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The Info List - APG III


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The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a further revision, the APG IV system.[1][2][3] Along with the publication outlining the new system, there were two accompanying publications in the same issue of the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. The first, by Chase & Reveal, was a formal phylogenetic classification of all land plants (embryophytes), compatible with the APG III classification. As the APG have chosen to eschew ranks above order, this paper was meant to fit the system into the existing Linnaean hierarchy for those that prefer such a classification. The result was that all land plants were placed in the class Equisetopsida, which was then divided into 16 subclasses and a multitude of superorders.[4] The second, by Haston et al., was a linear sequence of families following the APG III system (LAPG III). This provided a numbered list to the 413 families of APG III. A linear sequence is of particular use to herbarium curators and those working on floristic works wishing to arrange their taxa according to APG III.[5]

Contents

1 Organization 2 Short version 3 Detailed version

3.1 Angiosperms 3.2 Magnoliids 3.3 Monocots 3.4 Commelinids 3.5 Probable sister of eudicots 3.6 Eudicots 3.7 Core eudicots 3.8 Rosids 3.9 fabids (eurosids I) 3.10 malvids (eurosids II) 3.11 Asterids 3.12 lamiids (euasterids I) 3.13 campanulids (euasterids II) 3.14 Taxa of uncertain position

4 Phylogeny 5 Subfamilies replacing discontinued families 6 References 7 External links

Organization[edit] The APG III system recognized all of the 45 orders of the previous system, as well as 14 new ones. The order Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllales
was erroneously marked as a new order, as it had been recognized in both of the previous APG systems. The newly recognized orders were:

Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Chloranthales, Petrosaviales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Picramniales, Huerteales, Berberidopsidales, Escalloniales, Bruniales, and Paracryphiales.

The designation of alternative "bracketed families" was abandoned in APG III, because its inclusion in the previous system had been unpopular. APG III recognized 413 families, 43 fewer than in the previous system. Forty-four of the 55 "bracketed families" were discontinued, and 20 other families were discontinued as well. The discontinued bracketed families were:

Illiciaceae, Alliaceae, Agapanthaceae, Agavaceae, Aphyllanthaceae, Hesperocallidaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Ruscaceae, Themidaceae, Asphodelaceae, Hemerocallidaceae, Kingdoniaceae, Fumariaceae, Pteridophyllaceae, Didymelaceae, Tetracentraceae, Pterostemonaceae, Hypseocharitaceae, Francoaceae, Memecylaceae, Lepuropetalaceae, Rhoipteleaceae, Medusagynaceae, Quiinaceae, Malesherbiaceae, Turneraceae, Bretschneideraceae, Diegodendraceae, Cochlospermaceae, Peganaceae, Tetradiclidaceae, Nyssaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, Pellicieraceae, Aucubaceae, Donatiaceae, Lobeliaceae, Desfontainiaceae, Diervillaceae, Dipsacaceae, Linnaeaceae, Morinaceae, and Valerianaceae.

The other discontinued families were:

Limnocharitaceae, Luzuriagaceae, Sparganiaceae, Ixerbaceae, Ledocarpaceae, Heteropyxidaceae, Psiloxylaceae, Oliniaceae, Rhynchocalycaceae, Parnassiaceae, Maesaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, Eremosynaceae, Polyosmaceae, Tribelaceae, Sphenostemonaceae, Aralidiaceae, Mackinlayaceae, and Melanophyllaceae.

21 families were accepted in the APG III system which had not been in the previous system, and a few families were moved to a different position. The newly recognized families are:

Cynomoriaceae, Haptanthaceae, Petermanniaceae, Schoepfiaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae, Talinaceae, Anacampserotaceae, Centroplacaceae, Calophyllaceae, Guamatelaceae, Gerrardinaceae, Dipentodontaceae, Capparidaceae, Cleomaceae, Cytinaceae, Mitrastemonaceae, Metteniusaceae, Linderniaceae, and Thomandersiaceae.

The number of families not placed in any order was reduced from 39 to 10. Apodanthaceae
Apodanthaceae
and Cynomoriaceae
Cynomoriaceae
were placed among the angiosperms, incertae sedis, that is, not in any group within the angiosperms. Eight other families were placed incertae sedis in various supra-ordinal groups within the angiosperms. The families not placed in any order were:

Apodanthaceae, Cynomoriaceae, Dasypogonaceae, Sabiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Icacinaceae, Metteniusaceae, Oncothecaceae, Vahliaceae, and Boraginaceae.

The paragraph below shows the number of families in each order and the placement of those families that were not included in any order. These figures were produced by simply counting the families in the text of the paper that established APG III.[1] ORDERS: Amborellales
Amborellales
(1), Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
(3), Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
(3), Chloranthales
Chloranthales
(1), Canellales
Canellales
(2), Piperales
Piperales
(5), Magnoliales
Magnoliales
(6), Laurales
Laurales
(7), Acorales
Acorales
(1), Alismatales
Alismatales
(13), Petrosaviales
Petrosaviales
(1), Dioscoreales
Dioscoreales
(3), Pandanales
Pandanales
(5), Liliales
Liliales
(10), Asparagales
Asparagales
(14), Arecales
Arecales
(1), Poales
Poales
(16), Commelinales
Commelinales
(5), Zingiberales
Zingiberales
(8), Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllales
(1), Ranunculales
Ranunculales
(7), Proteales
Proteales
(3), Trochodendrales (1), Buxales
Buxales
(2), Gunnerales
Gunnerales
(2), Saxifragales
Saxifragales
(14), Vitales
Vitales
(1), Zygophyllales
Zygophyllales
(2), Celastrales
Celastrales
(2), Oxalidales
Oxalidales
(7), Malpighiales
Malpighiales
(35), Fabales
Fabales
(4), Rosales
Rosales
(9), Fagales
Fagales
(7), Cucurbitales
Cucurbitales
(7), Geraniales (3), Myrtales
Myrtales
(9), Crossosomatales
Crossosomatales
(7), Picramniales
Picramniales
(1), Sapindales (9), Huerteales
Huerteales
(3), Brassicales
Brassicales
(17), Malvales
Malvales
(10), Berberidopsidales
Berberidopsidales
(2), Santalales
Santalales
(7), Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
(34), Cornales (6), Ericales
Ericales
(22), Garryales
Garryales
(2), Gentianales
Gentianales
(5), Solanales
Solanales
(5), Lamiales
Lamiales
(23), Aquifoliales
Aquifoliales
(5), Asterales
Asterales
(11), Escalloniales
Escalloniales
(1), Bruniales
Bruniales
(2), Apiales
Apiales
(7), Paracryphiales
Paracryphiales
(1), Dipsacales
Dipsacales
(2). SUPRA-ORDINAL GROUPS: commelinids (1), basal eudicots (1), Pentapetalae (1), lamiids incertae sedis (3), core lamiids (2), angiosperms incertae sedis (2). The circumscription of the family Icacinaceae
Icacinaceae
remains especially doubtful. Apodytes
Apodytes
and its close relative, Rhaphiostylis, as well as Emmotum, Cassinopsis, and a few other genera were provisionally retained within it until further studies can determine whether they properly belong there. Three genera (Gumillea, Nicobariodendron, and Petenaea) were placed within the angiosperms incertae sedis. Gumillea had been unplaced in APG II. Nicobariodendron and Petenaea were newly added to the list. The latter was later placed into its own family Petenaeaceae in the order Huerteales[6][7] The classification is shown below in two versions. The short version goes to the level of orders and of families unplaced in an order. The detailed version shows all the families. Orders at the same level in the classification are arranged alphabetically. Note that orders may not contain the same families as in earlier versions of the APG system (APG system, APG II system). Further detail on relationships can be seen in the phylogenetic tree below. Short version[edit]

clade angiosperms

order Amborellales order Nymphaeales order Austrobaileyales order Chloranthales

clade magnoliids

order Canellales order Laurales order Magnoliales order Piperales

clade monocots

order Acorales order Alismatales order Asparagales order Dioscoreales order Liliales order Pandanales order Petrosaviales

clade commelinids

family Dasypogonaceae—unplaced in an order

order Arecales order Commelinales order Poales order Zingiberales

probable sister of eudicots

order Ceratophyllales

clade eudicots

family Sabiaceae—unplaced in an order

order Buxales order Proteales order Ranunculales order Trochodendrales

clade core eudicots

family Dilleniaceae—unplaced in an order

order Gunnerales order Saxifragales

clade rosids

order Vitales

clade fabids (eurosids I)

order Celastrales order Cucurbitales order Fabales order Fagales order Malpighiales order Oxalidales order Rosales order Zygophyllales

clade malvids (eurosids II)

order Brassicales order Crossosomatales order Geraniales order Huerteales order Malvales order Myrtales order Picramniales order Sapindales

(back to core eudicots)

order Berberidopsidales order Caryophyllales order Santalales

clade asterids

order Cornales order Ericales

clade lamiids (euasterids I)

family Boraginaceae—unplaced in an order family Vahliaceae—unplaced in an order family Icacinaceae—unplaced in an order family Metteniusaceae—unplaced in an order family Oncothecaceae—unplaced in an order

order Garryales order Gentianales order Lamiales order Solanales

clade campanulids (euasterids II)

order Apiales order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Bruniales order Dipsacales order Escalloniales order Paracryphiales

Detailed version[edit] Legend: * = new family placement; † = newly recognized order for the APG system; § = new family circumscription described in the text; $ = families that represent the broader circumscription of options available in APG II and favoured here; $$ = families that were in square brackets in APG II, the narrower circumscriptions favoured here. Angiosperms[edit]

Amborellales
Amborellales
Melikyan, A.V.Bobrov & Zaytzeva

Amborellaceae
Amborellaceae
Pichon

Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
Salisb. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

$$ Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
Rich. ex A.Rich. * Hydatellaceae
Hydatellaceae
U.Hamann $$ Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
Salisb.

Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Takht. ex Reveal

Austrobaileyaceae Croizat $ Schisandraceae
Schisandraceae
Blume (including Illiciaceae
Illiciaceae
A.C.Sm.) Trimeniaceae
Trimeniaceae
L.S.Gibbs

Chloranthales
Chloranthales
R.Br.

Chloranthaceae
Chloranthaceae
R.Br. ex Sims

Magnoliids[edit]

Canellales
Canellales
Cronquist

Canellaceae
Canellaceae
Mart. Winteraceae
Winteraceae
R.Br. ex Lindl.

Piperales
Piperales
Bercht. & J.Presl

Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochiaceae
Juss. Hydnoraceae
Hydnoraceae
C.Agardh Lactoridaceae
Lactoridaceae
Engl. Piperaceae
Piperaceae
Giseke Saururaceae
Saururaceae
F.Voigt

Laurales
Laurales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Atherospermataceae
Atherospermataceae
R.Br. Calycanthaceae
Calycanthaceae
Lindl. Gomortegaceae
Gomortegaceae
Reiche Hernandiaceae
Hernandiaceae
Blume Lauraceae
Lauraceae
Juss. Monimiaceae
Monimiaceae
Juss. Siparunaceae
Siparunaceae
Schodde

Magnoliales
Magnoliales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Annonaceae
Annonaceae
Juss. Degeneriaceae I.W.Bailey & A.C.Sm. Eupomatiaceae
Eupomatiaceae
Orb. Himantandraceae
Himantandraceae
Diels Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
Juss. Myristicaceae
Myristicaceae
R.Br.

Monocots[edit]

Acorales
Acorales
Link

Acoraceae
Acoraceae
Martinov

Alismatales
Alismatales
R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

§ Alismataceae
Alismataceae
Vent. (including Limnocharitaceae Takht. ex Cronquist) Aponogetonaceae
Aponogetonaceae
Planch. Araceae
Araceae
Juss. Butomaceae
Butomaceae
Mirb. Cymodoceaceae
Cymodoceaceae
Vines Hydrocharitaceae
Hydrocharitaceae
Juss. Juncaginaceae
Juncaginaceae
Rich. Posidoniaceae
Posidoniaceae
Vines Potamogetonaceae
Potamogetonaceae
Bercht. & J.Presl Ruppiaceae
Ruppiaceae
Horan. Scheuchzeriaceae
Scheuchzeriaceae
F.Rudolphi Tofieldiaceae
Tofieldiaceae
Takht. Zosteraceae
Zosteraceae
Dumort.

Petrosaviales
Petrosaviales
Takht.

Petrosaviaceae
Petrosaviaceae
Hutch.

Dioscoreales
Dioscoreales
R.Br.

Burmanniaceae
Burmanniaceae
Blume Dioscoreaceae
Dioscoreaceae
R.Br. Nartheciaceae
Nartheciaceae
Fr. ex Bjurzon

Pandanales
Pandanales
R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Cyclanthaceae
Cyclanthaceae
Poit. ex A.Rich. Pandanaceae
Pandanaceae
R.Br. Stemonaceae
Stemonaceae
Caruel Triuridaceae
Triuridaceae
Gardner Velloziaceae
Velloziaceae
J.Agardh

Liliales
Liliales
Perleb

§ Alstroemeriaceae
Alstroemeriaceae
Dumort. (including Luzuriagaceae
Luzuriagaceae
Lotsy) Campynemataceae
Campynemataceae
Dumort. Colchicaceae
Colchicaceae
DC. Corsiaceae
Corsiaceae
Becc. Liliaceae
Liliaceae
Juss. Melanthiaceae
Melanthiaceae
Batsch
Batsch
ex Borkh. * Petermanniaceae Hutch. Philesiaceae
Philesiaceae
Dumort. Ripogonaceae
Ripogonaceae
Conran & Clifford Smilacaceae
Smilacaceae
Vent.

Asparagales
Asparagales
Link

$ Amaryllidaceae
Amaryllidaceae
J.St.-Hil. (including Agapanthaceae
Agapanthaceae
F.Voigt, Alliaceae Borkh.) $ Asparagaceae
Asparagaceae
Juss. (including Agavaceae
Agavaceae
Dumort., Aphyllanthaceae Burnett, Hesperocallidaceae
Hesperocallidaceae
Traub, Hyacinthaceae
Hyacinthaceae
Batsch
Batsch
ex Borkh., Laxmanniaceae
Laxmanniaceae
Bubani, Ruscaceae
Ruscaceae
M.Roem., Themidaceae
Themidaceae
Salisb.) Asteliaceae
Asteliaceae
Dumort. Blandfordiaceae
Blandfordiaceae
R.Dahlgren & Clifford Boryaceae
Boryaceae
M.W.Chase, Rudall & Conran Doryanthaceae
Doryanthaceae
R.Dahlgren & Clifford Hypoxidaceae
Hypoxidaceae
R.Br. Iridaceae
Iridaceae
Juss. Ixioliriaceae
Ixioliriaceae
Nakai Lanariaceae
Lanariaceae
R.Dahlgren & A.E.van Wyk Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
Juss. Tecophilaeaceae
Tecophilaeaceae
Leyb. $ Xanthorrhoeaceae
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Dumort. (including Asphodelaceae
Asphodelaceae
Juss. and Hemerocallidaceae
Hemerocallidaceae
R.Br.) Xeronemataceae
Xeronemataceae
M.W.Chase, Rudall & M.F.Fay

Commelinids[edit]

Dasypogonaceae
Dasypogonaceae
Dumort. Arecales
Arecales
Bromhead

Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Bercht. & J.Presl

Commelinales
Commelinales
Mirb. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Commelinaceae
Commelinaceae
Mirb. Haemodoraceae
Haemodoraceae
R.Br. Hanguanaceae
Hanguanaceae
Airy Shaw Philydraceae
Philydraceae
Link Pontederiaceae
Pontederiaceae
Kunth

Poales
Poales
Small

Anarthriaceae D.F.Cutler & Airy Shaw Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
Juss. Centrolepidaceae
Centrolepidaceae
Endl. Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Juss. Ecdeiocoleaceae D.F.Cutler & Airy Shaw Eriocaulaceae
Eriocaulaceae
Martinov Flagellariaceae
Flagellariaceae
Dumort. Joinvilleaceae
Joinvilleaceae
Toml. & A.C.Sm. Juncaceae
Juncaceae
Juss. Mayacaceae
Mayacaceae
Kunth Poaceae
Poaceae
Barnhart Rapateaceae
Rapateaceae
Dumort. Restionaceae
Restionaceae
R.Br. Thurniaceae
Thurniaceae
Engl. § Typhaceae
Typhaceae
Juss. (including Sparganiaceae
Sparganiaceae
Hanin) Xyridaceae
Xyridaceae
C.Agardh

Zingiberales
Zingiberales
Griseb.

Cannaceae
Cannaceae
Juss. Costaceae
Costaceae
Nakai Heliconiaceae
Heliconiaceae
Vines Lowiaceae
Lowiaceae
Ridl. Marantaceae
Marantaceae
R.Br. Musaceae
Musaceae
Juss. Strelitziaceae
Strelitziaceae
Hutch. Zingiberaceae
Zingiberaceae
Martinov

Probable sister of eudicots[edit]

Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllales
Link

Ceratophyllaceae
Ceratophyllaceae
Gray

Eudicots[edit]

Ranunculales
Ranunculales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Berberidaceae
Berberidaceae
Juss. $ Circaeasteraceae Hutch. (including Kingdoniaceae Airy Shaw) Eupteleaceae
Eupteleaceae
K.Wilh. Lardizabalaceae
Lardizabalaceae
R.Br. Menispermaceae
Menispermaceae
Juss. $ Papaveraceae
Papaveraceae
Juss. (including Fumariaceae
Fumariaceae
Marquis, Pteridophyllaceae Nakai ex Reveal & Hoogland) Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Juss.

Sabiaceae
Sabiaceae
Blume Proteales
Proteales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Nelumbonaceae
Nelumbonaceae
A.Rich. $$ Platanaceae
Platanaceae
T.Lestib. $$ Proteaceae
Proteaceae
Juss.

Trochodendrales
Trochodendrales
Takht. ex Cronquist

$ Trochodendraceae
Trochodendraceae
Eichler (including Tetracentraceae
Tetracentraceae
A.C.Sm.)

Buxales
Buxales
Takht. ex Reveal

$ Buxaceae
Buxaceae
Dumort. (including Didymelaceae
Didymelaceae
Leandri) * Haptanthaceae
Haptanthaceae
C.Nelson

Core eudicots[edit]

Gunnerales
Gunnerales
Takht. ex Reveal

$$ Gunneraceae
Gunneraceae
Meisn. $$ Myrothamnaceae
Myrothamnaceae
Nied.

Dilleniaceae
Dilleniaceae
Salisb. Saxifragales
Saxifragales
Bercht. & J.Presl

Altingiaceae
Altingiaceae
Horan. Aphanopetalaceae
Aphanopetalaceae
Doweld Cercidiphyllaceae
Cercidiphyllaceae
Engl. Crassulaceae
Crassulaceae
J.St.-Hil. Daphniphyllaceae
Daphniphyllaceae
Müll.-Arg. Grossulariaceae
Grossulariaceae
DC. $$ Haloragaceae
Haloragaceae
R.Br. Hamamelidaceae
Hamamelidaceae
R.Br. $ Iteaceae
Iteaceae
J.Agardh (including Pterostemonaceae Small) Paeoniaceae
Paeoniaceae
Raf. $$ Penthoraceae
Penthoraceae
Rydb. ex Britt. *§ Peridiscaceae Kuhlm. (including Medusandraceae Brenan, Soyauxia Oliver) Saxifragaceae
Saxifragaceae
Juss. $$ Tetracarpaeaceae Nakai

Berberidopsidales
Berberidopsidales
Doweld

Aextoxicaceae
Aextoxicaceae
Engl. & Gilg Berberidopsidaceae
Berberidopsidaceae
Takht.

Santalales
Santalales
R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

* Balanophoraceae
Balanophoraceae
Rich. Loranthaceae
Loranthaceae
Juss. Misodendraceae
Misodendraceae
J.Agardh Santalaceae
Santalaceae
R.Br. Olacaceae
Olacaceae
R.Br. Opiliaceae
Opiliaceae
Valeton * Schoepfiaceae
Schoepfiaceae
Blume

Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Achatocarpaceae
Achatocarpaceae
Heimerl Aizoaceae
Aizoaceae
Martinov Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
Juss. * Anacampserotaceae
Anacampserotaceae
Eggli & Nyffeler Ancistrocladaceae
Ancistrocladaceae
Planch. ex Walp. Asteropeiaceae Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland Barbeuiaceae
Barbeuiaceae
Nakai Basellaceae
Basellaceae
Raf. Cactaceae
Cactaceae
Juss. Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae
Juss. § Didiereaceae
Didiereaceae
Radlk. Dioncophyllaceae
Dioncophyllaceae
Airy Shaw Droseraceae
Droseraceae
Salisb. Drosophyllaceae
Drosophyllaceae
Chrtek, Slavíková & Studnicka Frankeniaceae
Frankeniaceae
Desv. Gisekiaceae
Gisekiaceae
Nakai Halophytaceae
Halophytaceae
A.Soriano * Limeaceae
Limeaceae
Shipunov ex Reveal * Lophiocarpaceae Doweld & Reveal § Molluginaceae
Molluginaceae
Bartl. * Montiaceae
Montiaceae
Raf. Nepenthaceae
Nepenthaceae
Dumort. Nyctaginaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Juss. Physenaceae Takht. Phytolaccaceae
Phytolaccaceae
R.Br. Plumbaginaceae
Plumbaginaceae
Juss. Polygonaceae
Polygonaceae
Juss. § Portulacaceae
Portulacaceae
Juss. Rhabdodendraceae Prance Sarcobataceae
Sarcobataceae
Behnke Simmondsiaceae
Simmondsiaceae
Tiegh. Stegnospermataceae
Stegnospermataceae
Nakai * Talinaceae
Talinaceae
Doweld Tamaricaceae
Tamaricaceae
Link

Rosids[edit]

Vitales
Vitales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Vitaceae
Vitaceae
Juss.

fabids (eurosids I)[edit]

Zygophyllales
Zygophyllales
Link

$$ Krameriaceae
Krameriaceae
Dumort. $$ Zygophyllaceae
Zygophyllaceae
R.Br.

Celastrales
Celastrales
Link

$ Celastraceae
Celastraceae
R.Br. (including Lepuropetalaceae Nakai, Parnassiaceae Martinov, Pottingeriaceae Takht.) Lepidobotryaceae
Lepidobotryaceae
J.Léonard

Oxalidales
Oxalidales
Bercht. & J.Presl

Brunelliaceae
Brunelliaceae
Engl. Cephalotaceae
Cephalotaceae
Dumort. Connaraceae
Connaraceae
R.Br. Cunoniaceae
Cunoniaceae
R.Br. Elaeocarpaceae
Elaeocarpaceae
Juss. ex DC. * Huaceae
Huaceae
A.Chev. Oxalidaceae
Oxalidaceae
R.Br.

Malpighiales
Malpighiales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Achariaceae
Achariaceae
Harms Balanopaceae
Balanopaceae
Benth. & Hook.f. Bonnetiaceae
Bonnetiaceae
L.Beauvis. ex Nakai * Calophyllaceae
Calophyllaceae
J.Agardh Caryocaraceae
Caryocaraceae
Voigt * Centroplacaceae Doweld & Reveal $$ Chrysobalanaceae
Chrysobalanaceae
R.Br. § Clusiaceae
Clusiaceae
Lindl. Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonça $$ Dichapetalaceae
Dichapetalaceae
Baill. Elatinaceae
Elatinaceae
Dumort. $$§ Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylaceae
Kunth (including Aneulophus Benth.) Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Juss. $$ Euphroniaceae Marc.-Berti Goupiaceae
Goupiaceae
Miers Humiriaceae
Humiriaceae
A.Juss. Hypericaceae
Hypericaceae
Juss. Irvingiaceae
Irvingiaceae
Exell & Mendonça Ixonanthaceae
Ixonanthaceae
Planch. ex Miq. Lacistemataceae
Lacistemataceae
Mart. Linaceae
Linaceae
DC. ex Perleb Lophopyxidaceae H.Pfeiff. Malpighiaceae
Malpighiaceae
Juss. $ Ochnaceae
Ochnaceae
DC. (including Medusagynaceae
Medusagynaceae
Engl. & Gilg, Quiinaceae Choisy) Pandaceae
Pandaceae
Engl. & Gilg $ Passifloraceae
Passifloraceae
Juss. ex Roussel (including Malesherbiaceae
Malesherbiaceae
D.Don, Turneraceae
Turneraceae
Kunth ex DC.) Phyllanthaceae
Phyllanthaceae
Martinov Picrodendraceae
Picrodendraceae
Small Podostemaceae
Podostemaceae
Rich. ex Kunth Putranjivaceae
Putranjivaceae
Meisn. * Rafflesiaceae
Rafflesiaceae
Dumort. $$ Rhizophoraceae
Rhizophoraceae
Pers. Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Mirb. $$ Trigoniaceae A.Juss. Violaceae
Violaceae
Batsch

Cucurbitales
Cucurbitales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Anisophylleaceae Ridl. Begoniaceae
Begoniaceae
C.Agardh Coriariaceae
Coriariaceae
DC. Corynocarpaceae
Corynocarpaceae
Engl. Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Juss. Datiscaceae
Datiscaceae
Dumort. Tetramelaceae
Tetramelaceae
Airy Shaw

Fabales
Fabales
Bromhead

Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Lindl. Polygalaceae
Polygalaceae
Hoffmanns. & Link Quillajaceae
Quillajaceae
D.Don Surianaceae
Surianaceae
Arn.

Fagales
Fagales
Engl.

Betulaceae
Betulaceae
Gray Casuarinaceae
Casuarinaceae
R.Br. Fagaceae
Fagaceae
Dumort. § Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
DC. ex Perleb (including Rhoipteleaceae
Rhoipteleaceae
Hand.-Mazz.) Myricaceae
Myricaceae
A.Rich. ex Kunth Nothofagaceae
Nothofagaceae
Kuprian Ticodendraceae
Ticodendraceae
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez

Rosales
Rosales
Bercht. & J.Presl

Barbeyaceae Rendle Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
Martinov Dirachmaceae Hutch. Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
Juss. Moraceae
Moraceae
Gaudich. Rhamnaceae
Rhamnaceae
Juss. Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Juss. Ulmaceae
Ulmaceae
Mirb. Urticaceae
Urticaceae
Juss.

malvids (eurosids II)[edit]

Geraniales
Geraniales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

$ Geraniaceae
Geraniaceae
Juss. (including Hypseocharitaceae Wedd.) $ Melianthaceae
Melianthaceae
Horan. (including Francoaceae
Francoaceae
A.Juss.) § Vivianiaceae
Vivianiaceae
Klotzsch (including Ledocarpaceae
Ledocarpaceae
Meyen)

Myrtales
Myrtales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Alzateaceae S.A.Graham Combretaceae
Combretaceae
R.Br. Crypteroniaceae A.DC. Lythraceae
Lythraceae
J.St.-Hil. $ Melastomataceae
Melastomataceae
Juss. (including Memecylaceae
Memecylaceae
DC.) § Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
Juss. (including Heteropyxidaceae
Heteropyxidaceae
Engl. & Gilg, Psiloxylaceae
Psiloxylaceae
Croizat) Onagraceae
Onagraceae
Juss. § Penaeaceae
Penaeaceae
Sweet ex Guill. (including Oliniaceae
Oliniaceae
Arn., Rhynchocalycaceae
Rhynchocalycaceae
L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs) Vochysiaceae
Vochysiaceae
A.St.-Hil.

Crossosomatales
Crossosomatales
Takht. ex Reveal

* Aphloiaceae
Aphloiaceae
Takht. Crossosomataceae
Crossosomataceae
Engl. * Geissolomataceae A.DC. * Guamatelaceae S.Oh & D.Potter Stachyuraceae
Stachyuraceae
J.Agardh Staphyleaceae
Staphyleaceae
Martinov *§ Strasburgeriaceae
Strasburgeriaceae
Soler. (including Ixerbaceae
Ixerbaceae
Griseb. ex Doweld & Reveal)

Picramniales
Picramniales
Doweld

* Picramniaceae
Picramniaceae
Fernando & Quinn

Huerteales
Huerteales
Doweld

* Dipentodontaceae Merr. * Gerrardinaceae Alford Tapisciaceae Takht.

Brassicales
Brassicales
Bromhead

$ Akaniaceae
Akaniaceae
Stapf (including Bretschneideraceae
Bretschneideraceae
Engl. & Gilg) Bataceae
Bataceae
Mart. ex Perleb § Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
Burnett * Capparaceae
Capparaceae
Juss. Caricaceae
Caricaceae
Dumort. * Cleomaceae
Cleomaceae
Bercht. & J.Presl Emblingiaceae
Emblingiaceae
J.Agardh Gyrostemonaceae
Gyrostemonaceae
A.Juss. Koeberliniaceae
Koeberliniaceae
Engl. Limnanthaceae
Limnanthaceae
R.Br. Moringaceae
Moringaceae
Martinov Pentadiplandraceae
Pentadiplandraceae
Hutch. & Dalziel Resedaceae
Resedaceae
Martinov Salvadoraceae
Salvadoraceae
Lindl. Setchellanthaceae Iltis Tovariaceae
Tovariaceae
Pax Tropaeolaceae
Tropaeolaceae
Juss. ex DC.

Malvales
Malvales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

$ Bixaceae
Bixaceae
Kunth (including Cochlospermaceae
Cochlospermaceae
Planch., Diegodendraceae Capuron) Cistaceae
Cistaceae
Juss. * Cytinaceae
Cytinaceae
A.Rich. Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpaceae
Blume Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Juss. Muntingiaceae
Muntingiaceae
C.Bayer, M.W.Chase & M.F.Fay Neuradaceae
Neuradaceae
Kostel. Sarcolaenaceae
Sarcolaenaceae
Caruel Sphaerosepalaceae Tiegh. ex Bullock Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
Juss.

Sapindales
Sapindales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
R.Br. Biebersteiniaceae
Biebersteiniaceae
Schnizl. Burseraceae
Burseraceae
Kunth Kirkiaceae Takht. Meliaceae
Meliaceae
Juss. $ Nitrariaceae
Nitrariaceae
Lindl. (including Peganaceae Tiegh. ex Takht., Tetradiclidaceae Takht.) Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Juss. Sapindaceae
Sapindaceae
Juss. Simaroubaceae
Simaroubaceae
DC.

Asterids[edit]

Cornales
Cornales
Link.

Cornaceae
Cornaceae
Bercht. & J.Presl (including Nyssaceae
Nyssaceae
Juss. ex Dumort.) Curtisiaceae
Curtisiaceae
Takht. Grubbiaceae Endl. ex Meisn. Hydrangeaceae
Hydrangeaceae
Dumort. Hydrostachyaceae
Hydrostachyaceae
Engl. Loasaceae
Loasaceae
Juss.

Ericales
Ericales
Bercht. & J.Presl

Actinidiaceae
Actinidiaceae
Engl. & Gilg. Balsaminaceae
Balsaminaceae
A.Rich. Clethraceae
Clethraceae
Klotzsch Cyrillaceae
Cyrillaceae
Lindl. Diapensiaceae
Diapensiaceae
Lindl. Ebenaceae
Ebenaceae
Gürke Ericaceae
Ericaceae
Juss. Fouquieriaceae
Fouquieriaceae
DC. Lecythidaceae
Lecythidaceae
A.Rich. Marcgraviaceae
Marcgraviaceae
Bercht. & J.Presl * Mitrastemonaceae Makino $ Pentaphylacaceae
Pentaphylacaceae
Engl. (including Ternstroemiaceae
Ternstroemiaceae
Mirb. ex DC.) Polemoniaceae
Polemoniaceae
Juss. § Primulaceae
Primulaceae
Batsch
Batsch
ex Borkh. (including Maesaceae Anderb., B.Ståhl & Källersjö, Myrsinaceae
Myrsinaceae
R.Br., Theophrastaceae
Theophrastaceae
G.Don) Roridulaceae
Roridulaceae
Martinov Sapotaceae
Sapotaceae
Juss. Sarraceniaceae
Sarraceniaceae
Dumort. $$ Sladeniaceae Airy Shaw Styracaceae
Styracaceae
DC. & Spreng. Symplocaceae
Symplocaceae
Desf. $ Tetrameristaceae Hutch. (including Pellicieraceae L.Beauvis.) Theaceae
Theaceae
Mirb. ex Ker Gawl.

lamiids (euasterids I)[edit]

§* Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Juss. (including Hoplestigmataceae Gilg) Vahliaceae Dandy Icacinaceae
Icacinaceae
Miers Metteniusaceae
Metteniusaceae
H.Karst. ex Schnizl. Oncothecaceae Kobuski ex Airy Shaw Garryales
Garryales
Lindl.

Eucommiaceae
Eucommiaceae
Engl. $ Garryaceae
Garryaceae
Lindl. (including Aucubaceae Bercht. & J.Presl)

Gentianales
Gentianales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae
Juss. Gelsemiaceae
Gelsemiaceae
Struwe & V.A.Albert Gentianaceae
Gentianaceae
Juss. Loganiaceae
Loganiaceae
R.Br. ex Mart. Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Juss.

Lamiales
Lamiales
Bromhead

§ Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Juss. Bignoniaceae
Bignoniaceae
Juss. Byblidaceae
Byblidaceae
Domin Calceolariaceae
Calceolariaceae
Olmstead Carlemanniaceae
Carlemanniaceae
Airy Shaw Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Rich. & Juss. Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Martinov * Linderniaceae
Linderniaceae
Borsch, K.Müll., & Eb.Fisch. Lentibulariaceae
Lentibulariaceae
Rich. Martyniaceae
Martyniaceae
Horan. Oleaceae
Oleaceae
Hoffmanns. & Link Orobanchaceae
Orobanchaceae
Vent. Paulowniaceae
Paulowniaceae
Nakai Pedaliaceae
Pedaliaceae
R.Br. Phrymaceae
Phrymaceae
Schauer § Plantaginaceae
Plantaginaceae
Juss. Plocospermataceae Hutch. Schlegeliaceae Reveal Scrophulariaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Juss. Stilbaceae
Stilbaceae
Kunth Tetrachondraceae
Tetrachondraceae
Wettst. * Thomandersiaceae Sreem. Verbenaceae
Verbenaceae
J.St.-Hil.

Solanales
Solanales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Convolvulaceae
Convolvulaceae
Juss. Hydroleaceae R.Br. ex Edwards Montiniaceae
Montiniaceae
Nakai Solanaceae
Solanaceae
Juss. Sphenocleaceae
Sphenocleaceae
T.Baskerv.

campanulids (euasterids II)[edit]

Aquifoliales
Aquifoliales
Senft

Aquifoliaceae
Aquifoliaceae
Bercht. & J.Presl § Cardiopteridaceae
Cardiopteridaceae
Blume (including Leptaulaceae Tiegh.) Helwingiaceae
Helwingiaceae
Decne. Phyllonomaceae
Phyllonomaceae
Small Stemonuraceae
Stemonuraceae
Kårehed

Asterales
Asterales
Link

Alseuosmiaceae
Alseuosmiaceae
Airy Shaw Argophyllaceae
Argophyllaceae
Takht. Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Bercht. & J.Presl Calyceraceae
Calyceraceae
R.Br. ex Rich. $ Campanulaceae
Campanulaceae
Juss. (including Lobeliaceae
Lobeliaceae
Juss.) Goodeniaceae
Goodeniaceae
R.Br. Menyanthaceae
Menyanthaceae
Dumort. Pentaphragmataceae
Pentaphragmataceae
J.Agardh Phellinaceae Takht. Rousseaceae
Rousseaceae
DC. $ Stylidiaceae
Stylidiaceae
R.Br. (including Donatiaceae
Donatiaceae
B.Chandler)

Escalloniales
Escalloniales
R.Br.

§ Escalloniaceae
Escalloniaceae
R.Br. ex Dumort. (including Eremosynaceae Dandy, Polyosmaceae
Polyosmaceae
Blume, Tribelaceae Airy Shaw)

Bruniales
Bruniales
Dumort.

Bruniaceae
Bruniaceae
R.Br. ex DC. § Columelliaceae
Columelliaceae
D.Don (including Desfontainiaceae
Desfontainiaceae
Endl.)

Paracryphiales
Paracryphiales
Takht. ex Reveal

§ Paracryphiaceae
Paracryphiaceae
Airy Shaw (including *Quintiniaceae Doweld, Sphenostemonaceae
Sphenostemonaceae
P.Royen & Airy Shaw)

Dipsacales
Dipsacales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Adoxaceae
Adoxaceae
E.Mey. § Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Juss. (including Diervillaceae
Diervillaceae
Pyck, Dipsacaceae Juss., Linnaeaceae
Linnaeaceae
Backlund, Morinaceae
Morinaceae
Raf., Valerianaceae Batsch)

Apiales
Apiales
Nakai

Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Lindl. (including Mackinlayaceae) Araliaceae
Araliaceae
Juss. Griseliniaceae
Griseliniaceae
J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. ex A.Cunn. Myodocarpaceae
Myodocarpaceae
Doweld Pennantiaceae
Pennantiaceae
J.Agardh Pittosporaceae
Pittosporaceae
R.Br. § Torricelliaceae
Torricelliaceae
Hu (including Aralidiaceae Philipson & B.C.Stone, Melanophyllaceae Takht. ex Airy Shaw)

Taxa of uncertain position[edit]

Apodanthaceae
Apodanthaceae
Takht. (three genera, now in Cucurbitales) Cynomoriaceae
Cynomoriaceae
Endl. ex Lindl. Gumillea Ruiz & Pav. Petenaea Lundell (now in Huerteales) Nicobariodendron (see Simmons, 2004; probably in Celastraceae).

Phylogeny[edit] The APG III system was based on a phylogenetic tree for the angiosperms which included all of the 59 orders and 4 of the unplaced families. The systematic positions of the other 6 unplaced families was so uncertain that they could not be placed in any of the polytomies in the tree. They are shown in the classification table entitled "Detailed version" above, 4 in Euasterids I
Euasterids I
and 2 in Taxa of uncertain position. The phylogenetic tree shown below was published with the APG III system,[1] but without some of the labels that are added here.

angiosperms 

Amborellales

Nymphaeales

Austrobaileyales

Chloranthales

magnoliids 

Canellales

Piperales

Magnoliales

Laurales

monocots 

Acorales

Alismatales

Petrosaviales

Dioscoreales

Pandanales

Liliales

Asparagales

commelinids 

Dasypogonaceae

Arecales

Poales

Commelinales

Zingiberales

Ceratophyllales

eudicots 

Ranunculales

Sabiaceae

Proteales

Trochodendrales

Buxales

core eudicots 

Gunnerales

Dilleniaceae

Saxifragales

rosids 

Vitales

eurosids 

fabids 

Zygophyllales

Celastrales

Oxalidales

Malpighiales

Fabales

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales

malvids 

Geraniales

Myrtales

Crossosomatales

Picramniales

Sapindales

Huerteales

Brassicales

Malvales

Berberidopsidales

Santalales

Caryophyllales

asterids 

Cornales

Ericales

euasterids 

lamiids 

Garryales

Boraginaceae

Gentianales

Solanales

Lamiales

campanulids 

Aquifoliales

Asterales

Escalloniales

Bruniales

Apiales

Paracryphiales

Dipsacales

Subfamilies replacing discontinued families[edit] A number of subfamilies have been proposed to replace some of the families which were optional (i.e. bracketed) in APG II, but have been discontinued in APG III.[8] These are shown in the table below.

Subfamilies replacing APG II bracketed families

APG II bracketed family APG III family: subfamily

Agapanthaceae Amaryllidaceae: Agapanthoideae

Agavaceae Asparagaceae: Agavoideae

Alliaceae Amaryllidaceae: Allioideae

Amaryllidaceae Amaryllidaceae: Amaryllidoideae

Aphyllanthaceae Asparagaceae: Aphyllanthoideae

Asparagaceae Asparagaceae: Asparagoideae

Asphodelaceae Xanthorrhoeaceae: Asphodeloideae

Hemerocallidaceae Xanthorrhoeaceae: Hemerocallidoideae

Hesperocallidaceae Asparagaceae: Agavoideae

Hyacinthaceae Asparagaceae: Scilloideae

Laxmanniaceae Asparagaceae: Lomandroideae

Ruscaceae Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae

Themidaceae Asparagaceae: Brodiaeoideae

Xanthorrhoeaceae Xanthorrhoeaceae: Xanthorrhoeoideae

References[edit]

^ a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, retrieved 2010-12-10  ^ As easy as APG III - Scientists revise the system of classifying flowering plants, The Linnean Society of London, 2009-10-08, retrieved 2009-10-29  ^ APG III tidies up plant family tree, Horticulture Week, 2009-10-08, retrieved 2009-10-29  ^ Chase, Mark W. & Reveal, James L. (2009), "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 122–127, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x  ^ Haston, E., Richardson, J.E., Stevens, P.F., Chase, M.W., Harris, D.J. (2009) The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161, 128–131. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., M. F. Fay, J. J. Clarkson, P. Gasson, J. Morales Can, J. B. Jimenez Barrios & M. W. Chase (2010). Petenaeaceae, a new angiosperm family in Huerteales
Huerteales
with a distant relationship to Gerrardina (Gerrardinaceae), Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 164: 16-25. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01074.x/abstract ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., M. W. Chase, & M.F.Fay (2011). Preface to "Linear sequence, classification, synonymy, and bibliography of vascular plants: Lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms", Phytotaxa 19: 4–6. http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p006.pdf ^ Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae
Asparagaceae
and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x 

External links[edit]

The APG III paper: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III The LAPG III paper: The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III The phylogenetic classification of land plants paper: A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III Angiosperm Phylogeny Website at the Missouri Botanical Garden website

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera
Genera
Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera
Genera
Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera
Genera
plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera
Genera
Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera
Genera
of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.