A Coruña (Galician: [a koˈɾuɲa], Spanish: La Coruña [la
koˈɾuɲa], English: Corunna, archaically The Groyne) is a city and
municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city
in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country.
The city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name,
having also served as political capital of the Kingdom of
Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and as a regional
administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by
Santiago de Compostela.
A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo
Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean. It provides a
distribution point for agricultural goods from the region.
2.1 Administrative divisions
3.2 Roman times
3.3 Middle Ages
3.4 Modern period
3.5 19th century
3.6 20th and 21st centuries
3.6.1 Elections of 1931
3.6.2 Democracy returns
4.1 The province and city of
A Coruña during the 20th century
4.2 The city today
5 Main sights
5.1 Squares, parks and beaches
7 Education and culture
11 Notable people
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns – sister cities
13 See also
15 External links
In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates.
However, the traditional English form Corunna /kəˈrʌnə/ can
persist, particularly in reference to the
Battle of Corunna
Battle of Corunna (1809) in
the Peninsular War. Archaically, English-speakers knew the city as
"The Groyne", probably from French La Corogne. In Spain, the only
official form of the name is now the Galician one: "A Coruña".
Nonetheless, use of the Spanish form, La Coruña, remains widespread,
and it is the traditional name in Spanish recommended by the Real
Academia Española for texts in Spanish. Certain groups of
people[which?] have advocated elevating the reintegrationist spelling
"Corunha" to official status, pointing to the provisions of the
Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish Constitution of 1978 and claiming that it is unconstitutional
to stipulate use of the Real Academia Galega spelling, but they have
not been successful as of 2018[update].
There is no clear evidence as to what the name derives from. It seems
to be from Crunia, of unknown origin and meaning. At the time of
Ferdinand II of León
Ferdinand II of León (reigned 1157-01188) the name Crunia was
documented for the first time. As usual in Galician-Portuguese (as
well as in Castilian Spanish), the cluster ni naturally evolved into
the sound [ɲ], written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in
Spanish (later abbreviated to ñ, like the original Latin cluster
"nn"), and nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. "A" is
the Galician article equivalent to English the; compare Castilian
Spanish la ("the").
One proposed etymology derives Crunia from Cluny, the town in France.
During its height (c. 950–c.1130) the
Cluniac religious movement
became very prominent in Europe. There is another town named Coruña
Another possibility is that the name means simply "The Crown". The
Galician word for "crown" is coroa. It is also possible it came about
through changes to the French La Couronne, also meaning "the Crown".
It seems less likely that it traces back to the Galician
A folk etymology incorrectly derives Coruña from the ancient columna,
or Tower of Hercules.
A Coruña is located on a peninsula, and its isthmus was at times
formed only by a small strip of sand. Erosion and sea currents caused
a progressive accumulation of sand, enlarging it to its present
A Coruña and Christchurch, New Zealand, constitute one of only
seventeen pairs of cities in the world that are almost exactly
Parishes of A Coruña.
A Coruña has five parishes or "parroquias":
San Cristovo das Viñas
Atochas – Monte Alto
Falperra – Santa Lucía
Juan Flórez – San Pablo
A Agra do Orzán
A Sagrada Familia
Labañou – San Roque
Paseo de los Puentes
San Pedro de Visma
A Silva – San Xosé
Casabranca – As Xubias
A Coruña has a warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb) in the Köppen
climate classification, heavily moderated by the Atlantic Ocean.
Autumn and winter are often unsettled and unpredictable, with strong
winds and abundant rainfall coming from Atlantic depressions, and it
is often overcast. The ocean keeps temperatures mild, and frost and
snow are rare. Summers are mostly sunny, with only occasional
rainfall; temperatures are warm but rarely uncomfortably hot because
of the sea's cooling influence during the day, most often being around
22 °C (72 °F) between July and September. Spring is
usually cool and fairly calm. Even the warmest month on record was
relatively subdued, being August 2003 with an average high temperature
of 25 °C (77 °F). Temperatures above 25 °C
(77 °F) occur many days in the summer, while temperatures above
30 °C (86 °F) are infrequent.
Climate data for
A Coruña 58 metres (190 feet) above sea level
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization (UN), Agencia Estatal de
History of A Coruña
History of A Coruña and Timeline of A Coruña
Compass rose representing the different Celtic peoples (near the Tower
Castro de Elviña: remnant of a Celtic military structure in A
A Coruña spread from the peninsula where the Tower of Hercules
stands, onto the mainland. The oldest part, known popularly in
Galician as Cidade Vella (Old City), Cidade Alta (High City) or the
Cidade (City), is built on an ancient Celtic castro. It was supposedly
inhabited by the
Brigantes and Artabrians, the Celtic tribes of the
The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, and the
colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city
became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar
came to the city (known at the time as Brigantium) in pursuit of the
metal trade, establishing commerce with what are now France, England
and Portugal. The town began growing, mainly during the 1st and 2nd
centuries (when the Farum Brigantium
Tower of Hercules
Tower of Hercules was built), but
declined after the 4th century and especially with the incursions of
the Normans, which forced the population to flee towards the interior
of the Estuary of O Burgo.
After the fall of the Roman Empire,
A Coruña still had a commercial
port connected to foreign countries, but contacts with the
Mediterranean were slowly replaced by a more Atlantic-oriented focus.
The process of deurbanisation that followed the fall of the Roman
Empire also affected A Coruña. Between the 7th and 8th centuries, the
city was no more than a little village of labourers and sailors.
The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo (ancient name of
A Coruña) as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the
Iria Flavia in the year 572:
"Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium,
Salinensem, (...) Bregantinos, Farum..."
"[King Miro granted to his Irienses headquarters the dioceses of
Morrazo, Salnés (...). Bergantiños, Faro...]"
The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological
evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the
Muslim invaders ever reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th
century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship
of the remote and rugged region backed by a few garrisons, and the
city was no more than a village amidst Roman ruins, the invaders
showed the same lack of interest in the ruined city as they did
generally for the region.
As the city began to recover during the
Middle Ages the main problem
for the inhabitants was the Norman raids, as well as the ever-present
threat of raids ("razzies") from
Al-Andalus to the south. During the
9th century there were several
Viking attacks on the city, called at
that time Faro or Faro Bregancio.
In the year 991, King Vermudo II began the construction of defensive
military positions on the coast. At Faro, in the ruins of the Tower of
Hercules, a fortress was built, which had a permanent military
garrison. To pay for it, he gave power over the city to the bishop of
Santiago. The bishop of Santiago became the most important political
post in Galicia, and remained so until the 15th century.
San Antón Castle (es)
Alfonso IX re-founded the city of Crunia. Some privileges,
such as those of disembarking and selling salt without paying taxes,
were granted to the city, and it enjoyed a big growth in fishing and
mercantile business. The city grew and extended through the isthmus.
John II of Castile
John II of Castile granted to
A Coruña the title of "City".
Catholic Monarchs established the Royal Audience of the Kingdom of
Galicia in the city, instead of Santiago.
A Coruña also became the
headquarters of the Captaincy General. Later, in 1522, Charles V
conceded to the city of
A Coruña the license to establish the House
of Spices, being this the port chosen by Jofre Garcia de Loysa to set
his expedition to conquer the Moluccans.
In the late Middle Ages, before the expulsion of the Jews in 1492, a
thriving Jewish community created a rich artistic heritage in the
city. The most lavishly illuminated Hebrew Bible in medieval
A Coruña in 1476. Known as the Kennicott Bible, it is
currently housed in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
During the Modern period, the city was a port and centre for the
manufacturing of textiles. In 1520, king Carlos I of Spain, met in the
A Coruña and embarked from its harbour to be elected
Emperor of the Holy
Roman Empire (as Charles V). He allowed the
government of the
Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia to distribute space in Europe
between 1522 and 1529. Commerce with the
Indies was allowed between
1529 and 1575. The Castle of San Antón was built as a defense of the
city and its harbour.
From the port of Ferrol in the Province of A Coruña, Philip II left
to marry Mary Tudor in 1554, and much later, in 1588, from the same
Spanish Armada would set sail to the Spanish Netherlands and
England. In the following year, during the Anglo-Spanish War, Francis
Drake besieged A Coruña, but was repelled, starting the legend of
María Pita, a woman who took her dead husband's spear, killed the
flag bearer of the British forces and rallied support to deny a breach
in the wall to the enemy.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the wars of the Spanish monarchy
caused a great increase in taxes and the start of conscription. In
1620, Philip III created the School of the Boys of the Sea. In 1682
Tower of Hercules
Tower of Hercules was restored by Antúnez.
Mosaic map to commemorate the Battle of Elviña. The yellow dot shows
the location of the mosaic.
The Obelisk, dedicated to Don Aureliano Linares Rivas in 1895
A Coruña was the site of the
Battle of Corunna
Battle of Corunna during the Peninsular
War, on 16 January 1809, in which British troops fought against the
French to cover the embarkation of British troops after their retreat.
In this battle Sir John Moore was killed.
Spanish resistance during the
Peninsular War was led by Sinforiano
A Coruña was the only Galician city that achieved success
against the French troops. French troops left Galicia at the end of
During the 19th century, the city was the centre of anti-monarchist
sentiment. On 19 August 1815, Juan Díaz Porlier, pronounced against
Fernando VII in defense of the Spanish Constitution of 1812. He was
supported by the bourgeoisie and the educated people. But on 22 August
he was betrayed. He was hanged in the Campo da Leña two months later.
In all the 19th-century rebellions,
A Coruña supported the liberal
A Coruña also played an important role in the Rexurdimento, and
there were founded the
Galician Royal Academy
Galician Royal Academy in 1906 and the
Brotherhoods of the Galician Language in 1916.
Regarding the economy, in 1804 the National Cigarette Factory was
founded, and there the workers' movement of the city had its origins.
During the 19th century other businesses (glass, foundries, textiles,
gas, matches, etc.) were slowly established, but it was maritime trade
and migrant travel that attracted Catalan, Belgian, French and English
investments. The Bank of
A Coruña was founded in 1857. The new
provincial division of 1832 also influenced economic development.
20th and 21st centuries
At the beginning of the 20th century,
A Coruña had about 45,000
inhabitants. The Great Depression,
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War severely affected
the economy through the 1930s to the mid-1950s. The 1960s and early
1970s saw a dramatic economic recovery, which was part of the wider
Spanish Miracle. The international oil shocks of the mid and late
1970s severely disrupted the economy, causing many bankruptcies and
high unemployment until the mid-1980s, when slower but steady economic
development was resumed.
Elections of 1931
In the Spanish general elections, 1931, all the political parties knew
that the electoral results had important political consequences. The
campaign of Unión Monárquica was very important in
A Coruña and was
supported by El Ideal Gallego. Republicans and socialists constituted
a block, made up of ORGA, independent republicans, Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party (PSOE) and the Radical Socialist Republican Party.
In the elections, the republican parties obtained 34 of the 39 council
seats. The best results were of the ORGA and of the Partido Radical
Socialista, and the
Radical Republican Party
Radical Republican Party lost a lot of support.
From 1983 to 2006, the mayor of the city was Francisco Vázquez
Vázquez (PSOE), and the city became devoted to services, but he also
was criticised because of his being openly against Galician
nationalism and his town-planning policies.
On 20 January 2006 Vázquez was named ambassador to the Vatican City,
and was later replaced by Francisco Javier Losada de Azpiazu. In 2007
Municipal Elections the local government was a coalition of the
Socialists' Party of Galicia
Socialists' Party of Galicia and the left-wing nationalist Galician
Nationalist Bloc party. The city celebrated its first millennium in
In the 2011 Municipal Elections, the conservative candidate Carlos
Negreira (PP) obtained a majority, the first one for the People's
Party in the city since the arrival of democracy.
The province and city of
A Coruña during the 20th century
After the War of Independence (1808–1814), the fortunes of Ferrol
began to deteriorate. The largest port in northern Spain, site of one
of the three Royal Dockyards, together with Cartagena and Cádiz,
almost became a "dead" town during the reign of Ferdinand VII. By 1833
the City and Naval Station of Ferrol saw its civilian population
reduced to 13,000. During the administration of the marquess
of Molina, Minister for Naval affairs in the mid-19th century new
activities sprang up, but Ferrol never fully returned to its former
glory. It should be noted that during those years, most of the Spanish
Latin America succeeded in gaining independence from their
Celtic King Breogan in A Coruña
The population of the City of
A Coruña in 1900 reached 43,971, while
the population of the rest of the province including the City and
Naval Station of nearby Ferrol as well as
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela was
653,556. A Coruña's miraculous growth happened during the
aftermath of the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War at a similar rate to other major
Galician cities, but it was after the death of
Francisco Franco when
the city of
A Coruña (and Vigo) left all the other Galician cities
The meteoric increase in the population of the City of A Coruña
during the years which followed the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War in the mid 20th
century was accompanied by the decline in the villages and hamlets of
the province as it industrialized.
Metropolitan area map.
found: INE Archiv – graphic for
The city today
Metropolitan area 2014
The municipality of
A Coruña has 244,810 inhabitants and a population
density of around 6,700 inhabitants per square kilometer.
In 2010 there were 12,344 foreigners living in the city, representing
a 5% of the total population. The main nationalities are Brazilians
(10%), Colombians (8%) and
By language, according to 2008 data, 7.75% of the population speak
always in Galician, 36% speak always in Spanish and the rest use both
A Coruña metropolitan area has nearly 400,000 inhabitants.
The Tower of Hercules, reconstruction and modernization of the famous
The city is the site of the Roman Tower of Hercules, a lighthouse
which has been in continuous operation since possibly the 2nd century
AD. It has been declared by
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. It is
surrounded by a large public park with a golf course and the so-called
Moor's Graveyard (Cemiterio do Moro in Galician, Cementerio del Moro
in Spanish) a building where in fact there were never burials, Muslim
or not, which now houses the Casa das Palabras (Galician for House of
Words) museum. The lighthouse features as the main emblem of the
city's flag and coat of arms.
The city is also well known for its characteristic glazed window
balconies, called galerías. Originally, this type of structure came
about as a naval architecture solution for the challenging weather,
particularly designed for rainy days. This fashion started in Ferrol
in the 18th century when some of the technicians working for the Royal
Dockyards had the idea of using the shape of the back of a war ship in
a modern building. Soon afterwards, most sea ports in northern Spain,
including the Basque region were adding these glazed window balconies
to their city-port houses.
The Old Town (Ciudad Vieja in Spanish, Cidade Vella in Galician) is
the name given to the oldest part of A Coruña. During the ninth and
tenth centuries, the inhabitants of what was then called Faro Island
(peninsula where the
Tower of Hercules
Tower of Hercules stands) were leaving the area
due to constant attacks by the
Viking fleet and settled in the area of
Betanzos. In 1208 King
Alfonso IX refounded the city at the present
site of the Old Town and put it under his personal control, free from
allegiance to the clergy or feudal lords. In the fourteenth century
the scarcely-surviving city walls of the Old Town were built, as well
as three harbours: the Parrote and San Miguel. It also preserves the
stronghold known as the Old Fortress, now converted into the Garden of
San Carlos, in which Sir John Moore is buried. The Old City of A
Coruña kept streets and squares that revive the city's history and
noble mansions and residences such as Rosalia de Castro's house,
located on Prince Street. Notable buildings are the Royal Galician
Academy, the institution dedicated to the study of Galician culture
and especially the Galician language, the
Romanic churches of Santiago
and Saint Mary, As Bárbaras Monastery (
Romanic and Baroque) and the
headquarters of the Operational Logistics Force of the Spanish Army.
In July, a Medieval Fair takes place in the streets of the Old City.
The city has several museums, such as the Castle of San Antón
Archaeological Museum, Fine Arts Museum, Unión Fenosa Museum of
Contemporary Art (MACUF) and the network of scientific museums (Casa
das Ciencias, which also includes a planetarium, DOMUS, made by Arata
Isozaki and Aquarium Finisterrae). In 2012, the National Museum of
Science and Technology (MUNCYT) opened a branch in the city. A
Coruña's social scene is most popular on Summer nights. Most bars and
clubs are on Calle Orzán, which runs directly parallel to Paseo
Maritimo on the beach side. Another popular destination, for mostly a
more youthful crowd, is Los Jardines (The Gardens), a park near the
beginning of Rúa Real and the Los Cantones Village Shopping Centre.
Squares, parks and beaches
María Pita Square, the most important square in the city. Notable
landmarks are the City Hall and the statue of the local heroine Maria
Mount of San Pedro Park, a former military area, with views over the
city and the ria. Visitors can arrive by road or using an elevator
from the promenade. It has a café, play areas, gardens and three
restored artillery pieces.
The promenade (Paseo Marítimo) is nine kilometres (5.6 miles) long
(when completed, it will be 9 km or 5.6 mi), one of the
largest in Europe. It runs around the city's headland, passing sights
such as its Aquarium, the
Estadio Riazor and the Tower of Hercules.
There used to be a functioning touristic tramway that covered the
stretch between the Parrote and the Esclavas School, but it is no
longer in use.
In the summertime, the Orzán and Riazor beaches are immensely popular
destinations, located directly opposite of the port in the central
part of the city. During
María Pita festivity, which takes place all
through August, Riazor is the venue of Noroeste Pop Rock Festival, a
free music festival with groups from
Spain and abroad (Amaral, David
Joe Cocker or Status Quo have played on it in last editions).
Other beaches in the city smaller than Orzan and Riazor are Las Lapas
down Hercules Tower, El Matadero next to Orzan, San Amaro and Oza.
Santo Domingo Monastery.
Harbour of A Coruña
Menhirs in A Coruña
A Coruña is nowadays the richest region of Galicia and its economic
engine. There have been various changes in the city's structure over
the last few decades—it now shares some administrative functions
with the nearby city of Ferrol. Companies have grown, especially in
sectors such as finance, communication, planning, sales, manufacturing
and technical services, making
A Coruña the wealthiest metropolitan
area of Galicia. The port itself unloads large amounts of fresh fish,
and with the increase in other port activities like crude oil and
solid bulk, which make up 75% of Galician port traffic.
In 1975, the clothing company Zara, founded by
Amancio Ortega Gaona,
opened its first store worldwide in this city and has since become a
national and international clothing chain.
Inditex, the main textile manufacturer of the world, has its
headquarters in the nearby town of Arteixo.
A Coruña concentrates the
30% of the GDP of Galicia and in the period between 1999 and 2001 it
grew 35%, surpassing
Vigo which was traditionally economically
stronger. Other important companies of the city are Banco Pastor
(owned by Banco Popular Español),
Banco Etcheverría (oldest in
Spain), Hijos de Rivera Brewery, Abanca, R Cable Operator, the Repsol
Gas Natural combined cycle power plant, General Dynamics
Alcoa aluminium plant and La Voz de Galicia, the main daily
newspaper of Galicia.
A Coruña is also an important retail center. El
Corte Inglés, the main department store chain in Spain, has two
centers in the city, one of them in the new commercial area Marineda
City, opened in April 2011, the biggest shopping center in Spain,
which also includes, among others,
IKEA and Decathlon stores, cinemas,
an ice rink, a bowling court and a kart circuit. Other hypermarket
chains present in the city are
Carrefour (two centers),
Auchan (known in
Spain as Alcampo).
Over the last few years, emphasis has been placed upon better access
and infrastructure, especially cultural, sporting, leisure and
scientific areas. Following a significant oil spill when the Aegean
Sea wrecked and exploded, considerable resources have been used in the
recovery of the shoreline and strengthening the tourist sector. All
this has reaffirmed the city's existing character as a centre for
administration, sales, port activities, culture and tourism. The city
also has a regional airport, used by 1.025.688 passengers in 2015.
A Coruña has increased in recent years to the point of
receiving 62 cruise ships a year.
Riazor beach with
Estadio Riazor in the background
The two main beaches of
A Coruña (Orzán and Riazor) are located in
the heart of the city and are bordered by the promenade above. This
location makes them a great attraction for tourists, being also a
meeting point for surfers much of the year. Moreover, the city has
other beaches like As Lapas, San Amaro, Oza and Matadoiro. These four
beaches, along with Riazor and Orzán, were recognized with blue flag
certification in 2011.
An important holiday is on the night of San Juan / Xan Xoán,
celebrated with a massive fireworks celebration, parade, bonfires and
the ancient fires on all city beaches well into dawn.
In 2006 and for the first time ever, the number of tourists has
doubled the population of the city, virtually to 500,000 the number of
people who chose the city as a tourist destination.
The city has an extensive network of hotels, with an offer of over
3,000 hotel vacancies. There are one five star-hotel and 11 four
star-hotels, as well as many other hotels and hostels. The city is
also focusing in business tourism, offering the Congress and
Exhibition Centre PALEXCO, with room for more than 2,500 people; a new
trade fair centre, EXPOCORUÑA, venue of concerts, exhibitions and
festivals like Sónar.
The city is also located on the
English Way a path of the Camino de
Education and culture
Fountain in honor to the surfers in the beaches of the city
There are 38 pre-school centers, 47 primary schools, 29 vocational
schools and 33 secondary schools.
Higher education is represented by the University of A Coruña, a
public university established in 1989, the UNED branch, and CESUGA, a
private university centre in alliance with University College Dublin,
Bachelor of Commerce and
Bachelor of Architecture Irish
degrees. Escuela de Negocios NCG offers MBA and other master's degrees
There are 7 municipal libraries, one library that belongs to the
provincial government and one public library, administered by the
Xunta. The Archive of the
Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia (Arquivo do Reino de
Galicia in Galician) is located in the Old Town.
There is an
Escuela Oficial de Idiomas (
Spanish language school)
center, which offers classes in English, French, Galician, Italian,
German, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Spanish as
a Foreign Language.
Music studies are well represented by a Music school.
A Coruña is
also the base for the Orquesta Sinfónica de Galicia.
The city is home to two main theaters, Teatro Colón and Teatro
Rosalía, with regular performances, music concerts and other
representations. A multipurpose center, the Coliseum, hosts all kinds
of concerts and cultural and sporting events. International artists
like David Copperfield, Maná, Mark Knopfler, Shakira, Gloria Estefan,
Deep Purple or
Judas Priest among others have performed
there. In summer it also serves as a bullring, and in winter as an ice
A Coruña has several museums, such as the Castle of San Antón
Archaeological Museum, its Fine Arts Museum, the Unión Fenosa Museum
of Contemporary Art (MACUF), the Military Museum and the network of
scientific museums (Casa das Ciencias, which includes a planetarium,
DOMUS, made by
Arata Isozaki and Aquarium Finisterrae). In 2012, the
[National Museum of Science and Technology (MUNCYT) opened a branch in
The city's principal festival is the
María Pita Festival, which lasts
from the end of July to mid September. The festival includes Noroeste
Pop Rock (free concerts at Riazor beach), free concerts in venues all
over the city, the Medieval fair in the Old Town, the International
Folklore Festival, a book fair, Festival Viñetas desde o Atlántico,
a comic fair and, for the first time in 2011, a recreation of the
famous German Oktoberfest. Another very popular festival is Saint
John's day, which is celebrated on 23 June with bonfires under the
night sky on beaches and neighbourhoods all over the city. More than
150,000 people go out from afternoon to early morning in order to
frighten the evil spirits away by jumping over the bonfires. Apart
from that, Virgen del Rosario's day is also celebrated, but is not as
much celebrated as the festivities previously mentioned.
Panoramic elevator to San Pedro Hill.
A Coruña is the destination of one of the radial roads originating in
Madrid, (N-VI). Currently there is a highway (Autovía A-6) that runs
parallel to the old radial road. Another major road running through
the city is the toll motorway AP-9, which links Ferrol with the
Portuguese border crossing the main cities of Galicia. AG-55 motorway
links the city with the Costa da Morte, although currently only going
as far as Carballo. The conventional road N-550 (A Coruña-Tui) is the
main link to the airport while the new highway is still under
A Coruña Airport, formerly known as Alvedro Airport, is located in
the municipality of Culleredo, approximately 7 kilometres (4.3 miles)
from the city centre. It serves mainly Spanish destinations, although
there are regular services to
Lisbon and, in the summer
Amsterdam and Paris. In 2010, 1,101,208 passengers used the
Railway services depart from San Cristovo Station. The city will be
Vigo by high-speed rail in coming years.
Regional lines connect the city with
Vigo through Santiago de
Compostela and Pontevedra,
Lugo and Monforte de Lemos. Intercity
trains depart to Madrid,
Barcelona and Basque Country, passing through
many other important Spanish northern cities. There is a freight train
station that serves the port.
Regional and intercity buses depart from the
Bus station at Caballeros
A Coruña is well connected with its metropolitan area and
other Galician cities and towns. Intercity services connect the city
with Madrid, Barcelona,
Andalusia and Basque
Country among others and
with European cities like Geneva,
Paris or Munich.
Local transportation in
A Coruña is carried out by Compañía de
Tranvías de La Coruña. Its network includes 24 lines served by 93
vehicles. There is also a regular taxi service distributed in taxi
tanks all over the city.
Deportivo played in UEFA Cup in the 2008–2009 season
A Coruña has an extensive network of sports infrastructures. The most
important one is the Riazor Sport Complex, which includes Estadio
Riazor (home of Deportivo de La Coruña), the Palace of Sports (home
of HC Liceo La Coruña), two indoor tracks, a pelota court and an
indoor swimming-pool. La Torre Sport Complex hosts many football
fields, a golf court and another pelota court. There are also five
municipal football fields, 11 sports centers and several marinas (Real
Club Náutico, Marina Coruña, etc.). In 2007 opened Termaria Casa del
Agua complex, which has a gymnasium, a thalassotherapy center and an
indoor Olympic-sized swimming pool.
The city has a football club in Spain's top division, Real Club
Deportivo de La Coruña. Deportivo was founded in 1906 and is
currently playing in La Liga. Since the Spanish football league system
was established in 1928, it has spent all but two seasons in the top
Depor has won the league title once, in the 1999–2000 season,
finishing as runner-up on five occasions. The club has also won the
Spanish Cup twice, (1995 and 2002) and three Spanish Super Cups. The
Blues and Whites have been a regular in top positions in
La Liga in
the last 20 years, finishing in the top half of the table in 16 out of
19 seasons. As a result, the club has been a regular participant in
European competitions, playing in the UEFA Champions League five
seasons in a row, and reaching the semi-finals in 2004.
The city has a roller hockey team, HC Liceo La Coruña, one of the
most laureate in Spain, and dispute the main League OK Liga. They
became Europe's Champions in 2011.
A Coruña basketball team CB Coruña, plays in LEB Oro league, the
Spanish second division.
Handball team OAR Ciudad 1952 (es) currently plays in Spanish
American football team Towers Football currently plays in LGFA, the
Galician tackle football regional league.
Two Gaelic football teams have been founded in 2010 and 2011, A
Coruña Fillos de Breogán (with men and ladies teams) and Ártabros
de Oleiros (really from
A Coruña too). They participate in the
Iberian Championship and in the Galician League.
Casas Novas riding club, in the outskirts of the city, hosts many
national and international championships.
In tenpin bowling,
A Coruña is home to the annual  Teresa Herrera
de Bowling tournament, this year (2016) played from 24 to 28 August in
the Pleno Bowling Centre, Marineda City, It attracts players from all
Domingos Rafael Merino Mexuto was the first mayor after the Spanish
Constitution of 1978 from PSG (he is now at BNG), and now works at the
Galician Ombudsman (Valedor) office.
Francisco Vázquez Vázquez from PSOE had been mayor of the city from
1983; however, after becoming the Spanish ambassador to the Vatican,
he was replaced by Javier Losada on 10 February 2006.
The current mayor is Xulio Ferreiro, from Marea Atlántica.
Maria Pita, María Mayor Fernández de Cámara y Pita (1565–1643), a
Galician-Spanish heroine of the defense of
A Coruña in 1589 against
the English Armada
José Andrés Cornide de Folgueira y Saavedra (es) (1734–1803),
Ramón Dionisio José de la Sagra y Peris (1798–1871), botany
teacher, philosopher and social economist
Emilia Pardo Bazán
Emilia Pardo Bazán (1851–1921), novelist, journalist, essayist and
Eduardo Dato Iradier
Eduardo Dato Iradier (1856–1921), lawyer and politician
Ramón Menéndez Pidal
Ramón Menéndez Pidal (1869–1968), writer
José Millán Astray (1879–1954), founder and first commander of the
Spanish Foreign Legion
Santiago Casares Quiroga (1884–1950), lawyer and politician
Wenceslao Fernández Flórez (1885–1964), narrator and journalist
Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo
Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo (1896–1978), writer and poet
Fernando Casado Arambillet (1917–1994), better known as Fernando
Amando de Ossorio (1918–2001), film director
María Casares (1922–1996), actress
Luis Suárez Miramontes
Luis Suárez Miramontes (born 1935), football player and manager
Amancio Amaro Varela
Amancio Amaro Varela (born 1939), football player
Emilio Pérez Touriño
Emilio Pérez Touriño (born 1948), former president of the Spanish
autonomous community of Galicia
Manuel Rivas Barros
Manuel Rivas Barros (born 1957), writer, poet, essayist and journalist
Andrés Manuel Díaz, (born 1969), athlete
María Pujalte, (born 1966), actress
Marta Sánchez, (born 1966), singer
Fernando Romay, (born 1959), basketball player
Amancio Ortega, (born 1936 in Castilla y León), founder of fashion
brand Zara (clothing)
Lucas Pérez, (born 1988), football player for Arsenal F.C.
Miguel Anxo Mato Fondo (gl), (born 1953 in Ponteceso), writer and
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain
Twin towns – sister cities
A Coruña is twinned with:
European Union portal
Ethnic groups in Europe
Timeline of Galician history
Way of St. James (Camino de Santiago)
^ "A Coruña, capital militar y administrativa del Reino..." de
Artaza, Manuel María (1998). Rey, reino y representación: la Junta
General del Reino de Galicia (1599–1834). Madrid: Consejo Superior
de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 71.
^ "The city of Corunna, Armory, Capital, and Head of the Kingdom of
Galicia..." (1748), in
Vigo Trasancos, Alfredo (1998). "El capitán
general Pedro Martín Cermeño y el Reino de Galicia". Semata Ciencias
Socias e Humanidades. 10: 177. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
^ Chisholm 1911.
^ Decree of the
Xunta de Galicia
Xunta de Galicia 146/1984, 27 September,Ley 2/1998, de
3 de marzo, sobre el cambio de denominación de las provincias de A
Coruña y Ourense. which follows on the principles of Law 3/1983, 15
June, of Linguistic Normalization, article 10 BOE.es: Consultas.
Real Academia Española
Real Academia Española - Diccionario de la lengua española -
Diccionario panhispánico de dudas - Aviso actualización enlaces".
Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
^ "Extreme values for A Coruña". Aemet.es. Retrieved 22 July
^ "World Weather Information Service - A Coruna". Worldweather.org.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 May 2013.
Retrieved 17 October 2009.
^ "The Kennicott Bible, A Medieval Masterpiece".
bodleian.thejewishmuseum. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
^ (in English) Population figures and other data taken from the
Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer By Thomas Baldwin, Sixth Edition,
^ Thomas Baldwin. A Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer: Containing
Topographical, Statistical ... Books.google.com. Retrieved
^ ether data taken from Chisholm 1911
^ "Coruña, A: Población por municipios y sexo. (2868)". Ine.es.
Retrieved 12 October 2017.
^ "Comarca de Coruña – Escudo y Bandera de Coruña – Apoya a la
Torre como Patrimonio de la Humanidad de la UNESCO!".
Bandeiragalega.com. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
^ "Trams in La Coruna - La Coruna Forum - TripAdvisor".
Tripadvisor.com. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
^ s.r.o., Tripomatic. "Riazor Beach in A Coruña, Spain".
Travel.sygic.com. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013.
Retrieved 28 September 2013.
^ "Inicio - MUNCYT. Museo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (es)".
Muncyt.es. Retrieved 2017-02-26.
^ "Asociación Española de Clubes de Bowling". Aecb.es. Retrieved
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Corunna".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for A Coruña.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to A Coruña.
Ayuntamiento de A Coruña
Tourism Office website for
A Coruña (Turismo Coruña – Town
Tourism website for
A Coruña (TurGalicia – Regional Tourism
Tourism website – Travel Guide for A Coruña
(TurEspaña – National Tourism Office)
Pinocho in A Coruña: An illustrated guidebook to A Coruña
News of A Coruña, Spain
Cities in Galicia
Santiago de Compostela
Municipalities of the province of A Coruña
Cabana de Bergantiños
Malpica de Bergantiños
A Pobra do Caramiñal
As Pontes de García Rodríguez
Porto do Son
Santiago de Compostela
Val do Dubra
Capitals of provinces of Spain
Castellón de la Plana