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The Abbasid caliphs were the holders of the Islamic title of caliph who were members of the Abbasid dynasty, a branch of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe descended from the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. The family came to power in the Abbasid Revolution
Abbasid Revolution
in 748–750, supplanting the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate. They were the rulers of the Abbasid Caliphate, as well as the generally recognized ecumenical heads of Islam, until the 10th century, when the Shi'a
Shi'a
Fatimid Caliphate (established in 909) and the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
(established in 929) challenged their primacy. The political decline of the Abbasids had begun earlier, during the Anarchy at Samarra
Anarchy at Samarra
(861–870), which accelerated the fragmentation of the Muslim world into autonomous dynasties. The caliphs lost their temporal power in 936–946, first to a series of military strongmen, and then to the Shi'a
Shi'a
Buyid
Buyid
dynasty that seized control of Baghdad; the Buyids were in turn replaced by the Sunni Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
in the mid-11th century, and Turkish rulers assumed the title of "Sultan" to denote their temporal authority. The Abbasid caliphs remained the generally recognized suzerains of Sunni Islam, however. In the mid-12th century, the Abbasids regained their independence from the Seljuks, but the revival of Abbasid power ended with the Sack of Baghdad
Sack of Baghdad
by the Mongols in 1258. In 1261, the Abbasid caliphate was re-established by a cadet branch of the dynasty at Cairo, under the auspices of the local Mamluk sultans. Once again, the caliph was a purely religious and symbolic figure, while temporal power rested with the Mamluks. The revived Abbasid caliphate lasted until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt
Ottoman conquest of Egypt
in 1517, after which the caliphal title passed to the Ottoman dynasty.

Contents

1 List of Abbasid caliphs

1.1 Caliphs of Baghdad
Baghdad
(25 January 750 – 20 February 1258) 1.2 Caliphs of Cairo
Cairo
(13 June 1261 – 22 January 1517)

2 Genealogy 3 References 4 Bibliography

List of Abbasid caliphs[edit] Caliphs of Baghdad
Baghdad
(25 January 750 – 20 February 1258)[edit]

No. Reign Regnal Name Personal Name Parents Notes

1. 750 – 10 June 754 as-Saffāḥ Abū’l-ʿAbbās ʿAbd Allāh

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali ibn Abdallah Raita al-Harsia

Descendant of al-Abbas, Muhammad's uncle. Battle of Talas
Battle of Talas
(751) secures Muslim predominance in Central Asia.

2. 10 June 754 – 775 al-Manṣūr Abū Jaʿfar ʿAbd Allāh

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali ibn Abdallah Sallamah

Fugitive Umayyad
Umayyad
prince Abd al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I
founds the Emirate of Córdoba in al-Andalus (756). Foundation of Baghdad
Baghdad
(762).

3. 775 – 4 August 785 al-Mahdī bi-'llāh Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

Al-Mansur

4. August 785 – 14 September 786 al-Hādī Abū Muḥammad Mūsā

Al-Mahdi Al-Khayzuran bint 'Atta

5. 14 September 786 – 24 March 809 Hārūn ar-Rashīd Hārūn

Al-Mahdi Al-Khayzuran bint 'Atta

Zaydi Shi'a
Shi'a
Idrisid dynasty
Idrisid dynasty
established in Morocco
Morocco
(788). Aghlabids
Aghlabids
recognized as autonomous in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(800).

6. March 809 – 24/25 September 813 al-Amīn Abū Mūsā Muḥammad

Harun ar-Rashid Zubaidah bint Ja`far, granddaughter of al-Mansur

Civil war of the Fourth Fitna. Al-Amin
Al-Amin
deposed and killed at the Siege of Baghdad.

7. September 813 – 9 August 833 al-Maʾmūn Abū'l-ʿAbbās ʿAbd Allāh

Harun ar-Rashid Marajil, concubine from Badghis

Victor of the civil war. Anti-caliphate of Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi in Baghdad
Baghdad
(817–819) ends with al-Ma'mun's return to Baghdad. Ends persecution of Ahl al-Bayt Launch of the Translation Movement, major revamp of the House of Wisdom, and systematic support of scholars for the gathering and translation of knowledge from various civilizations. Establishment of the Emirate of Crete
Emirate of Crete
(824/827) Start of the Muslim conquest of Sicily
Muslim conquest of Sicily
(827) Start of official support for Mu'tazilism, institution of the mihna (833)

8. 9 August 833 – 5 January 842 al-Muʿtaṣim bi-’llāh Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad

Harun ar-Rashid Marida, probably Turkish concubine

Establishment of the Turkish ghilman in positions of power. Militarization and centralization of the administration. Move of the capital to Samarra (836).

9. 5 January 842 – 10 August 847 al-Wāthiq bi-'llāh Abū Jaʿfar Hārūn

Al-Mu'tasim Qaratis, Greek concubine

10. 10 August 847 – 11 December 861 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā 'llāh Jaʿfar

Al-Mu'tasim Shuja

End of official support for Mu'tazilism, abolition of the miḥnah (848/851). Return to Sunni orthodoxy. Assassinated by the Turkish military.

11. 861 – 7 or 8 June 862 al-Muntaṣir bi-'llāh Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad

Al-Mutawakkil Hubshiya, Greek concubine

Reigned during the Anarchy at Samarra

12. 862 – 866 al-Mustaʿīn bi-ʾllāh Aḥmad

Muhammad, son of al-Mu'tasim

Reigned during the Anarchy at Samarra. Fled to Baghdad
Baghdad
in 865, where he was besieged and deposed by the Turkish military.

13. 866 – 869 al-Muʿtazz bi-ʾllāh Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

Al-Mutawakkil Qabiha, concubine

Reigned during the Anarchy at Samarra. Deposed by the Turkish military.

14. 869 – 21 June 870 al-Muhtadī bi-'llāh Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad

Al-Wathiq Qurb, Greek concubine

Reigned during the Anarchy at Samarra. Assassinated by the Turkish military.

15. 21 June 870 – 15 October 892 al-Muʿtamid ʿalā ’llāh Abū'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad

Al-Mutawakkil Fityan, concubine from Kufa

Actual power in the hands of his brother, al-Muwaffaq (died 891). Start of the "Abbasid revival". Repulse of the Saffarids
Saffarids
and subjugation of the Zanj Revolt. Establishment of the autonomous Tulunid dynasty
Tulunid dynasty
in Egypt, and overthrow of the Tahirids
Tahirids
by the Saffarids
Saffarids
in the East.

16. October 892 – 5 April 902 al-Muʿtaḍid bi-'llāh Abū'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad

Al-Muwaffaq, regent of the Abbasid Caliphate Dirar, Greek concubine

Height of the "Abbasid revival". Recovery of Jazira, Thughur, Jibal. Return of the capital to Baghdad. Start of the Qarmatian
Qarmatian
missionary activity and raids.

17. 5 April 902 – 13 August 908 al-Muktafī bi-'llāh Abū Aḥmad ʿAlī

Al-Mu'tadid Jijak, Turkish concubine

Recovery of Egypt and Syria from the Tulunids. End of the "Abbasid revival".

18. 13 August 908 – 929 'al-Muqtadir bi-'llāh Abū'l-Faḍl Jaʿfar

Al-Mu'tadid Shaghab, Greek concubine

First reign Unsuccessful usurpation attempt in favour of Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz (908). Caliphal title also claimed by al-Mahdi Billah of the Fatimids from 909 and 'Abd ar-Rahman III of Córdoba from 929.

19. 929 al-Qāhir bi-'llāh Abū al-Manṣūr Muḥammad

Al-Mu'tadid

First reign; installed by the commander-in-chief Mu'nis al-Muzaffar for a few days.

20. 929 – 31 October 932 'al-Muqtadir bi-'llāh Abū'l-Faḍl Jaʿfar

Second reign; killed in battle before Baghdad
Baghdad
against Mu'nis al-Muzaffar. Qarmatian
Qarmatian
sack of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
(930).

21. 31 October 932 – 934 al-Qāhir bi-'llāh Abū al-Manṣūr Muḥammad

Second reign

22. 934 – 23 December 940 ar-Rāḍī bi-'llāh Abū'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad/Muḥammad

Al-Muqtadir

Ibn Ra'iq
Ibn Ra'iq
becomes amīr al-umarāʾ (November 936); end of caliphal temporal power.

23. 940 – 944 al-Muttaqī li-'llāh Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm

Al-Muqtadir Khalub or Zahrah

Overthrown and blinded by the amīr al-umarāʾ Tuzun.

24. September 944 – 29 January 946 al-Mustakfī bi-ʾllāh ʿAbd Allāh

Al-Muktafi

Installed by the amīr al-umarāʾ Tuzun. Deposed and blinded after the Buyid
Buyid
takeover of Baghdad
Baghdad
and Iraq.

25. 29 January 946 – 974 al-Muṭīʿ li-ʾllāh Abū'l-Qāsim al-Faḍl

Al-Muqtadir

Installed by the Buyid
Buyid
emir Mu'izz al-Dawla.

26. 974 – 991 aṭ-Ṭāʾiʿ li-amri ʿllāh Abd al-Karīm

Al-Muti

Deposed by the Buyid
Buyid
emir Baha' al-Dawla.

27. 1 November 991 – 29 November 1031 al-Qādir bi-'llāh Aḥmad

Al-Muttaqi Tumna

Installed by the Buyid
Buyid
emir Baha' al-Dawla. Upholding of Sunni orthodoxy; publication of the Baghdad
Baghdad
Manifesto.

28. 29 November 1031 – 2 April 1075 al-Qāʾim bi-amri 'llāh

Al-Qadir

End and disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
(1031). Takeover of Baghdad
Baghdad
by the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
under Tughril
Tughril
(1055), end of Buyid
Buyid
rule. Tughril
Tughril
is recognized as Sultan
Sultan
by al-Qa'im. The Almoravids recognize the Abbasid Caliph's religious and nominal authority (c. 1062).

29. 2 April 1075 – February 1094 al-Muqtadī bi-amri ’llāh Abū'l-Qāsim ʿAbd Allāh

Muhammad, son of al-Qa'im Urjuman, Armenian concubine

30. February 1094 – 6 August 1118 al-Mustaẓhir bi-'llāh Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad

Al-Muqtadi

First Crusade
First Crusade
(1096–1099); establishment of the Crusader states in the Levant.

31. 6 August 1118 – 29 August 1135 al-Mustarshid bi-'llāh Abū'l-Manṣūr al-Faḍl

Al-Mustazhir

Foundation of the Almohad Caliphate
Almohad Caliphate
in the Maghreb
Maghreb
(1121).

32. 29 August 1135 – 1136 ar-Rāshid bi-'llāh Abu Jaʿfar al-Manṣūr

Al-Mustarshid

Deposed by the Seljuk Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud.

33. 1136 – 12 March 1160 al-Muqtafī li-ʾamri ’llāh Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

Al-Mustazhir

Siege of Baghdad
Baghdad
(1157) by the Seljuks fails. Restoration of the Caliph's political independence.

34. 12 March 1160 – 20 December 1170 al-Mustanjid bi-'llāh Abū'l-Muẓaffar Yūsuf

Al-Muqtafi Thawus

35. 20 December 1170 – 30 March 1180 al-Mustaḍīʾ bi-amri ʾllāh al-Ḥasan

Al-Mustanjid

End of the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
(1171), restoration of Sunni rule in Egypt under Saladin.

36. 2 March 1180 – 4 October 1225 an-Nāṣir li-Dīni’llāh Abu'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad

Al-Mustadi Zumurrud, concubine

Recovery of Jerusalem from the Crusaders (1187).

37. 5 October 1225 – 11 July 1226 aẓ-Ẓāhir bi-amri’llāh Muḥammad

An-Nasir

38. 11 July 1226 – 2 December 1242 al-Mustanṣir bi-'llāh Abū Jaʿfar al-Manṣūr

Az-Zahir

39. 2 December 1242 – 20 February 1258 al-Mustaʿṣim bi-'llāh ʿAbd Allāh

Al-Mustansir

Last Abbasid Caliph
Caliph
in Baghdad; executed after the Mongol sack of Baghdad.

Caliphs of Cairo
Cairo
(13 June 1261 – 22 January 1517)[edit] The Cairo
Cairo
Abbasids were largely ceremonial caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate that existed after the takeover of the Ayyubid dynasty.[1][2]

No. Reign Regnal Name Personal Name Parents Notes

1. 13 June 1261 – 28 November 1261 al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh Abū'l-Qāsim Aḥmad

Az-Zahir

Installed as Caliph
Caliph
in Cairo, Egypt by the Mamluk Sultan
Sultan
Baybars
Baybars
in 1261. Title also claimed by al-Hakim I, installed as caliph by the ruler of Aleppo, Aqqush al-Burli

2. 16 November 1262 – 19 January 1302 al-Ḥākim bi-Amri'llāh I Abū'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad

Abbasid descent disputed; installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo, Aqqush al-Burli, in 1261, proclaimed as caliph by Baybars
Baybars
after al-Mustansir II died. Fall of the Almohad Caliphate
Almohad Caliphate
(1269).

3. 20 January 1302 – February 1340 al-Mustakfī bi-llāh I Abū ar-Rabīʾ Sulaymān

Al-Hakim I

4. February 1340 – 17 June 1341 al-Wāthiq bi-'llāh I Abū ʾIsḥāq ʾIbrāhīm

Muhammad, son of al-Hakim I

5. 1341 – 1352 al-Ḥākim bi-Amri'llāh II Abū'l-ʿAbbas ʾAḥmad

Al-Mustakfi I

6. 1352 – 1362 al-Muʿtaḍid bi-'llāh I Abū al-Fatḥ Abū Bakr

Al-Mustakfi I

7. 1362 – 1377 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā'llāh I Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Mu'tadid
I

First reign

8. 1377 al-Mustaʿṣim bi-'llāh Abū Yaḥya Zakarīyāʾ

Al-Wathiq
Al-Wathiq
I

First reign

9. 1377 – 1383 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā'llāh I Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

Second reign

10. September 1383 – 13 November 1386 al-Wāthiq bi-'llāh II Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar

Al-Wathiq
Al-Wathiq
I

11. 1386 – 1389 al-Mustaʿṣim bi-'llāh Abū Yaḥya Zakarīyāʾ

Second reign

12. 1389 – 9 January 1406 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā'llāh I Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

Third reign

13. 22 January 1406 – 9 March 1414 al-Mustaʿīn bi-'llāh Abū al-Faḍl al-ʿAbbas

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
I Bay Khatun

Became Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt from 7 May – 6 November 1412, as a titular figurehead for Shaykh al-Mahmudi.

14. 1414 – 1441 al-Muʿtaḍid bi-'llāh II Abū al-Fatḥ Dāwud

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
I Kazal

15. 1441 – 29 January 1451 al-Mustakfī bi-llāh II Abū al-Rabīʿ Sulaymān

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
I

16. 1451 – 1455 al-Qāʾim bi-ʾamr Allāh Abū al-Baqāʾ Ḥamza

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
I

17. 1455 – 7 April 1479 al-Mustanjid bi-'llāh Abū al-Maḥāsin Yūsuf

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
I

18. 5 April 1479 – 27 September 1497 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā'llāh II Abū al-ʿIzz ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

Al-Musta'in Haj al-Malik

19. 1497 – 1508 al-Mustamsik bi-'llāh Abū al-Ṣabr Yaqūb

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
II

First reign

20. 1508 – 1516 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā'llāh III Muḥammad

First reign

21. 1516 – 1517 al-Mustamsik bi-'llāh Abū al-Ṣabr Yaqūb

Second reign

22. 1517 al-Mutawakkil ʿalā'llāh III Muḥammad

Second reign He formally surrendered the title of caliph as well as its outward emblems—the sword and mantle of Muhammad—to Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Selim I in 1517, making him the last caliph from Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
and the Banu Quraysh.

Genealogy[edit]

Genealogical tree of the Abbasid family. In green, the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. In yellow, the Abbasid caliphs of Cairo. Muhammad
Muhammad
is included (in caps) to show the kinship of the Abbasids with him.

References[edit]

^ Bosworth 2004, p. 7 ^ Houtsma & Wensinck 1993, p. 3

Bibliography[edit]

Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004) [1996]. The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys (2nd ed.). Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2137-8. OCLC 56639413.  Houtsma, M. Th.; Wensinck, A. J. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
1913–1936 (Reprint)format= requires url= (help). Volume IX. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09796-4.  Lane-Poole, Stanley (1894). The Mohammedan Dynasties: Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historical Introductions. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company. OCLC&#

.