A JUST RUSSIA (Russian : Справедливая Россия,
СР, Spravedlivaya Rossiya, SR, ESERS (эсеры)) also translated
as Fair Russia, or A Fair and Just Russia, is a social democratic
political party in
Russia currently holding 23 of the 450 seats in
State Duma .
The party was formed on October 28, 2006, as a merger of the left
wing of Rodina , the
Russian Party of Life and the Russian
Pensioners\' Party . Later, six further minor parties joined. A Just
Russia's platform is based on the principles of fairness, freedom and
solidarity. It calls for a "New
Socialism of the 21st Century ",
which guarantees the rights and freedoms of the individual and ensures
the proper functioning of a welfare state . In 2011, Nikolai Levichev
was elected as party chairman, succeeding
Sergey Mironov who led the
party in 2006–2011. On 27 October 2013 Mironov again was elected as
* 1 History
* 1.1 Establishment
* 1.2 First election successes
* 1.3 2007 Duma elections
* 1.4 Post-election
* 2 Current status
* 3 Platform
* 4 Chairmen
* 5 International cooperation
* 6 Electoral results
* 6.1 Presidential elections
* 6.2 Legislative elections
* 7 References
* 8 Literature
* 9 External links
"A Just Russia" formed on 28 October 2006 as a merger of three
parties: Rodina , the
Russian Party of Life and the Party of
Pensioners . Of these, the nationalist Rodina (Motherland) was the
largest, having won 9% of the popular vote in the 2003 Duma elections
. At the time of the merger Rodina had 37 seats in the Duma. Party of
Pensioners had gained 3% of the vote, failing to cross the 5% election
threshold; it had also been weakened by infighting in its leadership.
The social-democratic Party of Life, led by
Sergey Mironov , was still
relatively young and had won only one regional election.
Rodina, as the only party of the three with seats in the Duma,
dominated the unification process. In simultaneous conventions held in
Moscow on 26 August 2006, the Party of Life and the Party of
Pensioners decided to join Rodina. Two months later, on 28 October
2006, the new party held its founding congress, which decided to
change the party's name to "A Just Russia". Mironov was elected the
unified party's chairman, while Rodina's former chairman Alexander
Babakov became the secretary of the central council presidium, and the
leader of the Party of Pensioners Igor Zotov became secretary of the
political council. The next year, A Just
Russia expanded further,
absorbing three additional small parties in 2007: the People\'s Party
, the Party of Entrepreneurship Development and the Party of
Constitutional Democrats .
At the party's founding convention, chairman
Sergey Mironov expressed
support for the direction given to the country by President Vladimir
Putin , claiming that "we will not allow anyone to veer from it after
Putin leaves his post in 2008". At the same time he harshly criticised
United Russia and what Mironov called the largest
party's "monopoly" of the nation's political, economic and
administrative resources. Mironov characterised A Just
Russia as a
new "leftist political force" and a "hard opposition", saying that
United Russia is the party of power, we will become the party of
The members of the political party Spravedlivaya Rossiya (A Just
Russia) are people who have united in order to strengthen the Russian
state in the interests of the people, and to create a just and
equitable society in Russia. Such a society, which honours traditions,
is proud of its history, and respects the elder generation, is
constantly evolving and looks to the future with confidence.
— From the Party Manifesto published in the founding congress of
28 August 2006
According to Professor
Richard Sakwa , the siloviki faction in the
Presidential administration supported the establishment of A Just
Russia; the aim was to create a more left-oriented alternative to
United Russia. The leading force behind United Russia, Vladislav
Surkov , opposed the creation of the new party.
FIRST ELECTION SUCCESSES
Sergey Mironov served as the party's chairman in 2006–2011,
while also holding the position of the
Federation Council chairman
In October 2006, shortly after its creation, A Just Russia
participated in its first elections, when the party's candidate Dmitry
Kuzmin won the mayoral race in Samara . The March 2007 regional
elections were dominated by United Russia, but A Just
Russia also put
up a strong performance. In particular, the new party won a majority
in the regional parliament in
Stavropol Krai .
The emergence of A Just
Russia changed Russia's political landscape
and demonstrated that the country's leadership had been split between
United Russia supporters in the presidential
administration grew wary of the challenge posed by A Just Russia,
United Russia would lose its position as "the
president's party". Before the 2007 Duma elections, the Kremlin had
withdrawn its support of A Just Russia, and threw its weight entirely
behind United Russia.
On 19 January 2007, in a press conference dedicated to upcoming Duma
elections, Secretary of the Central Party Council of A Just Russia
Alexander Babakov announced that the party had approximately 300,000
In May 2007, A Just Russia's chairman
Sergey Mironov proposed a
merger between his party and the Communist Party of the Russian
Federation , in order to create a new unified socialist party.
Mironov invited all "honest socialists" to join the party. However,
his proposal was rejected by
Gennady Zyuganov , leader of the
Communists, who claimed that A Just Russia's claim to be a leftist
party was "a charade".
2007 DUMA ELECTIONS
Russia election poster in
Saint Petersburg in November
2007. In the 2007 Duma elections , the party received 16% of the votes
from the city.
In the run-up to the December 2007 Duma elections , President
Vladimir Putin —the country's most popular politician—explicitly
and unequivocally endorsed the
United Russia party, and decided to
head its national list. Putin's decision significantly changed the
election campaign and resulted in a massive boost to United Russia's
popularity. This represented a harsh blow to A Just Russia, which also
had hoped to ride on Putin's popularity. Polls suggested the party
could have difficulties crossing the 7% election threshold.
Russia appointed three persons to its national list: chairman
Sergey Mironov ;
Svetlana Goryacheva (a former member of the CPRF );
and Sergey Shargunov (de; ru), a 27-year-old fiction author. In its
regional lists, A Just
Russia had 553 candidates, taking its total
number of candidates to 556. This was more than the Communists (515)
but less than
United Russia (600). Although originally positioned as
a centre-left party, under Mironov's leadership A Just Russia
campaigned as a socialist alternative to the Communists.
In the end, A Just
Russia received 5,383,639 votes (7.74%), becoming
the fourth party to cross the 7% election threshold and enter the
United Russia , Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia . As a result, A Just
Russia got 38 of the 450 seats (8.4%) in the Duma. The party received
its highest share of votes in
Saint Petersburg (16%)
Stavropol (13%). In Saint Petersburg, the hometown of chairman
Mironov, A Just
Russia became the second largest party. Mironov said
he would not take up his seat in the Duma himself, but instead
continue as the Chairman of the
Federation Council . A Just Russia's
performance in the elections was a slight disappointment, especially
since one of its predecessor parties, Rodina , had won 9% of the votes
in the 2003 elections.
On 10 December 2007, A Just
Russia was part of a coalition of parties
Dmitry Medvedev as their candidate for the 2008
Presidential elections .
On 25 April 2008, A Just
Russia held its third annual congress, where
the party expelled thousands of members who were not aware that they
were members. The party's charter was amended at the congress to make
mergers easier. The congress also disbanded the party's politburo and
transferred its functions to the Central Council. The politburo's
Nikolai Levichev , who also heads A Just Russia's faction in
State Duma , was elected as the council's first secretary.
On 30 June 2008, A Just
Russia was accepted into the Socialist
International , the worldwide organisation of social-democratic
political parties, during its XXIII Congress.
United Socialist Party of Russia and the Russian Ecological Party
"The Greens" merged into the party in 2008. This means that the total
of parties that have merged into A Just
Russia is nine.
In the 2007–2011 State Duma, A Just
Russia became a strong
supporter of the
Medvedev modernisation programme , endorsing
Dmitry Medvedev 's view that
Russia must move towards a
diversified post-industrial economy and democratisation of its
political system. A Just
Russia also advocated restoration of direct
gubernatorial elections and lowering the Duma election threshold from
7% to 3%. A Just
Russia voted against Prime Minister Putin's
anti-crisis plan in April 2009 and also voted against the governments
budgets in 2010 and 2011. According to researcher Luke March, in the
2007–2011 State Duma, A Just
Russia clearly moved towards Medvedev.
The party has declared absolute opposition to Putin's government,
while remaining supportive of Medvedev.
Russia has 23 representatives in the 450-seat
State Duma . The
party holds two committee chairmanships: Committee on Family, Women
and Children Affairs (headed by
Yelena Mizulina ) and Committee on
Science and High Technologies (headed by Valeriy Chereshnev ). In the
upper house, the
Federation Council , the party has 12 members,
representing the interests of different regions. On the sub-national
level, the party has a total of 309 deputies in 66 regional
In 2012, the party had 400,000 members and claimed to be the largest
left-wing party in Russia. It has regional branches in all federal
Russia calls for a welfare state with less economic inequality
, but protecting individual property rights and maintaining a market
economy . Under
Sergey Mironov , the party has presented itself as a
socialist alternative to the Communist Party and describes its
ideology as "New
Socialism of the 21st century", but emphasises that
it does not wish to return to "Soviet bureaucratic socialism". In the
party platform, New
Socialism is defined as the antithesis of
"barbarous, oligarchic capitalism". It represents a more individualist
or libertarian socialism .
Improving the socio-economic position of the average Russian is the
party's primary aim. It wishes to replace Russia's 13% flat income tax
with progressive taxation , and demands that spending on employment
programmes is increased to 1% of GDP. In the State Duma, the party
emphasises its role as "constructive opposition" that opposes
high-level corruption and supports further democratisation of the
political system. In the 2007–2011 Duma, A Just
absolute opposition to Prime Minister
Vladimir Putin 's government,
voting against the government's budgets in 2010 and 2011, while
remaining strongly supportive of President
Dmitry Medvedev and his
modernisation programme .
28 October 2006
16 April 2011
Chairman of the
16 April 2011
27 October 2013
Deputy Chairman of the
27 October 2013
Member of the
Russia is a full member of the
Socialist International .
# OF OVERALL VOTES
% OF OVERALL VOTE
# OF OVERALL VOTES
% OF OVERALL VOTE
# OF OVERALL VOTES
% OF OVERALL VOTE
# OF SEATS WON
38 / 450
64 / 450
23 / 450
* ^ A B C D E March, Luke (26 September 2011). "Just Russia—From
"Second Leg" to "Footnote"?". Russian Analytical Digest (102): 7–10.
Retrieved 13 November 2011.
* ^ A B C Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe".
Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* ^ "A Just
Russia nominates pro-Kremlin Mironov for president". 10
December 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* ^ Bridget Johnson. "Political Parties and Representation in
Russia". About.com News & Issues. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* ^ "A Just
Russia Threatened as Founding Groups Split From Party -
Moscow Times. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* ^ "
Socialist International - Progressive Politics For A Fairer
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* ^ "Progressive Politics For A Fairer World". Socialist
International. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
* ^ "A Just
Russia nominates pro-Kremlin Mironov for president".
RIA Novosti . 10 December 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
* ^ "Leftists propose free land for poor and distinguished
Russians", rt.com, 30 Jan 2015
* ^ "Sergei Mironov\'s New Party Holds First Convention, Suffers
First Split", www.kommersant.com, 30 Oct 2006
* ^ "A FAIR AND JUST RUSSIA: RUSSIA\'S SOCIAL DEMOCRATS",
www.sras.org, 3 June 2009
* ^ Melanie Ilic (15 August 2013). Life Stories of Soviet Women:
The Interwar Generation. Taylor & Francis. pp. 236–. ISBN
* ^ A B C D E F History Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback
Machine . A Just Russia
* ^ A B C A Fair and Just Russia. The Political Platform of
Russia\'s Social Democrats Part 2: The Individual Stoner-Weiss,
Kathryn (2010). "Elections and Voters". In White, Stephen.
Developments in Russian Politics 7. New York: Palgrave McMillan. ISBN
* ^ A B C D A Fair and Just
Russia The Political Platform of
Russia\'s Social Democrats Part 1: Philosophy and the Current State of
Russia The School of Russian and Asian Studies
* ^ "People\'s Daily Online -- Two Russian left-leaning parties
unite". Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* ^ A B New \'Just Russia\' Party Says Putin Knows Best St
Petersburg Times, 31 October 2006
* ^ "Russia: Parties Unite Into Nominal Opposition Force".
RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* ^ CONGRESS IN MOSCOW Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback
Machine . A Just Russia, 30 August 2006
* ^ Sakwa 2011, p.19
* ^ A B Sakwa 2011, p.66
* ^ Alexander Babakov: The party numbers around 300,000 Archived
October 5, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine . A Just Russia, 22 January
Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved February 19,
2016. Missing or empty title= (help )
* ^ "Communists refuse to unite with Just
Novosti". En.rian.ru. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
* ^ Sakwa 2011, p.220-221
* ^ A B C D E Sakwa 2011, p.248
* ^ Sakwa 2011, p.222
* ^ Sakwa 2011, p.228
* ^ FINAL RESULT OF THE DUMA ELECTION, 2 DECEMBER 2007 Levada
Sergey Mironov summarizes the Results of the Elections Archived
October 5, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine . A Just Russia, 13 December
* ^ Дмитрий Медведев выдвинут в
президенты России (IN RUSSIAN). LENTA.RU . 10 DECEMBER
2007. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 25 DECEMBER 2008. RETRIEVED 30
* ^ Sras.Org. "A Fair and Just Russia: Russia\'s Social Democrats".
Sras.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
* ^ Oleg Rt. "Российская экологическая
партия "Зеленые"". Greenparty.ru. Archived from the
original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
* ^ ABOUT US Archived October 5, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine . A
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-06.
* ^ "Деятельность". Retrieved 16 March 2015.
* Sakwa, Richard (2011). The Crisis of Russian Democracy: Dual
State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-14522-0 .
* Official website (in Russian)
* Website of
Moscow oblast regional committee (in Russian)
* "A Just Russia" prepares the