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The Australia, New Zealand, United States
United States
Security Treaty ( ANZUS
ANZUS
or ANZUS
ANZUS
Treaty) is the 1951, collective security agreement which binds Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
and, separately, Australia
Australia
and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide. It provides that an armed attack on any of the three parties would be dangerous to the others, and that each should act to meet the common threat. It set up a committee of foreign ministers that can meet for consultation. The treaty was one of the series that the United States
United States
formed in the 1949–55 era as part of its collective response to the threat of communism during the Cold War.[1] New Zealand
New Zealand
was suspended from ANZUS in 1986 as it initiated a nuclear-free zone in its territorial waters; in late 2012 the United States
United States
lifted a ban on visits by New Zealand warships leading to a thawing in tensions. New Zealand
New Zealand
maintains a nuclear-free zone as part of its foreign policy and is partially suspended from ANZUS, as the United States
United States
maintains an ambiguous policy whether or not the warships carry nuclear weapons; however New Zealand resumed key areas of the ANZUS
ANZUS
treaty in 2007 (today bilateral meetings of ANZUS
ANZUS
are held between Australia
Australia
and United States only).[2][3]

Contents

1 Treaty structure 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Malaysia, Korea, Vietnam and The War on Terror 2.3 Australian reservations about the MX missile 2.4 New Zealand
New Zealand
bans nuclear material 2.5 United States
United States
suspends obligations to New Zealand 2.6 2001 Invasion of Afghanistan 2.7 East Timor 2.8 Taiwan 2.9 Today

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Treaty structure[edit] The treaty was previously a full three-way defence pact, but following a dispute between New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United States
United States
in 1984 over visiting rights for ships and submarines capable of carrying nuclear arms[4] or nuclear-powered ships of the US Navy to New Zealand
New Zealand
ports, the treaty became between Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
and between Australia
Australia
and the United States, i.e. the treaty has lapsed between the United States
United States
and New Zealand, although it remains separately in force between both of those states and Australia.[5] In 2000, the United States
United States
opened its ports to the Royal New Zealand
New Zealand
Navy once again, and under the presidency of Bill Clinton in the US and the government of Helen Clark
Helen Clark
in New Zealand, the countries have since reestablished bilateral cooperation on defence and security for world peace.[6] While ANZUS
ANZUS
is commonly recognised to have split in 1984, the Australia–US alliance remains in full force. Heads of defence of one or both states often have joined the annual ministerial meetings, which are supplemented by consultations between the US Combatant Commander Pacific and the Australian Chief of Defence Force. There are also regular civilian and military consultations between the two governments at lower levels. Annual meetings to discuss ANZUS
ANZUS
defence matters take place between the United States
United States
Secretaries of Defense and State and the Australian Ministers of Defence and Foreign Affairs are known by the acronym AUSMIN. The AUSMIN meeting for 2011 took place in San Francisco in September. The 2012 AUSMIN meeting was in Perth, Western Australia
Australia
in November.[7] Unlike the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
(NATO), ANZUS
ANZUS
has no integrated defence structure or dedicated forces. Nevertheless, Australia
Australia
and the United States
United States
conduct a variety of joint activities. These include military exercises ranging from naval and landing exercises at the task-group level to battalion-level special forces training, assigning officers to each other's armed services, and standardising equipment and operational doctrine. The two countries also operate several joint-defence facilities in Australia, mainly ground stations for spy satellite, and signals intelligence espionage in Southeast and East Asia
East Asia
as part of the ECHELON network. During the 2010s, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the US resumed a close relationship, although it is unclear whether the revived partnership falls under the aegis of the 1951 trilateral treaty. The Wellington
Wellington
Declaration of 2010 defined a "strategic partnership" between New Zealand
New Zealand
and the US, and New Zealand
New Zealand
joined the biennial Rim of the Pacific
Rim of the Pacific
military exercise off Hawaii
Hawaii
in 2012, for the first time since 1984. The US prohibition on New Zealand
New Zealand
ships making port at US bases was lifted after the 2012 exercise.[6] History[edit]

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Australian, New Zealand
New Zealand
and United States
United States
aircraft during a military exercise in 1982

Origins[edit] In the years following World War Two, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
began pressing the United States
United States
for a formal security guarantee. The two nations felt threatened by the possibility of a resurgent Japan and the spread of communism to their North.[8] Additionally, the fall of Singapore in 1942, had demonstrated that their traditional protector, the United Kingdom, no longer had power in the region. This added to their sense of vulnerability. The United States
United States
was initially reluctant, offering instead an informal guarantee of protection. But the need to strengthen the West against communism grew with the 1950 Korean War
Korean War
and a communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. Additionally, the United States
United States
wanted to gain Australian and New Zealand approval for a 'soft peace' with Japan. The treaty allayed antipodean fears that such a peace would allow Japan to threaten them again.[9] The resulting treaty was concluded at San Francisco on 1 September 1951, and entered into force on 29 April 1952. The treaty bound the signatories to recognise that an armed attack in the Pacific area on any of them would endanger the peace and safety of the others. It stated 'The Parties will consult together whenever in the opinion of any of them the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened in the Pacific'. The three nations also pledged to maintain and develop individual and collective capabilities to resist attack. Malaysia, Korea, Vietnam and The War on Terror[edit] The treaty itself was not a source of debate for 30 years, though in this period New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia
Australia
committed forces to the Malayan Emergency and subsequently the ANZUS
ANZUS
nations fought together in the Vietnam War. As part of the United Nations
United Nations
deployment, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia had earlier fought alongside the United States
United States
in the Korean War. Later New Zealand
New Zealand
sent transport aircraft, maritime patrol aircraft and frigates to the Persian Gulf, as well as a very small number of soldiers, SAS soldiers, medical and assorted and peace-keeping forces in Afghanistan—and despite Prime Minister Helen Clark
Helen Clark
being openly critical of American justifications for the 2003 Iraq war, New Zealand did send engineer troops to Iraq following the 2003 invasion.[10] These troops were however officially engaged in reconstruction under UN Security Council Resolution 1483 and were non-combatant. Australian reservations about the MX missile[edit] See also: Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
administration § Australia In 1983, the Reagan Administration approached Australia
Australia
with proposals for testing the new generation of American intercontinental ballistic missiles, the MX missile. American test ranges in the Pacific were insufficient for testing the new long-range missiles and the United States military wished to use the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
as a target area. Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser
Malcolm Fraser
of the Liberal Party had agreed to provide monitoring sites near Sydney
Sydney
for this purpose.[11] However, in 1985, the newly elected Prime Minister Bob Hawke, of the Labor Party, withdrew Australia
Australia
from the testing programme, sparking criticism from the Reagan Administration. Hawke had been pressured into doing so by the left-wing faction of the Labor Party, which opposed the proposed MX missile test in the Tasman Sea. The Labor left-wing faction also strongly sympathized with the New Zealand Fourth Labour Government's anti-nuclear policy and supported a South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone.[12][13][14] To preserve its joint Australian-US military communications facilities, the Reagan Administration also had to assure the Hawke Government that those installations would not be used in the Strategic Defense Initiative project, which the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
strongly opposed. Despite these disagreements, the Hawke Labor Government still remained supportive of the ANZUS
ANZUS
security treaty. It also did not support its New Zealand
New Zealand
counterpart's ban on nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered ships. Following the ANZUS
ANZUS
Split in February 1985, the Australian government also endorsed the Reagan Administration's plans to cancel trilateral military exercises and to postpone the ANZUS foreign ministers conference. However, it still continued to maintain bilateral military ties and continued to share intelligence information with New Zealand.[14] Unlike New Zealand, Australia continued to allow US warships to visit its ports and to participate in joint military exercises with the United States.[15][16] New Zealand
New Zealand
bans nuclear material[edit] See also: New Zealand's nuclear-free zone In 1985, the nature of the ANZUS
ANZUS
alliance changed significantly. Due to a current of anti-nuclear sentiment within New Zealand, tension had long been present between ANZUS
ANZUS
members as the United States
United States
is a declared nuclear power. France, a naval power and a declared nuclear power, had been conducting nuclear tests on South Pacific Islands. Following the victory of the New Zealand
New Zealand
Labour Party in elections in 1984, Prime Minister David Lange
David Lange
barred nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships from using New Zealand
New Zealand
ports or entering New Zealand waters. Reasons given were the dangers of nuclear weapons, continued French nuclear testing in the South Pacific, and opposition to US President Ronald Reagan's policy of aggressively confronting the Soviet Union. Given that the United States
United States
Navy had a policy of deliberate ambiguity during the Cold War
Cold War
and refused to confirm or deny the presence of nuclear weapons aboard its warships and support ships, these laws essentially refused access to New Zealand
New Zealand
ports for all United States Navy vessels. In February 1985, a port-visit request by the United States for the guided-missile destroyer USS Buchanan was refused by New Zealand, as the Buchanan was capable of launching nuclear depth bombs. As this occurred after the government unofficially invited the United States
United States
to send a ship, the refusal of access was interpreted by the United States
United States
as a deliberate slight. According to opinion polls taken before the 1984 election, only 30 per cent of New Zealanders supported visits by US warships with a clear majority of 58 per cent opposed, and over 66 percent of the population lived in locally declared nuclear-free zones.[17] An opinion poll commissioned by the 1986 Defence Committee of Enquiry confirmed that 92 per cent now opposed nuclear weapons in New Zealand
New Zealand
and 69 per cent opposed warship visits; 92 per cent wanted New Zealand
New Zealand
to promote nuclear disarmament through the UN, while 88 per cent supported the promotion of nuclear-free zones.[18] However other polls indicated that the majority of the population would support visits by American warships which might be nuclear armed or powered, if the alternative was that New Zealand
New Zealand
would have to withdraw from ANZUS. United States
United States
suspends obligations to New Zealand[edit] See also: Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
administration § New Zealand After consultations with Australia
Australia
and after negotiations with New Zealand broke down, the United States
United States
announced that it was suspending its treaty obligations to New Zealand
New Zealand
until United States
United States
Navy ships were re-admitted to New Zealand
New Zealand
ports, citing that New Zealand
New Zealand
was "a friend, but not an ally".[19] The crisis made front-page headlines for weeks in many American newspapers,[20] while many American cabinet members were quoted as expressing a deep sense of betrayal.[21] However, David Lange
David Lange
did not withdraw New Zealand
New Zealand
from ANZUS, although his government's policy led to the US's decision to suspend its treaty obligations to New Zealand. An opinion poll in New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1991,[22] showed 54% of those sampled preferred to let the treaty lapse rather than accept visits again by nuclear-armed or nuclear-powered vessels. The policy did not become law until 8 June 1987 with the passing of the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987, more than two years after the Buchanan was refused entry after the U.S. refused to declare the presence or absence of nuclear weapons, and a year after the U.S. suspended its treaty obligations to New Zealand. This law effectively made the entire country a nuclear-free zone.[23] Despite the ANZUS
ANZUS
split, Secretary of State George P. Shultz maintained that the ANZUS
ANZUS
structure was still in place, should NZ decide in the future to reverse its anti-nuclear policy and return to a fully operational defence relationship with the US. President Reagan also maintained in NSDD 193 (National Security Decision Directive) that New Zealand
New Zealand
still remained a "friend, but not an ally".[24] On 10 July 1985, agents of the French Directorate-General for External Security bombed the Greenpeace
Greenpeace
protest vessel Rainbow Warrior in Auckland, causing one death. The failure of Western leaders to condemn this violation of a friendly nation's sovereignty caused a great deal of change in New Zealand's foreign and defence policy,[25] and strengthened domestic opposition to the military application of nuclear technology in any form. New Zealand
New Zealand
distanced itself from its traditional ally, the United States, and built relationships with small South Pacific nations, while retaining its good relations with Australia, and, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom.[26] 2001 Invasion of Afghanistan[edit]

Australian Prime Minister John Howard
John Howard
and US President George W. Bush on September 10th 2001. Howard was in Washington during the September 11 attacks.

Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
both provided military units, including special forces and naval ships, in support of the US-led "Operation Enduring Freedom" for support for anti- Taliban
Taliban
forces in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Providing 1,550 troops, Australia
Australia
remains the largest non- NATO
NATO
contributor of military personnel in Afghanistan. New Zealand
New Zealand
committed 191 troops. East Timor[edit] Between 1999 and 2003, the armed forces of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand deployed together in a large scale operation in East Timor, to prevent pro-Indonesian militia from overturning a vote for independence on the island. The United States
United States
provided only limited logistical support but USS Mobile Bay provided air defence for the initial entry operation. The operation was taken over by the United Nations. Taiwan[edit] One topic that became prominent in the 2000s was the implications in the case of a hypothetical attack by the People's Republic of China against Taiwan, who would likely receive American support. While Australia
Australia
has strong cultural and economic ties with the United States, it also has an increasingly important trade relationship with China. In August 2004, Foreign Minister Alexander Downer
Alexander Downer
implied in Beijing that the treaty would likely not apply to that situation, but he was quickly corrected by Prime Minister John Howard. In March 2005, after an official of the People's Republic of China stated that it may be necessary for Australia
Australia
to reassess the treaty and after China passed an Anti-Secession Law
Anti-Secession Law
regarding Taiwan, Downer stated that in case of Chinese aggression on Taiwan, the treaty would come into force, but that the treaty would require only consultations with the United States and not necessarily commit Australia
Australia
to war.[citation needed] Today[edit] Further information: New Zealand
New Zealand
United States
United States
relations, Australia
Australia
United States
United States
relations, and Australia
Australia
– New Zealand relations Annual bilateral meetings between the US Secretary of State and the Australian Foreign Minister replaced annual meetings of the ANZUS Council of Foreign Ministers. The first bilateral meeting was held in Canberra
Canberra
in 1985. At the second meeting, in San Francisco in 1986, the United States
United States
announced that it was suspending its treaty security obligations to New Zealand
New Zealand
pending the restoration of port access. Subsequent bilateral Australia–US Ministerial (AUSMIN) meetings have alternated between Australia
Australia
and the United States. The alliance engenders some political controversy in Australia. Particularly after Australian involvement in the 2003 Iraq war, some quarters of Australian society have called for a re-evaluation of the relationship between the two nations. Nonetheless the alliance enjoyed broad support during the Cold War[27] and continues to enjoy broad support in Australia.[28] One commentator in Australia
Australia
has argued that the treaty should be re-negotiated in the context of terrorism, the modern role of the United Nations
United Nations
and as a purely US–Australian alliance.[29] Australia
Australia
is also a contributor to the National Missile Defense system.[30][31] In May 2006, US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia
East Asia
and Pacific Affairs, Christopher Hill, described the New Zealand
New Zealand
anti-nuclear issue as "a bit of a relic", and signalled that the US wanted a closer defence relationship with New Zealand. He also praised New Zealand's involvement in Afghanistan and reconstruction in Iraq. "Rather than trying to change each other's minds on the nuclear issue, which is a bit of a relic, I think we should focus on things we can make work" he told an Australian newspaper.[32] While there have been signs of the nuclear dispute between the US and NZ thawing out, pressure from the United States
United States
increased in 2006 with US trade officials linking the repeal of the ban of American nuclear ships from New Zealand's ports to a potential free trade agreement between the two countries.[21] On 4 February 2008, US Trade Representative Susan Schwab
Susan Schwab
announced that the United States
United States
will join negotiations with four Asia–Pacific countries: Brunei, Chile, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Singapore to be known as the "P-4". These nations already have a FTA called the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership and the United States
United States
will be looking to become involved in the "vitally important emerging Asia-Pacific region" A number of US organisations support the negotiations including, but not limited to: the United States
United States
Chamber of Commerce, National Association of Manufacturers, National Foreign Trade Council, Emergency Committee for American Trade and Coalition of Service Industries.[33][34] In 2010, the United States
United States
and New Zealand
New Zealand
signed the Wellington Declaration in Wellington, New Zealand, during a three-day visit by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The signing of the declaration ended the ANZUS
ANZUS
dispute of the past 25 years, and it was later revealed the US and New Zealand
New Zealand
had resumed military co-operation in eight areas in 2007.[35] On 16 November 2011, US President Obama and Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard met in Canberra, Australia
Australia
to announce plans for a sustained new American presence on Australian soil. 2,500 American troops are to be deployed to Darwin, Australia. On 20 September 2012, US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
announced that the United States
United States
was lifting the 26-year-old ban on visits by New Zealand warships to US defence and coast guard bases around the world; US Marines had trained in New Zealand
New Zealand
and New Zealand's navy took part in the RIMPAC maritime exercises alongside the US earlier that year.[36] The Royal New Zealand
New Zealand
Navy (RNZN) invited the United States
United States
Navy to send a vessel to participate in the RNZN's 75th Birthday Celebrations in Auckland
Auckland
over the weekend of the 19-21 November 2016. The guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson became the first US warship to visit New Zealand
New Zealand
in 33 years. New Zealand
New Zealand
Prime Minister John Key granted approval for the ship's visit under the New Zealand
New Zealand
Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act 1987, which requires that the Prime Minister has to be satisfied that any visiting ship is not nuclear armed or powered.[37] Following the 7.5–7.8 magnitude Kaikoura
Kaikoura
earthquake the Sampson and other navy ships from Australia, Canada, Japan and Singapore instead proceeded directly to Kaikoura
Kaikoura
to provide humanitarian assistance.[38] See also[edit]

ASEAN AUSCANNZUKUS Australian Defence Force Contents of the United States
United States
diplomatic cables leak (New Zealand) New Zealand
New Zealand
Defence Force Pine Gap Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Treaty Organization (SEATO) United States
United States
armed forces

References[edit]

^ Joseph Gabriel Starke, The ANZUS
ANZUS
Treaty Alliance (Melbourne University Press, 1965) ^ "U.S. lifts ban on New Zealand
New Zealand
warships, New Zealand
New Zealand
keeps nuclear-free stance". tribunedigital-chicagotribune.  ^ "In Warming US-NZ Relations, Outdated Nuclear Policy Remains Unnecessary Irritant". Federation Of American Scientists.  ^ The test for ship access was decided as nuclear capability not actual proof of nuclear armament by a NZLP 1984 committee of President Margaret Wilson, Chair of the Defence and Foreign Affairs Committee and MP and former President Jim Anderton and MP Fran Wilde , ^ King M: 2003, The Penguin History of New Zealand, Penguin Books
Penguin Books
(NZ) Ltd, Auckland
Auckland
1310, New Zealand. p426 and pp495-6 ^ a b "New Zealand: U.S. Security Cooperation and the U.S. Rebalancing to Asia Strategy, government report, 8 March 2013, Congressional Research Service" (PDF). FAS.org. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ " AUSMIN 2011, media release, 14 September 2011, Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs". Foreignminister.gov.au. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-03.  ^ "Milestones: 1945–1952 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-24.  ^ " ANZUS
ANZUS
treaty comes into force NZHistory, New Zealand
New Zealand
history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 2017-09-24.  ^ "– NZ PM backs Blair's Iraq conduct". BBC News. 11 July 2003. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ Samantha Maiden (1 January 2012). "US planned to fire missile at Australia, secret Cabinet papers from the 1980s reveal". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ "US rocket plan became Hawke's first setback". Sydney
Sydney
Morning Herald. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ "Hawke Government events: 1985". The Bob Hawke
Bob Hawke
Prime Ministerial Library. 6 March 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.  ^ a b Carpenter, Ted (1986). "Pursuing a Strategic Divorce: The U.S. and the Anzus Alliance". Cato Institute
Cato Institute
Policy Analysis. Cato Institute (67): 4–5. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.  ^ "US Ships to Visit Sydney", The Southland Times, February 22, 1985, p.1 ^ US Ships to Visit Australian Ports", New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald, February 22, 1985, p.1 ^ Disarmament and Security Centre: Publications – Papers Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Disarmament and Security Centre: Publications – Papers Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Nuclear Free: The New Zealand
New Zealand
Way: Books: David Lange, Michael Gifkins". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ " The Australian
The Australian
National University". Archived from the original on 2011-02-20. Retrieved 2016-03-07.  ^ a b "New Zealand: US links free trade to repeal of NZ nuclear ships ban – November 2, 2002". Newsweekly.com.au. 2 November 2002. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ Name: * (12 June 1991). "NZ Nationals move closer to US". Green Left. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "Nuclear-free legislation – nuclear-free New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.  ^ 'U.S. Policy on the New Zealand
New Zealand
Port Access Issue', National Security Decision Directive 193, 21 October 1985, Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Program, accessed 22 October 2012, https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-193.htm ^ Keith Sinclair, A History of New Zealand
New Zealand
Penguin Books, New Zealand, 1991 ^ Nuclear Free: The New Zealand
New Zealand
Way, The Right Honourable David Lange, Penguin Books, New Zealand,1990 ^ ASSDA – Opinion Poll – M0004: Morgan Gallup Poll, May 1984 (Computer Reports) Archived 6 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Destined to stay with the USA – OpinionGerardHenderson". www.smh.com.au. 30 March 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "It's time to trade in, and trade up, the outdated ANZUS
ANZUS
treaty – On Line Opinion – 15/4/2004". On Line Opinion. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ U.S. and Australia
Australia
Sign Missile Defense Agreement – AUSMIN 2004 Archived 14 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Australia
Australia
to Join US Missile Defence Program". Foreignminister.gov.au. 4 December 2003. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ Geoff Elliott (22 March 2007). "Better relations on the menu as Kiwi PM dines with Bush". The Australian. Retrieved 2008-09-24.  ^ Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Recent Events Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "What the WikiLeaks cables say about NZ". Television New Zealand. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  ^ Alexander, David (20 September 2012). "U.S. lifts 26-year-old ban on New Zealand
New Zealand
warship visits to U.S. bases". Chicago Tribune. Auckland. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ "US warship USS Sampson heads to New Zealand". 18 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016 – via New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald.  ^ "US Warship may help rescue stranded Kaikoura
Kaikoura
tourists". Fairfax Media. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016 – via Stuff.co.nz. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Australia, New Zealand, United States
United States
Security Treaty

ANZUS
ANZUS
classroom activities (NZHistory.net.nz) Disarmament and Security Centre, New Zealand
New Zealand
Peace Foundation Text of the ANZUS
ANZUS
Treaty Will New Zealand
New Zealand
ever rejoin ANZUS? ADST oral histories on Breakdown of ANZUS
ANZUS
Treaty

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN
ASEAN
Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Emerging Small Middle Regional Great Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa (BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil–South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

U

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