'Twas the night before Christmas, when all thro' the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there;
The children were nestled all snug in their beds,
While visions of sugar plums danced in their heads
And Mama in her 'kerchief, and I in my cap,
Had just settled DOWN for a long winter's nap—
When out on the lawn there arose such a clatter,
I sprang from the bed to see what was the matter.
Away to the window I flew like a flash,
Tore open the shutters, and threw up the sash.
The moon on the breast of the new fallen snow,
Gave the luster of mid-day to objects below;
When, what to my wondering eyes should appear,
But a miniature sleigh, and eight tiny reindeer,
With a little old driver, so lively and quick,
I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick.
More rapid than eagles his coursers they came,
And he whistled, and shouted, and call'd them by name:
"NOW! DASHER, NOW! DANCER, NOW! PRANCER AND VIXEN,
"ON! COMET, ON! CUPID, ON! DUNDER AND BLIXEM;
"To the top of the porch! To the top of the wall!
"Now dash away! Dash away! Dash away all!"
As dry leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,
When they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky;
So up to the house-top the coursers they flew,
With the sleigh full of toys—and St. Nicholas too:
And then in a twinkling, I heard on the roof
The prancing and pawing of each little hoof.
As I drew in my head, and was turning around,
Down the chimney St. Nicholas came with a bound:
He was dress'd all in fur, from his head to his foot,
And his clothes were all tarnish'd with ashes and soot;
A bundle of toys was flung on his back,
And he look'd like a peddler just opening his pack:
His eyes—how they twinkled! His dimples: how merry,
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry;
His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
And the beard of his chin was as white as the snow;
The stump of a pipe he held tight in his teeth,
And the smoke it encircled his head like a wreath.
He had a broad face, and a little round belly
That shook when he laugh'd, like a bowl full of jelly:
He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf,
And I laugh'd when I saw him in spite of myself;
A wink of his eye and a twist of his head
Soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread.
He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work,
And fill'd all the stockings; then turn'd with a jerk,
And laying his finger aside of his nose
And giving a nod, up the chimney he rose.
He sprung to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle,
And away they all flew, like the down of a thistle:
But I heard him exclaim, ere he drove out of sight—
Christmas to all, and to all a good night.
"A VISIT FROM ST. NICHOLAS", more commonly known as "THE NIGHT BEFORE
CHRISTMAS" and "\'TWAS THE NIGHT BEFORE CHRISTMAS" from its first
line, is a poem first published anonymously in 1823 and later
Clement Clarke Moore , who claimed authorship in 1837.
Some commentators now believe the poem was written by Henry
Livingston, Jr. .
The poem has been called "arguably the best-known verses ever written
by an American" and is largely responsible for some of the
Santa Claus from the mid-nineteenth century to today.
It has had a massive impact on the history of
Before the poem gained wide popularity, American ideas had varied
Saint Nicholas and other
Christmastide visitors. "A
Visit from St. Nicholas" eventually was set to music and has been
recorded by many artists.
* 1 Plot
* 2 Meter
* 3 Literary history
* 4 Original copies
* 5 Authorship controversy
* 5.1 Evidence in favor of Moore
* 5.2 Evidence in favor of Livingston
* 6 In popular culture
* 6.1 Comics
* 6.2 Films
* 6.3 Literature
* 6.4 Music and spoken word
* 6.5 Radio and television
* 6.6 Other
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Christmas Eve night, while his wife and children sleep, a father
awakens to noises outside his house. Looking out the window, he sees
Santa Claus (
Saint Nicholas ) in an air-borne sleigh pulled by eight
reindeer . After landing his sleigh on the roof, the saint enters the
house through the chimney, carrying a sack of toys with him. The
father watches Santa filling the children's
hanging by the fire, and laughs to himself. They share a
conspiratorial moment before Santa bounds up the chimney again. As he
flies away, Santa wishes everyone a "Happy
Christmas to all, and to
all a good night."
The poem's meter is anapestic tetrameter (four feet of
unstressed-unstressed-stressed). The anapest is the same foot used to
construct limericks, and the common metrical modifications that can be
observed in the limerick form also can be observed in Moore's poem.
For example, while the first two lines each use full anapests, lines 3
and 4 each drop the first unstressed syllable. Likewise, lines 9 and
10 drop the first unstressed syllable; they also add an extra
unstressed syllable to the end.
Clement Clarke Moore , the author of
A Visit from St. Nicholas
A Visit from St. Nicholas
According to legend, "A Visit" was composed by Clement Clarke Moore
on a snowy winter's day during a shopping trip on a sleigh . His
inspiration for the character of
Saint Nicholas was a local Dutch
handyman as well as the historical
Saint Nicholas . Moore originated
many of the features that are still associated with
Santa Claus today
while borrowing other aspects, such as the use of reindeer. The poem
was first published anonymously in the
Troy, New York
Troy, New York Sentinel on 23
December 1823, having been sent there by a friend of Moore, and was
reprinted frequently thereafter with no name attached. It was first
attributed in print to Moore in 1837. Moore himself acknowledged
authorship when he included it in his own book of poems in 1844. By
then, the original publisher and at least seven others had already
acknowledged his authorship. Moore had a reputation as an erudite
professor and had not wished at first to be connected with the
unscholarly verse. He included it in the anthology at the insistence
of his children, for whom he had originally written the piece.
Moore's conception of
Saint Nicholas was borrowed from his friend
Washington Irving (see below ), but Moore portrayed his "jolly old
elf" as arriving on
Christmas Eve rather than
Christmas Day . At the
time that Moore wrote the poem,
Christmas Day was overtaking New
Year\'s Day as the preferred genteel family holiday of the season, but
Christmas as the result of "Catholic ignorance
and deception" and still had reservations. By having Saint Nicholas
arrive the night before, Moore "deftly shifted the focus away from
Christmas Day with its still-problematic religious associations." As a
result, "New Yorkers embraced Moore's child-centered version of
Christmas as if they had been doing it all their lives."
In An American Anthology, 1787–1900, editor Edmund Clarence Stedman
reprinted the Moore version of the poem, including the German spelling
of "Donder and Blitzen" that he adopted, rather than the earlier Dutch
version from 1823 "Dunder and Blixem ." Both phrases translate as
Lightning " in English , though the German word for
thunder is "Donner" and the words in modern Dutch would be "Donder en
Modern printings frequently incorporate alterations that reflect
changing linguistic and cultural sensibilities. For example, breast in
"The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow" is frequently
bowdlerized to crest; the archaic ere in "But I heard him exclaim ere
he drove out of sight" is frequently replaced with as. Note that this
change implies that
Santa Claus made his exclamation during the moment
that he disappeared from view, while the exclamation came before his
disappearance in the original. "Happy
Christmas to all, and to all a
good-night" is frequently rendered with the traditional English
locution "\'Merry Christmas\' " and with "goodnight" as a single word.
'Twas the night before
Christmas (credit: New-York Historical
Four hand-written copies of the poem are known to exist and three are
in museums, including the
New-York Historical Society library. The
fourth copy, written out and signed by
Clement Clarke Moore as a gift
to a friend in 1860, was sold by one private collector to another in
December 2006. It was purchased for $280,000 by an unnamed "chief
executive officer of a media company" who resides in
New York City
New York City ,
according to Dallas, Texas -based
Heritage Auctions which brokered the
Moore's connection with the poem has been questioned by Professor
Donald Foster , who used textual content analysis and external
evidence to argue that Moore could not have been the author. Foster
believes that Major
Henry Livingston, Jr. , a New Yorker with Dutch
and Scottish roots, should be considered the chief candidate for
authorship, a view long espoused by the Livingston family. Livingston
was distantly related to Moore's wife. Foster's claim, however, has
been countered by document dealer and historian Seth Kaller, who once
owned one of Moore's original manuscripts of the poem. Kaller has
offered a point-by-point rebuttal of both Foster's linguistic analysis
and external findings, buttressed by the work of autograph expert
James Lowe and Dr. Joe Nickell, author of Pen, Ink and Evidence.
EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF MOORE
Moore is credited by his friend
Charles Fenno Hoffman as author in
the 25 December 1837 Pennsylvania Inquirer and Daily Courier. Further,
the Rev. David Butler, who allegedly showed the poem to Sentinel
Orville L. Holley , was a relative of Moore's. A letter to
Moore from the publisher states, "I understand from Mr. Holley that he
received it from Mrs. Sackett, the wife of Mr. Daniel Sackett who was
then a merchant in this city". Moore preferred to be known for his
more scholarly works, but allowed the poem to be included in his
anthology in 1844 at the request of his children. By that time, the
original publisher and at least seven others had already acknowledged
his authorship. Livingston family lore gives credit to their forebear
rather than Moore, but there is no proof that Livingston himself ever
claimed authorship, nor has any record ever been found of any printing
of the poem with Livingston's name attached to it, despite more than
40 years of searches.
EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF LIVINGSTON
Advocates for Livingston's authorship argue that Moore "tried at
first to disavow" the poem. They also posit that Moore falsely
claimed to have translated a book. Document dealer and historian Seth
Kaller has challenged both claims. Kaller examined the book in
question, A Complete Treatise on Merinos and Other Sheep, as well as
many letters signed by Moore, and found that the "signature" was not
penned by Moore, and thus provides no evidence that Moore made any
plagiaristic claim. Kaller's findings were confirmed by autograph
expert James Lowe, by Dr.
Joe Nickell , the author of Pen, Ink ">
Some contend that
Henry Livingston, Jr. , not Moore, was the author of
The following points have been advanced in order to credit the poem
to Major Henry Livingston, Jr.:
Livingston also wrote poetry primarily using an anapaestic metrical
scheme, and it is claimed that some of the phraseology of A Visit is
consistent with other poems by Livingston, and that Livingston's
poetry is more optimistic than Moore's poetry published in his own
Stephen Nissenbaum argues in his Battle for
the poem could have been a social satire of the Victorianization of
Christmas. Furthermore, Kaller claims that Foster cherry-picked only
the poems that fit his thesis and that many of Moore's unpublished
works have a tenor, phraseology, and meter similar to A Visit. Moore
had even written a letter titled "From Saint Nicholas" that may have
Foster also contends that Moore hated tobacco and would, therefore,
never have depicted
Saint Nicholas with a pipe. However, Kaller notes,
the source of evidence for Moore's supposed disapproval of tobacco is
The Wine Drinker, another poem by him. In actuality, that verse
contradicts such a claim. Moore's The Wine Drinker criticizes
self-righteous, hypocritical advocates of temperance who secretly
indulge in the substances which they publicly oppose, and supports the
social use of tobacco in moderation (as well as wine, and even opium,
which was more acceptable in his day than it is now).
Foster also asserts that Livingston's mother was Dutch, which
accounts for the references to the Dutch Sinteklaes tradition and the
use of the Dutch names "Dunder and Blixem". Against this claim, it is
suggested by Kaller that Moore — a friend of writer Washington
Irving and member of the same literary society — may have acquired
some of his knowledge of New York Dutch traditions from Irving. Irving
A History of New York in 1809 under the name of "Dietrich
Knickerbocker." It includes several references to legends of Saint
Nicholas, including the following that bears a close relationship to
And the sage Oloffe dreamed a dream,—and lo, the good St.
Nicholas came riding over the tops of the trees, in that self-same
wagon wherein he brings his yearly presents to children, and he
descended hard by where the heroes of Communipaw had made their late
repast. And he lit his pipe by the fire, and sat himself down and
smoked; and as he smoked, the smoke from his pipe ascended into the
air and spread like a cloud overhead. And Oloffe bethought him, and he
hastened and climbed up to the top of one of the tallest trees, and
saw that the smoke spread over a great extent of country; and as he
considered it more attentively, he fancied that the great volume of
smoke assumed a variety of marvelous forms, where in dim obscurity he
saw shadowed out palaces and domes and lofty spires, all of which
lasted but a moment, and then faded away, until the whole rolled off,
and nothing but the green woods were left. And when St. Nicholas had
smoked his pipe, he twisted it in his hatband, and laying his finger
beside his nose, gave the astonished Van Kortlandt a very significant
look; then, mounting his wagon, he returned over the tree-tops and
disappeared. — Washington Irving,
A History of New York
MacDonald P. Jackson , Emeritus
Professor of English at the
University of Auckland
University of Auckland , New Zealand and a Fellow of the Royal Society
of New Zealand , has spent his entire academic career analyzing
authorship attribution. He has written a book titled Who Wrote "the
Night Before Christmas"?: Analyzing the
Clement Clarke Moore Vs. Henry
Livingston Question, published in 2016, in which he evaluates the
opposing arguments and, for the first time, uses the
author-attribution techniques of modern computational stylistics to
examine the long-standing controversy. Jackson employs a range of
tests and introduces a new one, statistical analysis of phonemes; he
concludes that Livingston is the true author of the classic work.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Cover of a 1912 edition of the poem, illustrated by Jessie
A Visit from St. Nicholas, being very well-known, has inspired many
parodies , adaptations, and references in popular culture.
* In the
Garfield comic strips published during the week of 19–24
December 1983, the text of the poem was drawn above scenes of Garfield
acting out the part of the narrator.
* From 13–25 December 2010,
Over the Hedge covered the poem in a
story arc, in which Verne tries to read it to Hammy and R.J., but
keeps getting interrupted by their silly comments.
* The 11 December 1968 installation of
Peanuts features Sally Brown
attempting to recite the poem but inadvertently substituting the name
Jack Nicklaus for "Saint Nicholas" ("The stockings were hung
by the chimney with care, in hope that
Jack Nicklaus soon would be
there"), after which
Charlie Brown is hesitant to correct her.
* Issue 40 of the
DC Comics book
Young Justice (2001) is a
full-length parody of the poem. Unusual for a comic book, it features
no panels or word balloons , only full-page illustrations accompanied
by rhyming text. In the story, Santa sacrifices his life to save the
world from a vengeful alien villain (though it's implied he'll be
reborn next Christmas) and the teen heroes are stuck with the task of
delivering all his gifts.
* Florence Cestac adapted it for
Christmas Classics: Graphic
Classics Volume Nineteen (2010).
* The short silent film The Night Before
Christmas (1905) was the
first production of the poem on film.
* In the 1933
Pooch the Pup cartoon
Merry Dog (1933), Pooch recites
the poem. When he mentions the line "Not a creature was stirring, not
even a mouse," a rat finds it ludicrous, and therefore comes out to
cause a little trouble.
Silly Symphonies cartoon short, The Night Before Christmas
* The Tom ">
Lance Corporal James M. Schmidt penned "Merry Christmas, My
friend. A Marine's version of 'Twas the Night Before Christmas'"
* James Thurber\'s parody, "A Visit from
Saint Nicholas IN THE
ERNEST HEMINGWAY MANNER", which originally appeared in the 24 December
1927, issue of
The New Yorker .
* Trosclair's children's book, The
Cajun Night Before Christmas
(1973), offers a
Cajun version of the classic tale, written in Cajun
dialect and changing the scene to a
Louisiana swamp and the saint's
vehicle to a skiff pulled by alligators .
* In E.B. White\'s novel
Stuart Little (1945), the title character's
parents change the second line to "not even a louse", so as not to
offend their son, who is a mouse.
MUSIC AND SPOKEN WORD
Librarian of Congress
Librarian of Congress , Dr. James Billington , reads The
Christmas to the Little Scholars, December 2010
* In 1953,
Perry Como recorded a reading of "'Twas the Night Before
Christmas." Its original release was on the Around the
Christmas Through the Years
includes Louis reading the poem "A Visit from Saint Nicholas", better
known as "The Night before Christmas". Recorded on 26 February 1971 in
the den of his
Corona, Queens home (now the
Louis Armstrong House
Museum ), it is his last commercial recording, and the only one
without his own music.
* The nu metal band
Korn released a limited edition promotional
12-inch single in 1993, which featured two versions of their "A Visit
from St. Nicholas" parody: "
Christmas Song (Squeak by the FCC
version)" and "
Christmas Song (Blatant FCC Violation version)". The
song was also planned to appear in Korn's debut album , but eventually
was not included.
* The poem was set to music by
Ken Darby and recorded by Fred Waring
and the Pennsylvanians in 1942 in an arrangement by
Harry Simeone .
* Dave Seville recorded the poem for the 1963 album
The Chipmunks, Vol. 2 .
Anthony Daniels voiced the character of
C-3PO on Meco Monardo\'s
Christmas in the Stars reciting "A
('Twas the Night Before Christmas)", in which he describes "S. Claus"
coming to the droids' toy factory to pick up the year's presents to
Jack Palance narrates the poem on Laurie Z\'s 2001
recording, "Heart of the Holidays".
* Under the title "A Visit From St. Nick", the poem was set for
Speaker & Orchestra by Robert Lichtenberger in 1987. It was
commissioned for and premiered by the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra
conducted by Edward Polochick, and repeated by the BSO on a number of
Christmas holiday concerts. The work has also been
performed by the
National Symphony Orchestra
National Symphony Orchestra of
Washington, DC , the
Cincinnati Pops Orchestra conducted by the late
Erich Kunzel , the
Maryland Symphony Orchestra conducted by Elizabeth Schulze as well as
other ensembles in the USA. Narrators have included
Kurt Schmoke , actor
George Clooney and
actress Pat Carroll .
* The poem was set to music by Aaron Dai in 2006 as "The Night
Christmas ". It has been performed by
The Chelsea Symphony and
noteworthy narrators such as
Richard Kind ,
Ana Gasteyer , and David
Hyde Pierce .
Pokémon version of this poem is included on the soundtrack CD
album of Pokémon-themed
Christmas songs entitled
* In a 1939 recording included in the
Nimbus Records collection
Prima Voce: The Spirit of
Christmas Past, actor
Basil Rathbone reads
Bob Rivers comedy album Twisted
Christmas features the track
"A Visit from St. Nicholson", a narration of a
Christmas visit from
Jack Nicholson .
* In the
Dave Van Ronk song "Yas Yas Yas", the poem is parodied in
the verse "'Twas the night before Christmas, all was quiet in the
house, not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse, when from the
lawn there came a big crash. It was Father
Christmas landing on his
yas yas yas."
* A new rock/pop musical adaptation was released in 2011 by the
artist JJ's Tunes ">
* In the
Barney and the Backyard Gang special, "
Waiting for Santa ",
Barney reads the story to Michael and Amy, whom he has befriended,
while Santa himself is in the living room of the house doing his usual
work. He falls asleep just as he comes to "With a little old driver,
so lively and quick/I knew in a moment it must be St. Nick." Santa
whispers the last quotation to the camera after that.
* In the 1961
Bell Telephone Hour
Bell Telephone Hour television program A Trip to
Christmas, Ken Darby's musical version of the poem is performed
off-screen by hostess
Jane Wyatt and a chorus, and enacted onscreen by
Bil Baird Marionettes.
* The 23 December 2011 broadcast of the
CBS Evening News ended with
Scott Pelley saying: "Merry
Christmas to all, and to all a good
* Some holiday airings of
Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy had
Charlie McCarthy trying to recite the poem from memory, resulting in
such lines as: "The stockings were hung by the chimney with care/In
hopes that the laundryman soon would be there". (A few times the line
went: "In hopes that the room could stand some fresh air"), "He flies
through the air with the greatest of ease/The jolly old elf in the red
BVD\'s ", and "Now, Dasher, Now, Dancer, and what do you know/Dasher
and Dancer paid $220 to show!"
* The song with the poem as its basis, arranged by
Harry Simeone and
music by Ken Darby, was performed at holiday airings of Fibber McGee
and Molly , usually introduced by Teeny, the neighbor girl, as their
* At the beginning of
Friends (TV series) episode 9, "The One with
Christmas in Tulsa " (airdate 26 September 2002), Phoebe sings the
last four lines of The Night Before Christmas, and Joey claims she
wrote it. Another reference is seen is episode 10 of season 7, "The
One with the Holiday Armadillo " (aired December 14, 2000), when Ross
asks Chandler to leave and Chandler responds by saying "But I didn't
get to shake my belly like a bowl full of jelly!"
* The special
Power Rangers Megaforce episode, "Robo Knight Before
Christmas", ends with Robo Knight saying: "Merry
Christmas to all
humans on Earth, and to all a good night!"
The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show story arc "
Topsy Turvy World "
featured a plot by
Boris Badenov to replace
Santa Claus for nefarious
purposes. The cliffhanger pun titles for one segment of the storyline
were: "'The Fright Before Christmas', or 'A Visit From Saint
* The Shake It Up episode "Merry Merry it Up" ended with Flynn in
the hot tub, saying "Merry
Christmas to all, and to all a good soak!"
* A hip-hop animated version of the poem was made as an hour-long
animated special, The Night B4 Christmas.
Bell Telephone Company
Bell Telephone Company sponsored a short film titled The Spirit of
Christmas (circa 1950), featuring the Les and Mabel Beaton marionettes
. Within a few years, it became a holiday perennial in many TV
markets, especially in the
Philadelphia area. In subsequent years it
was licensed out as a 16mm film and shown in schools during the
* In the animated TV special by
Rankin/Bass (1974), titled Twas the
Christmas , the characters and portions of the plot are
loosely based on the poem.
* In the Cabin Pressure radio show on BBC4 the intro of the episode
Molokai references some verses of the poem.
Christmas 1985, the
Internet Engineering Task Force circulated
an RFC document that was actually a poem about the early days of the
Internet, titled "Twas the Night Before Start-up".
* A version that originated on
USENET in 1988 has circulated on
Internet message boards and chain emails ever since. The entire poem
is rephrased using more complicated and lesser known words. It is
sometimes called "Technical Night Before Christmas" or subtitled "For
readers in their 23rd year of schooling".
* "The Night Before Doom", which appears in the Official DOOM
F.A.Q., is a poem centered on the computer game Doom (1993).
* "Are Santa's
Reindeer Used for Propulsion or Navigation?" (2013),
Massachusetts Institute of Technology student Phillip M.
Cunio, deconstructs the poem to determine the answer to that question.
* Santa Claus\'s reindeer
Old Santeclaus with Much Delight
* ^ A B C D Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike . Gotham: A History
New York City
New York City to 1898 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
pp. 462-463 ISBN 0-19-511634-8
* ^ Walsh, Joseph J. (2001). Were They Wise Men Or Kings?: The Book
Christmas Questions. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 11. ISBN
* ^ Restad, Penne L. (1995).
Christmas in America. Oxford
University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-19-509300-3 .
* ^ A B C D Kaller, Seth. "The Authorship of The Night Before
* ^ Siefker, Phyllis (1997). Santa Claus,. McFarland & Company. p.
4. ISBN 0-7864-0246-6 .
* ^ "A Visit from St. Nicholas". New-York Historical Society.
Retrieved 22 November 2014.
* ^ "Copy of
Poem Sold; \'Twas Worth $280K".
Washington Post .
Associated Press. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 19 April 2008.
* ^ Mann, Ted. "Ho, Ho, Hoax," Scarsdale Magazine, 30 November 2006
* ^ A B "Major
Henry Livingston, Jr. (1748–1828) Account of a
Visit from St. Nicholas" Archived 15 December 2005 at the Wayback
Machine ., Representative Poetry Online
* ^ Lowe, James. "A
Christmas to Remember: A Visit from St.
Nicholas." Autograph Collector. January 2000. 26-29.
* ^ Nickell, Joe. "The Case of the
Christmas Poem." Manuscripts,
Fall 2002, 54;4:293-308; Nickell, Joe. "The Case of the Christmas
Poem: Part 2." Manuscripts, Winter 2003, 55;1:5-15.
* ^ Christoph, Peter. "Clement Moore Revisited". Major Henry
Livingston, Jr., the author of "Night Before Christmas". Intermedia
Enterprises. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 19
* ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (26 October 2000). "Literary Sleuth Casts
Doubt on the Authorship of an Iconic
New York Times
New York Times .
Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2008.
* ^ Kaller, Seth. "The Moore Things Change...," The New-York
Journal of American History, Fall 2004
* ^ Lowe, James. "A
Christmas to Remember: A Visit from St.
Nicholas," Autograph Collector, January 2000, pp. 26-29
* ^ A history of New York: from the ... -
Washington Irving -
Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
* ^ Jackson, MacDonald P. (2016). Who Wrote "The Night Before
Christmas"?: Analyzing the
Clement Clarke Moore vs. Henry Livingston
Question. McFarland. ISBN 978-1476664439 .
* ^ Emery, David. "With Apologies to Clement C. Moore...". Urban
About.com . Archived from the original on 16 May 2008.
Retrieved 19 April 2008.
* ^ Monroe, Mathew. "Canonical List of \'Twas the Night Before
Christmas Variations". Archived from the original on 16 December 2008.
Retrieved 23 December 2008.
* ^ Gospelweb.net. "Marine