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Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی‎ Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī;[4][5] New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī[6]) (4 September 973[7][8] – 9 December 1048[7]), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني‎) in English,[9] was an Iranian[10][11][12][13] scholar and polymath from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
— a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.[12] He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy.[14] He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac. He spent a large part of his life in Ghazni
Ghazni
in modern-day Afghanistan, capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, which was based in what is now central-eastern Afghanistan. In 1017 he traveled to South Asia
South Asia
and authored a study of Indian culture (Tahqiq ma li-l-hind...) after exploring the Hinduism practised in India.[a] He was given the title "founder of Indology". He was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India.[12] He also made contributions to Earth sciences, and is regarded as the "father of geodesy" for his important contributions to that field, along with his significant contributions to geography.[16]

Contents

1 Life 2 Mathematics
Mathematics
and astronomy 3 Physics 4 Geography 5 Pharmacology and mineralogy 6 History
History
and chronology 7 History
History
of religions 8 Anthropology 9 Indology 10 Works

10.1 Persian work

11 Legacy 12 Notes and references 13 Further reading 14 External links

14.1 Works online

Life[edit] He was born in the outer district of Kath, the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
(now a part of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan[17])[18] (or Chorasmia).[19] The word Biruni means "from the outer-district" in Persian, and so this became his nisba: "al-Bīrūnī" = "the Birunian".[19] Al-Biruni's relatives also took interest in the studies of science as well, so he grew up in an environment encouraging to his interests. He even had ties to royalty as there are links in his family to the families of prestigious elites.[20] To conduct research, Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
used different methods to tackle the various fields he studied. Many consider Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
one of the greatest scientists in history, and especially of Islam
Islam
because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research.[20] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm
Khwarezm
where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medics, philosophy and also dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well.[19] The Iranian Khwarezmian language, which was the language of Biruni,[21][22] survived for several centuries after Islam
Islam
until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum.[23] He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids
Ma'munids
in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid
Samanid
ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. There he corresponded with Avicenna[24] and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid
Ziyarid
amir of Tabaristan, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya (literally: "The remaining traces of past centuries" and translated as "Chronology of ancient nations" or "Vestiges of the Past") on historical and scientific chronology, probably around 1000 A.D., though he later made some amendments to the book. He also visited the court of the Bavandid
Bavandid
ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids
Afrighids
at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. Their court at Gorganj (also in Khwarezm) was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty.[2] Biruni was made court astrologer[25] and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years. He was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni.[26] Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India. He may even have learned some Sanskrit.[27] During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030.[28] Along with his writing, Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions. He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose.[20] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India.[29] Mathematics
Mathematics
and astronomy[edit]

An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.

Diagram illustrating a method proposed and used by Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to estimate the radius and circumference of the Earth

Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like mathematical geography.[30] His religion contributed to his research of astronomy, as in Islam, Muslim customs require knowing the directions of certain sacred locations, which can actually be found through this type of scientific study.[20] Biruni's major work on astrology[31] is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication. His endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology[32] as 'sorcery'. In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates.[33] He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy
Indian astronomy
in the Tahqiq ma li-l-hind, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation
Earth's rotation
in a work on astronomy that is no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy):

[T]he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible. This question is most difficult to solve. The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. We, too, have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy), in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter.[34]

In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics: he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist;[35] he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum;[36] he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres;[37] and so on. In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon, Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy's immobile solar apogee.[38] Not only did he perform research on theories, but he also wrote an in-depth analysis and explanation of an astrolabe and how it should work. He drew many different depictions of various instruments that are considered to be the precursors of more modern objects such as clocks and the astrolabe, in which other scientists were able to use to complete these inventions in the coming years.[20] More recently, Biruni's eclipse data was used by Dunthorne in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon[39] and his observational data has entered the larger astronomical historical record and is still used today[40] in geophysics and astronomy. Physics[edit] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
contributed to the introduction of the experimental scientific method to mechanics, unified statics and dynamics into the science of mechanics, and combined the fields of hydrostatics with dynamics to create hydrodynamics.[41] He came up with different methods for exploring densities, weight, and even gravity. Along with those methods, Biruni went so far as to describe instruments that go along with each of those areas as well. Although he never entirely focuses just on physics in any of his books, the study of physics is present throughout many of his various works. Biruni also came up with different hypotheses about heat and light.[20] Geography[edit] See also: History
History
of geodesy § Al-Biruni

Four directions and Political divisions of Iran
Iran
by Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī

Bīrūnī also devised his own method of determining the radius of the earth by means of the observation of the height of a mountain and carried it out at Nandana
Nandana
in Pind Dadan Khan
Pind Dadan Khan
in Pakistan.[42] He was heavily interested in the workings of the earth and included research about the planet in many of his works. The result of his discovery of radius measurement was due to Biruni's arduous research about the earth.[20] In his Codex Masudicus (1037), Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
theorized the existence of a landmass along the vast ocean between Asia
Asia
and Europe, or what is today known as the Americas. He deduced its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, and his discovery of the concept of specific gravity, from which he deduced that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia
Eurasia
must've also given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia
Asia
and Europe. He also theorized that the landmass must be inhabited by human beings, which he deduced from his knowledge of humans inhabiting the broad north-south band stretching from Russia
Russia
to South India
India
and Sub-Saharan Africa, theorizing that the landmass would most likely lie along the same band.[43] Pharmacology and mineralogy[edit] Biruni's most important work was a major pharmacopoeia, the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" (Book on the Pharmacopoeia
Pharmacopoeia
of Medicine), describing essentially all the medicines known in his time. It lists synonyms for drug names in Syriac, Persian, Greek, Baluchi, Afghan, Kurdi, and some Indian languages.[44][45] Due to an apparatus he constructed himself, he succeeded in determining the specific gravity of a certain number of metals and minerals with remarkable precision.[46] History
History
and chronology[edit] Biruni's main essay on political history, Kitāb al-musāmara fī aḵbār Ḵᵛārazm (Book of nightly conversation concerning the affairs of Ḵᵛārazm) is now known only from quotations in Bayhaqī’s Tārīkh-e masʿūdī. In addition to this various discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Āthār al-bāqiya and in the Qānūn as well as elsewhere in the Āthār, in India, and scattered throughout his other works.[47] Al-Biruni's study of history was not limited to the aforementioned topics, he also touched upon the topic of the earth's creation. He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Even though Islam
Islam
did influence his study, he did acknowledge the role of the elements.[20] History
History
of religions[edit] Bīrūnī is one of the most important Muslim authorities on the history of religion.[48] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. He studied Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other religions. He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong. His underlying concept was that all cultures are at least distant relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs. "What al-Biruni seems to be arguing is that there is a common human element in every culture that makes all cultures distant relatives, however foreign they might seem to one another."[49] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
divides Hindus
Hindus
into an educated and an uneducated class. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus
Hindus
worshipped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims (such as the Jabiriyya) have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God.[50] Anthropology[edit] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent. According to Akbar S. Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. Akhbar S. Ahmed concluded that Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
can be considered as the first Anthropologist,[51] however, others argue that he hardly can be considered an anthropologist in the conventional sense.[52] Indology[edit] Bīrūnī’s fame as an Indologist rests primarily on two texts.[53] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
wrote an encyclopedic work on India
India
called Taḥqīq mā li-l-hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (variously translated as "Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable"[54] or "The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable"[55]) in which he explored nearly every aspect of Indian life, including religion, history, geography, geology, science, and mathematics. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni's main focus. Instead, he decided to document the more civilian and scholarly areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, and religion.[56] He explores religion within a rich cultural context.[57] He expresses his objective with simple eloquence: He also translated the works of Indian sage Patanjali
Patanjali
with the title Tarjamat ketāb Bātanjalī fi’l-ḵalāṣ men al-ertebāk.

I shall not produce the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such of them, as I believe to be in the wrong. My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. I shall place before the reader the theories of the Hindus
Hindus
exactly as they are, and I shall mention in connection with them similar theories of the Greeks in order to show the relationship existing between them. (1910, Vol. 1, p. 7;1958, p. 5)

An example of Al-Biruni’s analysis is his summary of why many Hindus hate Muslims. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture.[57] He explains that Hinduism
Hinduism
and Islam
Islam
are totally different from each other. Moreover, Hindus
Hindus
in 11th century India
India
had suffered waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia, which—claimed Al-Biruni—contributed to Hindus
Hindus
becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims. Hindus
Hindus
considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with them. Over time, Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
won the welcome of Hindu scholars. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
collected books and studied with these Hindu scholars to become fluent in Sanskrit, discover and translate into Arabic
Arabic
the mathematics, science, medicine, astronomy and other fields of arts as practiced in 11th-century India. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be globular in shape, which is the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth's relative positions with moon and stars.[58] At the same time, Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was also critical of Indian scribes who he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents.[59] He also criticized the Hindus
Hindus
on what he saw them do and not do, like their deficiencies in curiosity about history and religion.[57] One of the specific aspects of Hindu life that Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
studied was the Hindu calendar. His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. He developed a method for converting the dates of the Hindu calendar to the dates of the three different calendars that were common in the Islamic countries of his time period, the Greek, the Arab/Muslim, and the Persian. Biruni also employed astronomy in the determination of his theories, which were complex mathematical equations and scientific calculation that allows one to convert dates and years between the different calendars.[60] The book does not limit itself to tedious records of battle because Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
found the social culture to be more important. The work includes research on a vast array of topics of Indian culture, including descriptions of their traditions and customs. Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation. But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
also described the geography of India
India
in his work. He documented different bodies of water and other natural phenomena. These descriptions are useful to today's modern historians because they are able to use Biruni's scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India. Historians are able to make some matches while also concluding that certain areas seem to have disappeared and been replaced with different cities. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology.[57] The dispassionate account of Hinduism
Hinduism
given by Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was remarkable for its time. He stated that he was fully objective in his wrtitings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should. Biruni documented everything about India
India
just as it happened. But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing.[57] Mohammad Yasin compares it to "a magic island of quiet, impartial research in the midst of a world of clashing swords, burning towns, and plundered temples.”[61] Biruni's writing was very poetic, which may diminish some of the historical value of the work for modern times. The lack of description of battle and politics makes those parts of the picture completely lost. However, Many have used Al-Biruni's work to check facts of history in other works that may have been ambiguous or had their validity questioned.[57] Works[edit] Al Biruni is the author of the book Kitab~ul~Hind. Most of the works of Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
are in Arabic
Arabic
although he wrote one of his masterpieces, the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages.[62] Bīrūnī’s catalogue of his own literary production up to his 65th lunar/63rd solar year (the end of 427/1036) lists 103 titles divided into 12 categories: astronomy, mathematical geography, mathematics, astrological aspects and transits, astronomical instruments, chronology, comets, an untitled category, astrology, anecdotes, religion, and books he no longer possesses.[63] His extant works include:

Critical study of what India
India
says, whether accepted by reason or refused ( Arabic
Arabic
تحقيق ما للهند من مقولة معقولة في العقل أم مرذولة), also known as the Indica – a compendium of India's religion and philosophy The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology
Astrology
(Kitab al-tafhim li-awa’il sina‘at al-tanjim). The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries
The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries
( Arabic
Arabic
الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية) – a comparative study of calendars of cultures and civilizations, (including several chapters on Christian cults)[64] with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information. Melkite
Melkite
Calendar, or Les Fetes des Melchites - Arabic
Arabic
text with French translation extract from The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries.[65]. The Mas'udi Canon (Persian قانون مسعودي) – an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy, geography, and engineering, named after Mas'ud, son of Mahmud of Ghazni, to whom he dedicated. Understanding Astrology
Astrology
( Arabic
Arabic
التفهيم لصناعة التنجيم) – a question and answer style book about mathematics and astronomy, in Arabic
Arabic
and Persian. Pharmacy – about drugs and medicines. Gems ( Arabic
Arabic
الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر) about geology, minerals, and gems, dedicated to Mawdud son of Mas'ud. Astrolabe. A historical summary book. History
History
of Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
and his father. History
History
of Khawarezm.

Persian work[edit] Biruni wrote most of his works in Arabic, as the scientific language of his age, however, his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim[62] is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian language, and is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography.[62] The book covers the Quadrivium in a detailed and skilled fashion.[62] Legacy[edit] After Al-Birunu's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty
Ghaznavid dynasty
and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced. It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India
India
which became relevant to the British Empire's activity in India
India
from the 17th century.[66] A film about his life, Abu Raykhan Beruni, was release in the Soviet Union in 1974.[67]

Lunar crater Al-Biruni, on the far side of the Moon, as seen by Apollo 14

In very recent times: the lunar crater Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
and the asteroid 9936 Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
were named in his honour. And in June 2009 Iran
Iran
donated a scholar pavilion to the United Nations Office in Vienna—placed in the central Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center.[68] The Persian Scholars Pavilion
Persian Scholars Pavilion
at United Nations in Vienna, Austria
Austria
is featuring the statues of four prominent Iranian figures. Highlighting the Iranian architectural features, the pavilion is adorned with Persian art forms and includes the statues of renowned Iranian scientists Avicenna, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) and Omar Khayyam.[69][70]

The statue of Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
in United Nations Office in Vienna
United Nations Office in Vienna
as a part of Persian Scholars Pavilion
Persian Scholars Pavilion
donated by Iran

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

^ Al-Biruni's idea of al-Hind (India) was a cultural zone, more or less coinciding with the present day India.[15]

Citations

^ PATROLOGIA ORIENTALIS TOMUS DECIMUS, p.291 https://archive.org/stream/patrologiaorient10pariuoft#page/n301 ^ a b The Exact Sciences, E.S. Kennedy, The Cambridge History
History
of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs, Ed. Richard Nelson Frye, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 394. ^ Kemal Ataman, Understanding other religions: al-Biruni's and Gadamer's "fusion of horizons", (CRVP, 2008), 58. ^ Sachau, E. (1879). The chronology of ancient nations; an english version of the Arabic
Arabic
text of the Athâr-ul-Bâkiya of Albîrûnî, or "Vestiges of the past", (p. Vii). London: Pub. for the Oriental translation fund of Great Britain & Ireland by W.H. Allen.

“ In our time the word is pronounced Biruni (or Beerooni), e.g. in Teheran. but the vowel of the first syllable is majhul, which means that in more ancient times it was pronounced Beron (or Bayroon)... That the name was pronounced in this way in Central Asia
Asia
about the author's time, we learn from indisputable statement regarding our author from the pen of Alsam'ani, a philologist and biographer of high repute. ”

^ MAcKENZIE, D. (1971). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 18). OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS ^ BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN. Encyclopædia Iranica, (1989, December 15). Retrieved August 20, 2015. ^ a b Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Islam. Lahore, Pakistan. 1971. p. 264.  ^ "Al-Biruni, Abdul".  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, al-Biruni (Persian scholar and scientist) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Britannica.com, retrieved 2010-02-28  ^

Bosworth, C. E. (1968), “The Political and Dynastic History
History
of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000–1217)”, J.A. Boyle (ed.), Cambridge History
History
of Iran, vol. 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, Cambridge University Press: 1–202. [45]. Excerpt from page 7:"The Iranian scholar al-BIruni says that the Khwarazmian era began when the region was first settled and cultivated, this date being placed in the early 13th-century BC)" Richard Frye: "The contribution of Iranians to Islamic mathematics is overwhelming. ..The name of Abu Raihan Al-Biruni, from Khwarazm, must be mentioned since he was one of the greatest scientists in World History"(R.N. Frye, "The Golden age of Persia", 2000, Phoenix Press. pg 162) M. A. Saleem Khan, "Al-Biruni's discovery of India: an interpretative study", iAcademicBooks, 2001. pg 11: "It is generally accepted that he was Persian by origin, and spoke the Khwarizmian dialect" [1] Rahman, H. U. (1995), A Chronology of Islamic History : 570 – 1000 CE, London: Mansell Publishing, p. 167, ISBN 1-897940-32-7, A Persian by birth, Biruni produced his writings in Arabic, though he knew, besides Persian, no less than four other languages 

^

Biruni (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 April 2007; David C. Lindberg, Science in the Middle Ages, University of Chicago Press, p. 18:

"A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna
Avicenna
and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di."

;

L. Massignon, " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
et la valuer internationale de la science arabe" in Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
Commemoration Volume, (Calcutta, 1951). pp 217–219.

“ In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni says, "And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Khwarezmian, science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba." ”

;

Gotthard Strohmaier, "Biruni" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index: Vol. 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2006. excerpt from page 112: "Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language, he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi), preferring Arabic
Arabic
instead as the only adequate medium of science."; D. N. MacKenzie, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "CHORASMIA iii. The Chorasmian Language". Excerpt: "Chorasmian, the original Iranian language
Iranian language
of Chorasmia, is attested at two stages of its development. The earliest examples have been left by the great Chorasmian scholar Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī."; A.L. Samian, "Al-Biruni" in Helaine Selin (ed.), "Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures ", Springer, 1997. excerpt from page 157: "his native language was the Khwarizmian dialect"

^ a b c D.J. Boilot, " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
(Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238. Excerpt 1: "He was born of an Iranian family in 362/973 (according to al-Ghadanfar, on 3 Dhu'l-Hididja/ 4 September — see E. Sachau, Chronology, xivxvi), in the suburb (birun) of Kath, capital of Khwarizm". Excerpt 2:"was one of the greatest scholars of mediaeval Islam, and certainly the most original and profound. He was equally well versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds. He is known as al-Ustdadh, "the Master". ^ Berggren, J. L.; Borwein, Jonathan; Borwein, Peter (2014). Pi: A Source Book. Springer. p. 680. ISBN 9781475742176. The Persian polymath, al-Birüni, a younger contemporary of Abu'l-Wafa', calculated the perimeters of inscribed and ...  ^ Healey, Christina (2006). Al-Biruni.  ^ Verdon, Noémie (2015), "Conceptualisation of al-Hind by Arabic
Arabic
and Persian writers", in Himanshu Prabha Ray, Negotiating Cultural Identity: Landscapes in Early Medieval South Asian History, Routledge, p. 52, ISBN 978-1-317-34130-7  ^ https://books.google.fr/books?id=iJ0bDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=bl&ots=8-uDuI_uCz&sig=RKfV1sspBTE3QNgMOuG6mxA1cgg&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinwpScqbvWAhVHC8AKHcrnBK44ChDoAQgtMAc#v=onepage&q=al%20biruni%20father%20of%20geodesy&f=false, ”He made such serious contributions to the earth sciences, cartography and physical geography that he is regarded as the father of geodesy” ^ Sparavigna, Amelia (2013). "The Science of Al-Biruni". The International Journal of Sciences. 2.  ^ Al-Biruni, D.J. Boilet, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R. Gibb, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 1236. ^ a b c C. Edmund Bosworth, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN i. Life" in Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
Iranica. Access date April 2011 at [2] ^ a b c d e f g h Sparavigna, Amelia (2013). "The Science of Al-Biruni". International Journal of Sciences. 2.  ^ Gotthard Strohmaier, "Biruni" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index: Vol. 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2006. excerpt from page 112: "Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language, he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi), preferring Arabic
Arabic
instead as the only adequate medium of science."; ^ D. N. MacKenzie, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "CHORASMIA iii. The Chorasmian Language" [3] "Chorasmian, the original Iranian language
Iranian language
of Chorasmia, is attested at two stages of its development. The earliest examples have been left by the great Chorasmian scholar Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī. ^ Bosworth, C.E. "Ḵh̲ W Ārazm." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. Accessed at 10 November 2007 <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-4205> ^ Firoozeh Papan-Matin, Beyond death: the mystical teachings of ʻAyn al-Quḍāt al-Hamadhānī, (Brill, 2010), 111. ^ Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, Vol.3, (University of Chicago Press, 1958), 168. ^ Sparavigna, Amelia (2013). "The Science of Al-Biruni". International Journal of Science. 2.  ^ Jean Jacques Waardenburg, Muslim Perceptions of other Religions: A Historical Survey, (Oxford University Press, 1999), 27. ^ Jean Jacques Waardenburg, 27. ^ Khan, M.S. (1976). " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
and the Political History
History
of India". Oriens. 25/26.  ^ George Saliba, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. Mathematics
Mathematics
and Astronomy" in Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ Biruni, 'Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology', c.1027 ^ George C. Noonan, 'Classical Scientific Astrology' ^ Douglas (1973, p.210) ^ Al-Biruni, trans. by Edward C. Sachau (1888), Alberuni's India: an account of the religion, philosophy, and literature, p.277 ^ c.f. questions six and seven; Rafik Berjak, Muzaffar Iqbal 'Ibn Sina—al-Biruni correspondence pt.V', Islam
Islam
and Science, Summer, 2005 ^ Rafik Berjak & Muzaffar Iqbal, 'Ibn Sina—Al-Biruni correspondence pt.III', Islam
Islam
& Science / Summer, 2004 ^ Rafik Berjak & Muzaffar Iqbal, 'Ibn Sina—Al-Biruni correspondence pt.III', Islam
Islam
& Science / Summer, 2003 ^ Rosenfeld, B. (1974), Review of Zhizn' i trudy Beruni, 'Biruni', Journal for the History
History
of Astronomy, Vol. 5, p.135 ^ M. Th. Houtsma, 'E. J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936', p.681 ^ Francis Stephenson (1995), 'Historical eclipses and earth's rotation', pp.45,457,488–499 ^ ^ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", p. 642, in (Morelon & Rashed 1996, pp. 614-642): "Using a whole body of mathematical methods (not only those inherited from the antique theory of ratios and infinitesimal techniques, but also the methods of the contemporary algebra and fine calculation techniques), Muslim scientists raised statics to a new, higher level. The classical results of Archimedes in the theory of the centre of gravity were generalized and applied to three-dimensional bodies, the theory of ponderable lever was founded and the 'science of gravity' was created and later further developed in medieval Europe. The phenomena of statics were studied by using the dynamic approach so that two trends - statics and dynamics - turned out to be inter-related within a single science, mechanics. The combination of the dynamic approach with Archimedean hydrostatics gave birth to a direction in science which may be called medieval hydrodynamics. [...] Numerous fine experimental methods were developed for determining the specific weight, which were based, in particular, on the theory of balances and weighing. The classical works of al-Biruni and al-Khazini can by right be considered as the beginning of the application of experimental methods in medieval science." ^ David Pingree,"BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iv. Geography" in Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ S. Frederick Starr
S. Frederick Starr
(2013), So, Who Did Discover America?, History Today, Volume 63, Issue 12 ^ Kujundzić, E.; Masić, I. (1999). "[Al-Biruni--a universal scientist]". Med. Arh. (in Croatian). 53 (2): 117–120. PMID 10386051.  ^ Levey, Martin (1973). Early Arabic
Arabic
Pharmacology: An Introduction Based on Ancient and Medieval Sources. Brill Archive. p. 179. ISBN 90-04-03796-9.  ^ Georges C. Anawati, BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN v. Pharmacology and Mineralogy, in Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ David Pingree, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. History
History
and Chronology" in Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ François de Blois,"BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii. History
History
of Religions" in Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ Rosenthal, 1976, p. 10 ^ Ataman, 2005 ^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist". RAIN. 60 (60): 9–10. doi:10.2307/3033407 ^ Richard Tapper (1995). "Islamic Anthropology" and the "Anthropology of Islam", Anthropological Quarterly 68 (3), Anthropological Analysis and Islamic Texts, p. 185-193. ^ Bruce B. Lawerence, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Indology" in Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ George Saliba. "Al-Bīrūnī". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Aug 12, 2017.  ^ Bruce B. Lawrence (1989). "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Indology". Encyclopaedia Iranica.  ^ Khan, M.S. (1976). "Al-biruni and the Political History
History
of India". Oriens. 25/26.  ^ a b c d e f Khan, M.S. (1976). " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
and the Political History of India". Oriens. 25/26.  ^ Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (1910), "On the Shape of Heaven and Earth According to the Hindu Astronomers", Alberuni's India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws and Astrology
Astrology
of India
India
about A.D. 1030, 1, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, pp. 267–269  ^ Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (1910), "On the Hindus
Hindus
in General, as an Introduction to Our Account of Them", Alberuni's India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws and Astrology
Astrology
of India
India
about A.D. 1030, 1, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, p. 17see also Vol 2 of Al-Biruni's India.  ^ Kennedy, Engle, Wamstad, E.S., Susan, Jeanne (1965). "The Hindu Calendar as Described in Al-Biruni's Masudic Canon". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 24. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Yasin, , Mohammad. (1988). Reading in Indian history. New Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers & Distri,. p. 19. ISBN 978-8-1715-6120-9. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ a b c d S.H. Nasr, "An introduction to Islamic cosmological doctrines: conceptions of nature and methods used for its study by the Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ, al-Bīrūnī, and Ibn Sīnā", 2nd edition, Revised. SUNY press, 1993. pp 111: " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
wrote one of the masterpieces of medieval science, Kitab al-Tafhim, apparently in both Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, demonstrating how conversant he was in both tongues. The Kitab al-Tafhim is without doubt the most important of the early works of science in Persian and serves as a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography as well as for the knowledge of the Quadrivium whose subjects it covers in a masterly fashion" ^ David Pingree, BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN ii. Bibliography, in Encyclopaedia Iranica. [4] ^ Patrologia Orientalis tom.10 p.291 ^ Patrologia Orientalis tom.10 pp.291-312 https://archive.org/stream/patrologiaorient10pariuoft#page/n301 ^ "BBc Radio: In our Time - Al-Biruni".  ^ Abu Raykhan Beruni, IMDB ^ UNIS. "Monument to Be Inaugurated at the Vienna
Vienna
International Centre, 'Scholars Pavilion' donated to International Organizations in Vienna
Vienna
by Iran". Retrieved 11 September 2016.  ^ "Permanent mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
to the United Nations office - Vienna". en.viennaun.mfa.ir.  ^ Hosseini, Mir Masood. "Negareh: Persian Scholars Pavilion
Persian Scholars Pavilion
at United Nations Vienna, Austria". Retrieved 11 September 2016. 

Bibliography

C.E. Bosworth, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN i. Life" in Encyclopædia Iranica [5] (accessed April 2011) David Pingree, ""BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN ii. Bibliography", in Encyclopædia Iranica [6] (accessed April 2011) George Saliba, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. Mathematics
Mathematics
and Astronomy" in Encyclopædia Iranica [7] (accessed April 2011) David Pingree, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iv. Geography" in Encyclopædia Iranica [8] (accessed April 2011) Georges C. Anawati, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN v. Pharmacology and Mineralogy" in Encyclopædia Iranica [9] (accessed April 2011) David Pingree, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. History
History
and Chronology" in Encyclopædia Iranica [10] (accessed April 2011) François de Blois, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii. History
History
of Religions", in Encyclopædia Iranica [11] (accessed April 2011) Bruce B. Lawerence, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Indology", in Encyclopædia Iranica [12] (accessed April 2011) Douglas, A. Vibert (1973), "Al-Biruni, Persian Scholar, 973–1048", Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 67: 209–211, Bibcode:1973JRASC..67..209D  Yano, Michio (2007), "Bīrūnī: Abū al‐Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al‐Bīrūnī", in Thomas Hockey; et al., The Biographical Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Astronomers, New York: Springer, pp. 131–3, ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0  (PDF version) Kennedy, E. S. (2008) [1970–80], " Al-Bīrūnī
Al-Bīrūnī
(or Bērūnī), Abū Rayḥān (or Abu'l-Rayḥān) Muḥammad Ibn Aḥmad", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Encyclopedia.com  Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-96930-1  Abulfadl naba’I (1986), Calendar-making in the History, Astan Ghods Razavi Publishing Co.  Abolghassem Ghorbani; Markaze Nashre Daneshgahi (1995), Biruni Name, ISBN 964-01-0756-5  Kiple, Kenneth F.; Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè (2001), The Cambridge World History
History
of Food, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-40216-6  Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of the History
History
of Arabic
Arabic
Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12410-7  Saliba, George (1994), A History
History
of Arabic
Arabic
Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-8023-7  Dani, Ahmed Hasan (1973), Alberuni's Indica: A record of the cultural history of South Asia
South Asia
about AD 1030, University of Islamabad Press  Samian, A.L. (2011), "Reason and Spirit in Al-Biruni's Philosophy of Mathematics", in Tymieniecka, A-T., Reason, Spirit and the Sacral in the New Enlightenment, Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology in Dialogue, 5, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 137–146, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9612-8_9, ISBN 978-90-481-9612-8  Biruni, Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al- (1910), E. Sachau, ed., Al-Beruni's India: an Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws and Astrology
Astrology
of Indiae, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.  Rosenthal, F. (1976), E. Yarshter, ed., Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
between Greece and India, New York: Iran
Iran
Center, Columbia University  Yasin, M. (1975), Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
in India, Islamic Culture  Ataman, K. (2005), Re-Reading al-Biruni's India: a Case for Intercultural Understanding, Islam
Islam
and Christian-Muslim Relations 

Further reading[edit]

On the Presumed Darwinism of Alberuni Eight Hundred Years before Darwin Jan Z. Wilczynski Isis Vol. 50, No. 4 (Dec., 1959), pp. 459–466 (article consists of 8 pages) Published by: The University of Chicago Press
University of Chicago Press
on behalf of The History
History
of Science Society Stable URL: [13]

External links[edit]

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Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Al-Biruni

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abu Rayhan al-Biruni.

BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN in Encyclopaedia Iranica Gomez, A. G. (2010) Biruni's Measurement of the Earth [online], https://www.academia.edu/8166456/Birunis_measurement_of_the_Earth Gomez, A. G. (2012) Biruni's Measurement of the Earth Geogebra interactive illustration. Richard Covington, Rediscovering Arabic
Arabic
Science, 2007, Saudi Aramco World[permanent dead link] " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
(973–1048)." Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Occultism and Parapsychology. 2001. Encyclopedia.com. 5 Feb. 2015. Al-Bīr Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 2008 Copyright "Abu Rayhan al-Biruni." Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of World Biography. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 5 Feb. 2015

Works online[edit]

Hogendijk, Jan: The works of al-Bīrūnī – manuscripts, critical editions, translations and online links Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson (1871), "1. Táríkhu-l Hind of Bírúní", The History
History
of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period., 2, London : Trübner & Co.  (At Packard Institute) Sachau, C. Edward (1910), ALBERUNI'S INDIA – An account of ... India about A.D. 1030, Volume 1, 1, Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co. Ltd., London  Sachau, C. Edward (1910), ALBERUNI'S INDIA – An account of ... India about A.D. 1030, Volume 1, 1, Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co. Ltd., London  Sachau, C. Edward (1879), The Chronology Of Ancient Nations, London: William H. Allen And Co., retrieved June 24, 2017  Alberuni's India, in English, Volume I. Translated by C. Edward Sachau, 1910 "On Stones": Biruni's work on geology, medical properties of gemstones full text version + comments

v t e

Astronomy
Astronomy
in the medieval Islamic world

Astronomers

by century (CE AD)

8th

Ahmad Nahavandi Al-Fadl ibn Naubakht Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī Mashallah ibn Athari Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq

9th

Abu Maʿshar Abu Said Gorgani Al-Farghānī Al-Kindi Al-Mahani Abu Hanifa Dinawari Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf Al-Marwazi Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi Banu Musa Iranshahri Khālid ibn ʿAbd al‐Malik Al-Khwārizmī Sahl ibn Bishr Thābit ibn Qurra Yahya ibn Abi Mansur

10th

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Ibn Al-Adami al-Khojandi l-Khāzin al-Qūhī Abu al-Wafa Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Battani Al-Qabisi Al-Nayrizi Al-Saghani Aṣ-Ṣaidanānī Ibn Yunus Ibrahim ibn Sinan Ma Yize al-Sijzi Mariam al-Asturlabi Nastulus Abolfadl Harawi Haseb-i Tabari al-Majriti

11th

Abu Nasr Mansur al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Zarqālī Ibn al-Samh Al-Muradi Alhazen Avicenna Ibn al-Saffar Kushyar Gilani Said al-Andalusi Al-Isfizari

12th

Al-Bitruji Avempace Ibn Tufail Al-Kharaqī Al-Khazini Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Abu al-Salt Anvari Averroes Ibn al-Kammad Jabir ibn Aflah Omar Khayyam Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī

13th

Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili Jamal ad-Din al-Hanafi Muhyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī Zakariya al-Qazwini Ibn Abi al-Shukr al-ʿUrḍī al-Abhari Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Marrakushi Al-Ashraf Umar II

14th

Ibn al-Shatir al-Khalīlī Ibn Shuayb al-Battiwi Abū al‐ʿUqūl Nizam al-Din Nishapuri al-Jadiri

15th

Ali Kuşçu ʿAbd al‐Wājid Jamshīd al-Kāshī Kadızade Rumi Ulugh Beg Sibt al-Maridini Ibn al-Majdi al-Wafa' al-Kubunani

16th

Al-Birjandi Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī Piri Reis Takiyüddin

17th

Yang Guangxian Ahmad Khani Al Achsasi al Mouakket Mohammed al-Rudani

Topics

Works

Arabic
Arabic
star names Islamic calendar ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of the Brethren of Purity Tabula Rogeriana The Book of Healing

Zij

Alfonsine tables Huihui Lifa Book of Fixed Stars Toledan Tables Zij-i Ilkhani Zij-i Sultani Sullam al-sama'

Instruments

Alidade Analog computer Aperture Armillary sphere Astrolabe Astronomical clock Celestial globe Compass Compass
Compass
rose Dioptra Equatorial ring Equatorium Globe Graph paper Magnifying glass Mural instrument Navigational astrolabe Nebula Planisphere Quadrant Sextant Shadow square Sundial Schema for horizontal sundials Triquetrum

Concepts

Almucantar Apogee Astrology
Astrology
in medieval Islam Astrophysics Axial tilt Azimuth Celestial mechanics Celestial spheres Circular orbit Deferent and epicycle Earth's rotation Eccentricity Ecliptic Elliptic orbit Equant Galaxy Geocentrism Gravitational potential energy Gravity Heliocentrism Inertia Islamic cosmology Moonlight Multiverse Obliquity Parallax Precession Qibla Salah times Specific gravity Spherical Earth Sublunary sphere Sunlight Supernova Temporal finitism Trepidation Triangulation Tusi couple Universe

Institutions

Al-Azhar University House of Knowledge House of Wisdom University of Al Quaraouiyine Observatories

Constantinople (Taqi al-Din) Maragheh Samarkand (Ulugh Beg)

Influences

Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy Hellenistic astronomy Indian astronomy

Influenced

Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Medieval European science Indian astronomy

v t e

Mathematics
Mathematics
in medieval Islam

Mathematicians

9th century

'Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk Sind ibn Ali al-Jawharī Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf Al-Kindi Al-Mahani al-Dinawari Banū Mūsā Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Khwārizmī Yusuf Al-Khuri ibn Qurra Na'im ibn Musa Sahl ibn Bishr al-Marwazi Abu Said Gorgani

10th century

al-Sufi Abu al-Wafa al-Khāzin Abū Kāmil Al-Qabisi al-Khojandi Ahmad ibn Yusuf Aṣ-Ṣaidanānī al-Uqlidisi Al-Nayrizi Al-Saghani Brethren of Purity Ibn Sahl Ibn Yunus Ibrahim ibn Sinan Al-Battani Sinan ibn Thabit Al-Isfahani Nazif ibn Yumn al-Qūhī Abu al-Jud al-Majriti al-Jabali

11th century

al-Zarqālī Abu Nasr Mansur Said al-Andalusi Ibn al-Samh Al-Biruni Alhazen ibn Fatik Al-Sijzi al-Nasawī Al-Karaji Avicenna Muhammad al-Baghdadi ibn Hud al-Jayyānī Kushyar Gilani Al-Muradi Al-Isfizari Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi

12th century

Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Avempace Al-Khazini Omar Khayyam Jabir ibn Aflah al-Hassar Al-Kharaqī Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī Ibn al-Yasamin

13th century

al-Hanafi al-Abdari Muhyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī Ibn 'Adlan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili Ibn Abi al-Shukr al-Hasan al-Marrakushi

14th century

al-Umawī Ibn al-Banna' Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Shatir Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī Al-Khalili Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ahmad al-Qalqashandi Ibn al-Durayhim

15th century

al-Qalaṣādī Ali Qushji al-Wafa'i al-Kāshī al-Rūmī Ulugh Beg Ibn al-Majdi Sibt al-Maridini al-Kubunani

16th century

Al-Birjandi Muhammad Baqir Yazdi Taqi ad-Din Ibn Hamza al-Maghribi Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi

Mathematical works

The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing De Gradibus Principles of Hindu Reckoning Book of Optics The Book of Healing Almanac Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of the Brethren of Purity Toledan Tables Tabula Rogeriana Zij

Concepts

Alhazen's problem Islamic geometric patterns

Centers

Al-Azhar University Al-Mustansiriya University House of Knowledge House of Wisdom Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din Madrasa Maktab Maragheh observatory University of Al Quaraouiyine

Influences

Babylonian mathematics Greek mathematics Indian mathematics

Influenced

Byzantine mathematics European mathematics Indian mathematics

v t e

Geography
Geography
and cartography in medieval Islam

Geographers

9th century

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī Ya'qubi Sulaiman al-Tajir

10th century

Ibn Khordadbeh Ahmad ibn Rustah Ahmad ibn Fadlan Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Abū Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdānī Al-Masudi Istakhri Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad Ibn Hawqal Ibn al-Faqih Al-Muqaddasi Al-Ramhormuzi

11th century

Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī Abu Saʿīd Gardēzī Al-Bakri Mahmud al-Kashgari Domiyat

12th century

Al-Zuhri Muhammad al-Idrisi Abu'l Abbas al-Hijazi

13th century

Ibn Jubayr Saadi Shirazi Yaqut al-Hamawi Ibn Said al-Maghribi Ibn al-Nafis

14th century

Al-Dimashqi Abu'l-Fida Ibn al-Wardi Hamdollah Mostowfi Ibn Battuta Lin Nu

15th century

Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī Ghiyāth al-dīn Naqqāsh Ahmad ibn Mājid Zheng He Ma Huan Fei Xin

16th century

Sulaiman Al Mahri Piri Reis Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi Amīn Rāzī

17th century

Evliya Çelebi

Works

Book of Roads and Kingdoms (al-Bakrī) Book of Roads and Kingdoms (ibn Khordadbeh) Tabula Rogeriana Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar Mu'jam Al-Buldan Rihla The Meadows of Gold Piri Reis
Piri Reis
map

Influences

Geography
Geography
(Ptolemy)

v t e

Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Alchemists

7th century

Khālid ibn Yazīd

8th century

Harbi al-Himyari Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Jābir ibn Hayyān Al-Kindi Abbas ibn Firnas Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri Ziryab Dhul-Nun al-Misri

10th century

Ibn Wahshiyya Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi Al-Zahrawi Al-Razi Al-Farabi Ibn al-Nadim Al-Majriti Abu Mansur Muwaffaq

11th century

Ibn al-Wafid Al-Bīrūnī Avicenna Al-Khwarizmi al-Khati Miskawayh Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis Ahmad ibn 'Imad al-Din

12th century

Al-Khazini Artephius Al-Tughrai Al-Nabarawi Abu'l Hasan ibn Arfa Ra'a Al-Jawbari Abu al-Salt

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati Al-Kātibī Attar of Nishapur Al-Simawi Hasan al-Rammah Mansur al-Kamili

14th century

Ibn Rassam Al-Jaldaki Abul Ashba ibn Tammam

Concepts

Takwin Philosopher's stone Al-iksīr Alembic Athanor

Works

Kitab al-Kimya Kitab al-Sab'een

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100174240 LCCN: n80014376 ISNI: 0000 0001 2145 0850 GND: 118511327 SELIBR: 32707 SUDOC: 028970802 BNF: cb120695932 (data) NLA: 35908468 BNE: XX1082729 SN

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