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The ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System (CCS) is a subject classification system for computing devised by the Association for Computing
Computing
Machinery (ACM). The system is comparable to the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) in scope, aims, and structure, being used by the various ACM journals to organise subjects by area.

Contents

1 History 2 Structure 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] The system has gone through seven revisions, the first version being published in 1964, and revised versions appearing in 1982, 1983, 1987, 1991, 1998, and the now current version in 2012. Structure[edit] The ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System, version 2012, has a revolutionary change in some areas, for example, in "Software" that now is called "Software and its engineering" which has three main subjects:

Software organization and properties. This subject addresses properties of the software itself. Software notations and tools. This subject covers programming languages and other tools for writing programs. Software creation and management. This subject covers human activities including software management.

It is hierarchically structured in four levels. Thus, for example, one branch of the hierarchy contains:

Computing
Computing
methodologies

Artificial intelligence

Knowledge representation and reasoning

Ontology engineering

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ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System

The 2012 version of the ACM classification has the following main categories.

General and reference

Document types • Cross-computing tools and techniques

Hardware

Printed circuit boards • Communication hardware, interfaces and storage • Integrated circuits • Very large scale integration design • Power and energy • Electronic design automation
Electronic design automation
• Hardware validation • Hardware test • Robustness • Emerging technologies

Computer systems organization

Architectures • Embedded and cyber-physical systems • Real-time systems • Dependable and fault-tolerant systems and networks

Networks

Network architectures • Network protocols • Network components • Network algorithms • Network performance evaluation • Network properties • Network services • Network types

Software and its engineering

Software organization and properties • Software notations and tools • Software creation and management

Theory of computation

Models of computation • Formal languages and automata theory • Computational complexity and cryptography • Logic • Design and analysis of algorithms • Randomness, geometry and discrete structures • Theory and algorithms for application domains • Semantics and reasoning

Mathematics of computing

Discrete mathematics
Discrete mathematics
Probability
Probability
and statistics • Mathematical software • Information theory
Information theory
Mathematical analysis
Mathematical analysis
• Continuous mathematics

Information systems

Data management systems • Information storage systems • Information systems applications • World Wide Web
World Wide Web
• Information retrieval

Security and privacy

Cryptography
Cryptography
Formal methods and theory of security • Security services • Intrusion/anomaly detection and malware mitigation • Security in hardware • Systems security • Network security • Database and storage security • Software and application security • Human and societal aspects of security and privacy

Human-centered computing

Human–computer interaction
Human–computer interaction
Interaction design • Collaborative and social computing • Ubiquitous and mobile computing • Visualization • Accessibility

Computing
Computing
methodologies

Symbolic and algebraic manipulation • Parallel computing methodologies • Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence
Machine learning
Machine learning
• Modeling and simulation • Computer graphics
Computer graphics
• Distributed computing methodologies • Concurrent computing methodologies

Applied computing

Electronic commerce • Enterprise computing • Physical sciences and engineering • Life and medical sciences • Law, social and behavioral sciences • Computer forensics • Arts and humanities • Computers in other domains • Operations research
Operations research
• Education • Document management and text processing

Social and professional topics

Professional topics • Computing/technology policy • User characteristics

Proper nouns: people, technologies and companies

Companies • Organizations • People in computing • Technologies

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Major fields of computer science

Note: This template roughly follows the 2012 ACM Computing Classification System.

Hardware

Printed circuit board Peripheral Integrated circuit Very-large-scale integration Energy consumption Electronic design automation

Computer systems organization

Computer architecture Embedded system Real-time computing Dependability

Networks

Network architecture Network protocol Network components Network scheduler Network performance evaluation Network service

Software organization

Interpreter Middleware Virtual machine Operating system Software quality

Software notations and tools

Programming paradigm Programming language Compiler Domain-specific language Modeling language Software framework Integrated development environment Software configuration management Software library Software repository

Software development

Software development
Software development
process Requirements analysis Software design Software construction Software deployment Software maintenance Programming team Open-source model

Theory of computation

Model of computation Formal language Automata theory Computational complexity theory Logic Semantics

Algorithms

Algorithm
Algorithm
design Analysis of algorithms Randomized algorithm Computational geometry

Mathematics of computing

Discrete mathematics Probability Statistics Mathematical software Information theory Mathematical analysis Numerical analysis

Information systems

Database management system Information storage systems Enterprise information system Social information systems Geographic information system Decision support system Process control
Process control
system Multimedia information system Data mining Digital library Computing
Computing
platform Digital marketing World Wide Web Information retrieval

Security

Cryptography Formal methods Security services Intrusion detection system Hardware security Network security Information security Application security

Human–computer interaction

Interaction design Social computing Ubiquitous computing Visualization Accessibility

Concurrency

Concurrent computing Parallel computing Distributed computing Multithreading Multiprocessing

Artificial intelligence

Natural language processing Knowledge representation and reasoning Computer vision Automated planning and scheduling Search methodology Control method Philosophy of artificial intelligence Distributed artificial intelligence

Machine learning

Supervised learning Unsupervised learning Reinforcement learning Multi-task learning Cross-validation

Graphics

Animation Rendering Image manipulation Graphics processing unit Mixed reality Virtual reality Image compression Solid modeling

Applied computing

E-commerce Enterprise software Computational mathematics Computational physics Computational chemistry Computational biology Computational social science Computational engineering Computational healthcare Digital art Electronic publishing Cyberwarfare Electronic voting Video game Word processing Operations research Educational technology Document management

Book Category Portal WikiProject Commons

See also[edit]

Computer science
Computer science
portal

Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS) arXiv, a preprint server that uses a somewhat different subdivision of topics in its computer science subject areas but also allows papers to be classified using the ACM system PhySH (Physics Subject Headings)

References[edit]

Coulter, Neal (1997), "ACM's computing classification system reflects changing times", Communications of the ACM, New York, NY, USA: ACM, 40 (12): 111–112, doi:10.1145/265563.265579 . Coulter, Neal (chair); French, James; Glinert, Ephraim; Horton, Thomas; Mead, Nancy; Ralston, Anthony; Rada, Roy; Rodkin, Craig; Rous, Bernard; Tucker, Allen; Wegner, Peter; Weiss, Eric; Wierzbicki, Carol (January 21, 1998), " Computing
Computing
Classification System 1998: Current Status and Future Maintenance Report of the CCS Update Committee" (PDF), Computing
Computing
Reviews, New York, NY, USA: ACM: 1–5 . Mirkin, Boris; Nascimento, Susana; Pereira, Luis Moniz (2008), "Representing a Computer Science Research Organization on the ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System", in Eklund, Peter; Haemmerlé, Ollivier, Supplementary Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (ICCS-2008) (PDF), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 354, RWTH Aachen University, pp. 57–65 .

External links[edit]

ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System is the homepage of the system, including links to four complete versions of the system, for 1964 [1], 1991 [2], 1998 [3], and the current 2012 version [4]. The ACM Computing
Computing
Research Repository uses a classification scheme that is much coarser than the ACM subject classification, and does not cover all areas of CS, but is intended to better cover active areas of research. In addition, papers in this repository are classified according to the ACM subject classification.

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