A CORUñA (Galician: , Spanish : La Coruña , English: CORUNNA,
archaically THE GROYNE) is a city and municipality of Galicia , Spain
. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and
seventeenth overall in the country. The city is the provincial capital
of the province of the same name , having also served as political
capital of the
Kingdom of Galicia
* 1 Name
* 1.1 Origin
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Administrative divisions * 2.2 Districts * 2.3 Climate
* 3 History
* 3.1 Prehistory
* 3.2 Roman times
* 3.6 20th and 21st centuries
* 3.6.1 Elections of 1931 * 3.6.2 Democracy returns
* 4 Population
* 4.1 The province and city of
* 5 Main sights
* 5.1 Squares, parks and beaches
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Tourism
* 7 Education and culture * 8 Transport * 9 Sport * 10 Politics * 11 Notable people
* 12 International relations
* 12.1 Twin towns – sister cities
* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 External links
In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates.
However, the traditional form Corunna /kəˈrʌnə/ can still be
found, particularly in reference to the
Battle of Corunna
There is no clear evidence as to what word the name derives from. It seems to be from Crunia, of unknown origin and meaning. At the time of Ferdinand II of León (12th century) the name Crunia was documented for the first time. As usual in Galician-Portuguese (as well as in Castilian Spanish), the cluster ni naturally evolved into the sound , written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in Spanish (later abbreviated to ñ , as well as the original Latin cluster "nn"), and nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. 'A' is the Galician article equivalent to English the; compare Castilian Spanish la ("the").
One proposed etymology derives Crunia from
Another possibility is that the name means simply "The Crown". The Galician word for crown is coroa. It is also possible it came about through changes to the French "La Couronne", also meaning "the Crown". It seems less likely that it traces back to the Galician "clunia".
A folk etymology incorrectly derives Coruña from the ancient columna, or Tower of Hercules .
* A Coruña * Elviña * Oza * San Cristovo das Viñas * Visma
* Cidade Vella * A Mariña * Os Cantóns * A Pescadería * O Ensanche * Cidade Xardín * Catro Camiños * A Gaiteira * Os Mallos * Zalaeta * Atochas – Monte Alto * Falperra – Santa Lucía * Juan Flórez – San Pablo * Os Castros * A Agra do Orzán * A Sagrada Familia * Labañou – San Roque * As Flores * Elviña * O Ventorrillo * Castrillón * Durmideiras * O Birloque * Matogrande * Os Rosais * Paseo das Pontes * Mesoiro * Novo Mesoiro * Someso * Vioño * Eirís * Monelos * San Pedro de Visma * Bens * A Silva – San Xosé * Palavea * Casabranca – As Xubias * Feáns * A Zapateira * Santa Margarida
CLIMATE DATA FOR A CORUñA 58 METRES (190 FEET) ABOVE SEA LEVEL (1981–2010)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 27.4 (81.3) 28.2 (82.8) 31.6 (88.9) 34 (93) 34.8 (94.6) 34.5 (94.1) 39.6 (103.3) 31.4 (88.5) 31.5 (88.7) 25 (77) 25.6 (78.1) 39.6 (103.3)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 13.5 (56.3) 14.1 (57.4) 15.5 (59.9) 16.2 (61.2) 18.1 (64.6) 20.6 (69.1) 22.1 (71.8) 22.8 (73) 22.0 (71.6) 19.1 (66.4) 16.0 (60.8) 14.1 (57.4) 17.8 (64)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 11.1 (52) 12.4 (54.3) 13.0 (55.4) 15.0 (59) 17.4 (63.3) 19.0 (66.2) 19.6 (67.3) 18.6 (65.5) 16.1 (61) 13.3 (55.9) 11.5 (52.7) 14.8 (58.6)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 8.0 (46.4) 9.2 (48.6) 9.9 (49.8) 12.0 (53.6) 14.3 (57.7) 15.9 (60.6) 16.4 (61.5) 15.2 (59.4) 13.0 (55.4) 10.5 (50.9) 8.9 (48) 11.8 (53.2)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −2.0 (28.4) −2.9 (26.8) 0.6 (33.1) 2.0 (35.6) 2.2 (36) 4.2 (39.6) 9.9 (49.8) 9.4 (48.9) 5.2 (41.4) 4.0 (39.2) 1.0 (33.8) −1.0 (30.2) −2.9 (26.8)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 112 (4.41) 88 (3.46) 75 (2.95) 88 (3.46) 75 (2.95) 44 (1.73) 34 (1.34) 35 (1.38) 64 (2.52) 130 (5.12) 138 (5.43) 131 (5.16) 1,014 (39.92)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 14 12 12 13 11 7 6 6 8 13 14 15 130
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 102 121 160 175 201 225 239 244 192 149 108 94 2,010
World Meteorological Organization
Compass rose representing the different Celtic peoples (near the Tower of Hercules). Castro de Elviña : remnant of a Celtic military structure in A Coruña.
The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, and the
colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city
became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar came
to the city (known at the time as Brigantium) in pursuit of the metal
trade, establishing commerce with what are now France, England and
Portugal. The town began growing, mainly during the 1st and 2nd
centuries (when the Farum Brigantium
Tower of Hercules was built), but
declined after the 4th century and especially with the incursions of
After the fall of the
The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo (ancient name of A Coruña) as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the episcopate of Iria Flavia in the year 572: "Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium, Salinensem, (...) Bregantinos, Farum..." ""
The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the Muslim invaders ever reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship of the remote and rugged region backed by a few garrisons, and the city was no more than a village amidst Roman ruins, the invaders showed the same lack of interest in the ruined city as they did generally for the region.
As the city began to recover during the
In the year 991, King Vermudo II began the construction of defensive military positions on the coast. At Faro, in the ruins of the Tower of Hercules , a fortress was built, which had a permanent military garrison. To pay for it, he gave power over the city to the bishop of Santiago . The bishop of Santiago became the most important political post in Galicia , and remained so until the 15th century. San Antón Castle (es)
Alfonso IX re-founded the city of Crunia. Some privileges,
such as those of disembarking and selling salt without paying taxes,
were granted to the city, and it enjoyed a big growth in fishing and
mercantile business. The city grew and extended through the isthmus.
John II of Castile granted to
In the late Middle Ages, before the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 , a
thriving Jewish community created a rich artistic heritage in the
city. The most lavishly illuminated Hebrew Bible in medieval
During the Modern period , the city was a port and centre for the
manufacturing of textiles. In 1520, king Carlos I of
From the port of Ferrol in the Province of A Coruña , Philip II left to marry Mary Tudor in 1554, and much later, in 1588, from the same port the Spanish Armada would set sail to the Spanish Netherlands and England. In the following year, during the Anglo-Spanish War , Francis Drake besieged A Coruña, but was repelled, starting the legend of María Pita , a woman who took her dead husband's spear, killed the flag bearer of the British forces and rallied support to deny a breach in the wall to the enemy.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the wars of the Spanish monarchy caused a great increase in taxes and the start of conscription. In 1620, Philip III created the School of the Boys of the Sea. In 1682 the Tower of Hercules was restored by Antúnez .
Spanish resistance during the
Peninsular War was led by Sinforiano
During the 19th century, the city was the centre of anti-monarchist
sentiment. On 19 August 1815, Juan Díaz Porlier, pronounced against
Fernando VII in defense of the
Spanish Constitution of 1812 . He was
supported by the bourgeoisie and the educated people. But on 22 August
he was betrayed. He was hanged in the Campo da Leña two months later.
In all the 19th-century rebellions,
Regarding the economy, in 1804 the National Cigarette Factory was
founded, and there the workers' movement of the city had its origins.
During the 19th century other businesses (glass, foundries, textiles,
gas, matches, etc.) were slowly established, but it was maritime trade
and migrant travel that attracted Catalan, Belgian, French and English
investments. The Bank of
20TH AND 21ST CENTURIES
At the beginning of the 20th century,
Elections Of 1931
Spanish general elections, 1931 , all the political parties
knew that the electoral results had important political consequences.
The campaign of Unión Monárquica was very important in
In the elections, the republican parties obtained 34 of the 39 council seats. The best results were of the ORGA and of the Partido Radical Socialista, and the Radical Republican Party lost a lot of support.
From 1983 to 2006, the mayor of the city was Francisco Vázquez Vázquez (PSOE ), and the city became devoted to services, but he also was criticised because of his being openly against Galician nationalism and his town-planning policies.
On 20 January 2006 Vázquez was named ambassador to the Vatican City , and was later replaced by Francisco Javier Losada de Azpiazu. In 2007 Municipal Elections the local government was a coalition of the Socialists\' Party of Galicia and the left-wing nationalist Galician Nationalist Bloc party. The city celebrated its first millennium in 2008.
In the 2011 Municipal Elections, the conservative candidate Carlos Negreira (PP ) obtained a majority, the first one for the People's Party in the city since the arrival of democracy.
THE PROVINCE AND CITY OF A CORUñA DURING THE 20TH CENTURY
After the War of Independence (1808–1814), the fortunes of Ferrol
began to deteriorate. The largest port in northern Spain, site of one
of the three Royal Dockyards , together with Cartagena and
almost became a "dead" town during the reign of
Ferdinand VII . By
1833 the City and Naval Station of Ferrol saw its civilian population
reduced to 13,000. During the administration of the marquess of
Molina, Minister for Naval affairs in the mid-19th century new
activities sprang up, but Ferrol never fully returned to its former
glory. It should be noted that during those years, most of the Spanish
Latin America succeeded in gaining independence from their
former metropolis . Celtic King Breogan in
The population of the City of
The meteoric increase in the population of the City of A Coruña
during the years which followed the
Spanish Civil War
THE CITY TODAY
CITY\\'S METROPOLITAN AREA 2014
A Coruña 244,810
The municipality of
In 2010 there were 12,344 foreigners living in the city, representing a 5% of the total population. The main nationalities are Brazilians (10%), Colombians (8%) and Peruvians (7%).
By language, according to 2008 data, 7.75% of the population speak always in Galician , 36% speak always in Spanish and the rest use both interchangeably.
The Tower of Hercules , reconstruction and modernization of the famous Roman lighthouse
The city is the site of the Roman
Tower of Hercules , a lighthouse
which has been in continuous operation since possibly the 2nd century
AD. It has been declared by
The city is also well known for its characteristic glazed window balconies, called galerías. Originally, this type of structure came about as a naval architecture solution for the challenging weather, particularly designed for rainy days. This fashion started in Ferrol in the 18th century when some of the technicians working for the Royal Dockyards had the idea of using the shape of the back of a war ship in a modern building. Soon afterwards, most sea ports in northern Spain, including the Basque region were adding these glazed window balconies to their city-port houses.
The Old Town (Ciudad Vieja in Spanish, Cidade Vella in Galician) is
the name given to the oldest part of A Coruña. During the ninth and
tenth centuries, the inhabitants of what was then called Faro Island
(peninsula where the
Tower of Hercules stands) were leaving the area
due to constant attacks by the
The city has several museums, such as the Castle of San Antón Archaeological Museum, Fine Arts Museum, Unión Fenosa Museum of Contemporary Art (MACUF) and the network of scientific museums (Casa das Ciencias, which also includes a planetarium, DOMUS, made by Arata Isozaki and Aquarium Finisterrae ). In 2012, the National Museum of Science and Technology (MUNCYT) opened a branch in the city. A Coruña's social scene is most popular on Summer nights. Most bars and clubs are on Calle Orzán, which runs directly parallel to Paseo Maritimo on the beach side. Another popular destination, for mostly a more youthful crowd, is Los Jardines (The Gardens), a park near the beginning of Rúa Real and the Los Cantones Village Shopping Centre.
SQUARES, PARKS AND BEACHES
* MARíA PITA SQUARE, the most important square in the city. Notable
landmarks are the City Hall and the statue of the local heroine Maria
* MOUNT OF SAN PEDRO PARK, a former military area, with spectacular
views over the city and the ria . You can arrive by road or using an
elevator from the promenade. It has a café, play areas, gardens and
three restored artillery pieces.
* THE PROMENADE (Paseo Marítimo) is nine kilometres (5.6 miles)
long (when completed, it will be 9 km or 5.6 mi), one of the largest
Santo Domingo Monastery.
In 1975, the clothing company Zara , founded by Amancio Ortega Gaona , opened its first store worldwide in this city and has since become a national and international clothing chain.
Inditex , the main textile manufacturer of the world, has its
headquarters in the nearby town of
Over the last few years, emphasis has been placed upon better access and infrastructure, especially cultural, sporting, leisure and scientific areas. Following a spectacular oil spill when the Aegean Sea wrecked and exploded, considerable resources have been used in the recovery of the shoreline and strengthening the tourist sector. All this has reaffirmed the city's existing character as a centre for administration, sales, port activities, culture and tourism. The city also has a regional airport , used by 1.025.688 passengers in 2015.
The two main beaches of
An important holiday is on the night of San Juan / Xan Xoán, celebrated with a massive fireworks celebration, parade, bonfires and the ancient fires on all city beaches well into dawn.
In 2006 and for the first time ever, the number of tourists has doubled the population of the city, virtually to 500,000 the number of people who chose the city as a tourist destination.
The city has an extensive network of hotels, with an offer of over 3,000 hotel vacancies. There are one five star-hotel and 11 four star-hotels, as well as many other hotels and hostels. The city is also focusing in business tourism, offering the Congress and Exhibition Centre PALEXCO, with room for more than 2,500 people; a new trade fair centre, EXPOCORUÑA, venue of concerts, exhibitions and festivals like Sónar .
EDUCATION AND CULTURE
Fountain in honor to the surfers in the beaches of the city
There are 38 pre-school centers, 47 primary schools , 29 vocational schools and 33 secondary schools .
Higher education is represented by the
University of A Coruña , a
public university established in 1989, the UNED branch, and CESUGA, a
private university centre in alliance with
University College Dublin
There are 7 municipal libraries, one library that belongs to the
provincial government and one public library , administered by the
Xunta . The Archive of the
Kingdom of Galicia
There is an
Escuela Oficial de Idiomas (
The city is home to two main theaters, Teatro Colón and Teatro
Rosalía, with regular performances, music concerts and other
representations. A multipurpose center, the Coliseum, hosts all kinds
of concerts and cultural and sporting events. International artists
like David Copperfield ,
Mark Knopfler ,
The city's principal festival is the
María Pita Festival, which
lasts from the end of July to mid September. The festival includes
Noroeste Pop Rock (free concerts at Riazor beach), free concerts in
venues all over the city, the Medieval fair in the Old Town, the
International Folklore Festival, a book fair, Festival Viñetas desde
o Atlántico, a comic fair and, for the first time in 2011, a
recreation of the famous German
Panoramic elevator to San Pedro Hill.
A Coruña Airport , formerly known as Alvedro Airport, is located in
the municipality of
Culleredo , approximately 7 kilometres (4.3 miles)
from the city centre. It serves mainly Spanish destinations, although
there are regular services to
Railway services depart from San Cristovo Station . The city will be
Regional and intercity buses depart from the
Local transportation in
Deportivo played in UEFA Cup in the 2008–2009 season
The city has a football club in Spain's top division, Real Club
Deportivo de La Coruña . Deportivo was founded in 1906 and is
currently playing in
Depor has won the league title once, in the 1999–2000 season ,
finishing as runner-up on five occasions. The club has also won the
Spanish Cup twice, (1995 and 2002) and three Spanish Super Cups. The
Blues and Whites have been a regular in top positions in
Handball team OAR Ciudad 1952 (es) currently plays in Spanish First Division.
American football team Towers Football currently plays in LGFA, the Galician tackle football regional league.
Two Gaelic football teams have been founded in 2010 and 2011, A
Coruña Fillos de Breogán (with men and ladies teams) and Ártabros
de Oleiros (really from
Casas Novas riding club, in the outskirts of the city, hosts many national and international championships.
In tenpin bowling,
Domingos Rafael Merino Mexuto was the first mayor after the Spanish Constitution of 1978 from PSG (he is now at BNG), and now works at the Galician Ombudsman (Valedor) office.
Francisco Vázquez Vázquez from PSOE had been mayor of the city from 1983; however, after becoming the Spanish ambassador to the Vatican , he was replaced by Javier Losada on 10 February 2006.
The current mayor is Xulio Ferreiro, from Marea Atlántica .
* Maria Pita , María Mayor Fernández de Cámara y Pita (1565–1643), a Galician-Spanish heroine of the defense of A Coruña in 1589 against the English Armada * José Andrés Cornide de Folgueira y Saavedra (es) (1734–1803), writer * Ramón Dionisio José de la Sagra y Peris (1798–1871), botany teacher, philosopher and social economist * Emilia Pardo Bazán (1851–1921), novelist, journalist, essayist and critic * Eduardo Dato Iradier (1856–1921), lawyer and politician * Ramón Menéndez Pidal (1869–1968), writer * José Millán Astray (1879–1954), founder and first commander of the Spanish Foreign Legion * Santiago Casares Quiroga (1884–1950), lawyer and politician * Wenceslao Fernández Flórez (1885–1964), narrator and journalist * Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo (1896–1978), writer and poet * Fernando Casado Arambillet (1917–1994), better known as Fernando Rey , actor * Amando de Ossorio (1918–2001), film director * María Casares (1922–1996), actress * Luis Suárez Miramontes (born 1935), football player and manager * Amancio Amaro Varela (born 1939), football player * Emilio Pérez Touriño (born 1948), former president of the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia * Manuel Rivas Barros (born 1957), writer, poet, essayist and journalist * Andrés Manuel Díaz , (born 1969), athlete * María Pujalte , (born 1966), actress * Marta Sánchez , (born 1966), singer * Fernando Romay , (born 1959), basketball player * Amancio Ortega , (born 1936 in Castilla y León), founder of fashion brand Zara (clothing) * Lucas Pérez , (born 1988), football player for Arsenal F.C. * Miguel Anxo Mato Fondo (gl), (born 1953 in Ponteceso), writer and literary critic
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
* ^ "La Coruña, capital militar y administrativa del Reino..." de
Artaza, Manuel María (1998). Rey, reino y representación: la Junta
General del Reino de Galicia (1599–1834). Madrid: Consejo Superior
de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 71. ISBN 978-84-00-07779-2 .
* ^ "The city of Corunna, Armory, Capital, and Head of the Kingdom
of Galicia..." (1748), in
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Corunna". Encyclopædia Britannica . 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 208–209.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for A CORUñA .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to A CORUñA .