religious
erudition and his reputation for intransigence, bin Baz enjoyed great
prestige among the population and could reinforce the Saud family's
policies through his influence with the masses of believers. At his
death, the dynasty found itself staring into a vacuum, for within the
Wahhabite clergy there was no great figure who could fill bin Baz's
position and capability. The mufti who followed him, Abd al-Aziz Al
Sheikh (from Abdul Wahhab's lineage) did not enjoy comparable
^ Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations, Christopher Blanchard,
Congressional Research Service, 2010, p. 27.
^ Ibn Baaz's fatwa in support of the war against the soviets Archived
2015-04-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Ibn Baz Fatwas, Volume 27, Book on
Da`wah. An interview by the
Pakistani magazine: Takbir.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-28. Retrieved
^ "Ad-Da'wah Ilallah wa Akhlaaqud-Du'aat" (pp. 37–43)
Main Page Archived 2007-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Words of Advice Regarding Da'wah" by 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn 'Abdullaah
ibn Baaz (translated by Bint Feroz Deen and Bint Abd al-Ghafoor),
Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution, Birmingham: 1998, Page 9–10
^ "Words of Advice Regarding Da'wah" by 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn 'Abdullaah
ibn Baaz (translated by Bint Feroz Deen and Bint 'Abd al-Ghafoor),
Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution, Birmingham: 1998, Pages
^ a b c d
Saudi Gazette 14 May 1999
Saudi Gazette Archived 2007-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Abukhalil, As'Ad (4 January 2011). The Battle for Saudi Arabia:
Royalty, Fundamentalism, and Global Power. Seven Stories Press.
p. 66. ISBN 978-1-60980-173-1.
^ Lacey (2009), pp. 198: the Afghan jihad was being fought over
again, with pure, young
Salafi warriors. Abdul Aziz bin Baz .... a
particular enthusiast. The man who had sponsored and protected
Juhayman now urged the holy cause of the Afghan students with the
ulema, and more potently still with the senior princes to whom he had
private access. It is not known -- it will never be known -- which of
the family of Abdul Aziz privately parted with money at the venerable
shiekh's request, but what was pocket money to them could easily have
bought a fleet of pickup trucks for the Taliban.
^ العنف يضر بالدعوة
^ حقوق ولاة الأمور على الأمة Archived 2007-10-16
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Lacey (2009), p. 131.
^ "Al Adl: One of Makkah's oldest cemeteries". Saudi Gazette. 18 June
2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 15 August
^ "New Saudi Grand Mufti", BBC News, May 16, 1999.
^ a b c "Obituary: Sheikh 'Abdul 'Aziz bin Baz". The Independent. 14
May 1999. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
^ Brachman, Jarret M. (2008). Global Jihadism: Theory and Practice.
Taylor & Francis. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-203-89505-4.
^ a b c Weston, Mark (2008). Prophets and Princes:
Saudi Arabia from
Muhammad to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 196.
^ "Sheikh Bin Baz". The Economist. May 20, 1999.
^ a b c d e Lacey (2009), pp. 89–90, 352.
^ Lacey (2009), pp. 88–89, 352.
^ a b Ruthven (2004), p. 148.
^ a b Miller, Judith (2011). God has Ninety-Nine Names. pp. 114,
493. ISBN 978-1439129418.
^ Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî, former professor at al-Imâm
University in Riyadh. "Sheikh Ibn Baz on the roundness of the Earth".
Retrieved 9 February 2013.
^ a b Ibn Baz (15 April 1966). "Refuting and criticizing what has been
published in "Al-Musawwir" magazine". "Al-Musawwir" magazine (Part No.
3; Page No. 157). The General Presidency of Scholarly Research and
Ifta of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
^ Ende, Werner (1982). "Religion, Politik und Literatur in
Saudi-Arabien. Der geistige Hintergrund der religiösen und
kulturpolitischen Situation (III)". Orient: Deutsche Zeitschrift für
Politik und Wirtschaft des Orients'. 23 (3): 382ff.
^ Holden, David (1982). The House of Saud. p. 262.
^ a b c Sayeed, Khalid B. (1994). Western Dominance and Political
Islam: Challenge and Response. p. 82.
^ a b
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz (1982). Al-adilla al-naqliyya wa
al-ḥissiyya ʿala imkān al-ṣuʾūd ila al-kawākib wa ʾala
jarayān al-shams wa al-qamar wa sukūn al-arḍ (2nd ed.). Riyadh:
Maktabat al-riyāḍ al-ḥadītha. pp. 36, 45. Arabic: ولم
أكفّر من قال بدوران الأرض، ولا من قال
إن الشمس تجري حول نفسها، وإنما صرحت
بتكفير من قال إن الشمس ثابتة لا جارية
هذا هو في المقال السابق ، وكفر من قال
هذا القول ظاهر من كتاب الله ، ومن سنة
رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأن الله
سبحانه يقول:(والشمس تجري ...) ... أما
القول بأن الشمس تجري حول نفسها وهي
ثابتة في محل واحد ... ، فلم أتعرضه في
المقال بالكلية لا بنفي ولا إثبات ، ولم
أتعرض لكفر قائلة ، p.36 Arabic: أما
المسألة الثانية وهي القول بثبوت
الشمس، وجريها حول نفسها ، فلم أتعرض
لها في المقال السابق بنفي أو إثبات،
ولم أكفّر من قال ذلك ، p.45
^ Ruthven (2004), p. 149.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-27. Retrieved
^ For another response from the 1970s see
^ Rouner, Leroy S. (1988). Human Right’s and the World’s
Religions. p. 106. ISBN 978-0268010867.
^ Lacey (2009), p. 31.
^ Thomas Hegghammer and Stephane Lacroix. Rejectionist
Saudi Arabia: The Story of Juhayman al-Utaybi Revisited. International
Journal of Middle East Studies, February 2007, pp 103-122, Cambridge
University Press (p. 3 PDF).
^ Wright, Looming Tower, (2006), pp. 103–104 – softcover
^ Lacey (2009), pp. 30: "Their language was curiously restrained.
The sheikhs had a rich vocabulary of condemnation that they regularly
deployed against those who incurred their wrath, from kuffar ... to
al-faseqoon (those who are immoral and who do not follow God). But the
worst they could conjure up for Juhayman and his followers was
al-jamaah al-musallahah (the armed group). They also insisted that the
young men must be given another chance to repent. ... Before attacking
them, said the ulema, the authorities must offer the option 'to
surrender and lay down their arms.'
^ AbuKhalil, Asʻad (2004). The battle for Saudi Arabia: royalty,
fundamentalism, and global power. p. 147.
^ a b c Marshall, Paul A. (2005). Radical Islam's rules: the worldwide
spread of extreme Shari'a law. p. 33.
^ a b c "Sheik Abdelaziz bin Baz, Senior Saudi Cleric and Royal Ally".
The New York Times. 14 May 1999. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
^ Kepel (2004), p. 184.
^ See also
Fatwa Of Takfeer On Their Own Imams Ibn Baaz, Albani
& Co. By: Maulana Muhammad A. K. Azad [ Abu Arif Al Alawi ], 14
NOVEMBER 2012, contains full text of
Salafi fatwa - Ibn Baaz Is Kafir,
by Judith Miller, The New York Times, 20 January 1991 as well.
Fatwa of bin Baz and Some Remarks.
^ Messages to the World, The Statements of Osama Bin Laden, Edited and
Introduced by Bruce Lawrence, Translated by James Howarth, Verso, 2005
^ al-Muslimoon Magazine, 21st
Rajab 1415 AH
Tawheed Magazine, vol. 23, Issue #10
^ Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa wa Maqaalaatul-Mutanawwiyah, Volume 9, as quoted
in Clarification of the Truth in Light of Terrorism, Hijackings &
Suicide Bombings of
Kepel, Gilles (2004). The War for
Islam and the West.
Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01575-3.
Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists,
Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Penguin Publishing
Group. ISBN 978-1-101-14073-4.
Ruthven, Malise (2004). A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on
America. Granta Books. ISBN 978-1-86207-573-3.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ibn Baz.
Quotations related to Abd-al-Aziz ibn Abd-
Allah ibn Baaz at Wikiquote
The Official Site of 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Baaz (in Arabic)
BURKE'S REDEMPTIVE CYCLE OF RHETORIC APPLIED TO EIGHT FATWAS ISSUED BY
SAUDI ARABIA REGARDING SAUDI PARTICIPATION IN THE FIRST Persian GULF
WAR, BY SYDNEY PASQUINELL; see Appendix for English language texts of
the Eight Fatwas.
Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh
Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia
Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh
Muslim scholars of the
by century (AH
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal (founder of the school)
Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub al-Juzajani
Abu Bakr al-Ajurri
Abu Bakr al-Khallal
Al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Barbahari
Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi
Al-Qadi Abu Ya'la
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Awn ad-Din ibn Hubayra
Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi
Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi
Zayn al-Din al-Amidi
Ibn Abd al-Hadi
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais
Abdullah Ibn Jibreen
Abul Kalam Azad
Jonathan A.C. Brown
Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen
Saeed Abubakr Zakaria
Scholars of other Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence
ISNI: 0000 0001 1862 4370
BNF: cb14429459r (data)