A Mari Usque Ad Mare
A Mari Usque Ad Mare (English: From Sea to Sea; French: D'un océan à
l'autre [ˈd͡zʏn͜ ˈɔse.an͜ ˈa ˈlou̯tʁ]; Latin: A Marī
Ūsque Ad Mare [ˈa maˈriː ˈuːsqᶣɛ ˈad ˈmarɛ]) is the
Canadian national motto. The phrase comes from the Latin Vulgate
translation of Psalm 72:8 in the Bible:
"Et dominabitur a mari usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos
(King James Bible: "He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and
from the river unto the ends of the earth").
3 Proposed amendment
The first recorded use of the phrase to represent
Canada was by George
Monro Grant, who was Sandford Fleming's secretary and a Presbyterian
minister who used the phrase in his sermons. His great-grandson
Michael Ignatieff suggests that Grant used the phrase in a
nation-building effort during the construction of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. The use of the word "dominion" in the verse reflected the
adoption of the name "Dominion of Canada" for the new country.
The motto was first officially used in 1906 on the head of the mace of
the new Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. This phrase was
suggested for a national motto by Joseph Pope, then-Under Secretary of
State, when the Canadian coat of arms was redesigned in 1921. Pope
was a member of the four-person committee appointed by the federal
government to redesign the coat of arms (the other members were Thomas
Mulvey, A.G. Doughty and Major-General W.G. Gwatkin). No motto had
been included in the original design. Major-General W.G. Gwatkin
proposed "In memoriam in spem" ("In memory, in hope") as a motto, but
Pope's proposal garnered more support. The draft design was
approved by Order in Council on April 21, 1921, and by the Royal
Proclamation of King George V on November 21, 1921.
As part of the Canadian coat of arms, the motto is used as a mark of
authority by various government agencies and representatives. It is
also present on all denominations of Canadian paper currency, and
on the cover of Canadian passports. On its own, it appears on all
federal government proclamations.
See also: Arctic policy of Canada
In March 2007, the premiers of Canada's three territories called for
the amendment of the motto to reflect the vast geographic nature of
Canada's territory, as
Canada has coastlines on the Arctic,
Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. Two suggestions for a new motto are A
mari ad mare ad mare (from sea to sea to sea) and A mari usque ad
maria (from the sea to the other seas). The expanded informal
version of the motto ("From Sea to Sea to Sea") is used in speeches
and writings about Canada, representing inclusiveness toward northern
residents and the growing significance of the Arctic in Canada's
political and economic future. A Canwest Global-commissioned poll
showed proponents of amending the motto outnumbering opponents in the
ratio of three to one, with one-third of those polled neutral.
^ a b c Lamb, W. Kaye. "A Mari usque ad Mare". The Canadian
Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved
^ Ignatieff, Michael (2009). True Patriot Love. Toronto: Penguin
Canada. ISBN 0-670-06972-8.
^ "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion - The arms of Canada
(page 2)". Canadian Heritage. 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
^ "Canadian Heritage: The arms of Canada". Canadian Heritage.
^ "Canadian Heritage: First "Canadian flags"". Canadian Heritage.
^ "Library of Parliament - Canadian Symbols at Parliament". Parliament
of Canada. Archived from the original on 2007-11-05. Retrieved
^ "Check to Protect" (PDF). Bank of
Canada / Banque du Canada.
Retrieved 2008-10-01. [dead link]
^ "Passport Canada: Features of the Passport". Passport Canada.
Archived from the original on 2009-03-08. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
^ a b c Boswell, Randy (2009-05-10). "Ignatieff supports changing
Canada's two-ocean motto". National Post. Archived from the original
on 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
^ Andrew Chung (2007-10-28). "TheStar.com Ideas Time to herald our
northern coast?". Thestar.com. Archived from the original on 13
October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
^ Deveau, Scott (2006-09-03). "From sea to sea to sea".
Theglobeandmail.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-30.
CBC News (2006-03-10). "'To sea' or not 'to sea': that is the
question". Cbc.ca. Retrieved