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Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam better known as A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (/ˈæbdʊl kəˈlɑːm/ ( listen); 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015), was the 11th President of India
President of India
from 2002 to 2007. A career scientist turned statesman, Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts.[1] He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India
India
for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology.[2][3][4] He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II
Pokhran-II
nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India
India
in 1974.[5] Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India
President of India
in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President,"[6] he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83.[7] Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.[8]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career as a scientist 3 Presidency 4 Post-presidency 5 Death

5.1 Reactions 5.2 Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam National Memorial

6 Personal life 7 Religious and spiritual views

7.1 Islam 7.2 Syncretism 7.3 Pramukh Swami
Pramukh Swami
as Guru

8 Writings 9 Awards and honours

9.1 Educational and scientific institutions 9.2 Island 9.3 Road 9.4 Plant species 9.5 Other awards and honours

10 Books and documentaries 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early life and education Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim
Tamil Muslim
family in the pilgrimage centre of Rameswaram
Rameswaram
on Pamban Island, then in the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
and now in the State of Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen was a boat owner and imam of a local mosque;[9] his mother Ashiamma was a housewife.[10][11][12][13] His father owned a ferry that took Hindu
Hindu
pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram
Rameswaram
and the now uninhabited Dhanushkodi.[14][15] Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family.[16][17][18] His ancestors had been wealthy traders and landowners, with numerous properties and large tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, as well as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban. As a result, the family acquired the title of "Mara Kalam Iyakkivar" (wooden boat steerers), which over the years became shortened to "Marakier." With the opening of the Pamban Bridge
Pamban Bridge
to the mainland in 1914, however, the businesses failed and the family fortune and properties were lost over time, apart from the ancestral home.[19] By his early childhood, Kalam's family had become poor; at an early age, he sold newspapers to supplement his family's income.[20][20][21] In his school years, Kalam had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics.[21] After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954.[22] He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology.[13] While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him, "I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline".[23] He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF.[24] Career as a scientist

This was my first stage, in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers—Dr Vikram Sarabhai, Prof Satish Dhawan
Satish Dhawan
and Dr Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me. “ ”

A P J Abdul Kalam[25]

After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology
Madras Institute of Technology
in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (by Press Information Bureau, Government of India) as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO.[26] Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist.[13] In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India's first Satellite Launch Vehicle
Satellite Launch Vehicle
(SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965.[1] In 1969, Kalam received the government's approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.[25]

Kalam addresses engineering students at IIT Guwahati

In 1963 to 1964, he visited NASA's Langley Research Center
Langley Research Center
in Hampton, Virginia; Goddard Space Flight Center
Goddard Space Flight Center
in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Wallops Flight Facility.[11][27] Between the 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
Satellite Launch Vehicle
(PSLV) and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be successful. Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the country's first nuclear test Smiling Buddha
Smiling Buddha
as the representative of TBRL, even though he had not participated in its development. In the 1970s, Kalam also directed two projects, Project Devil and Project Valiant, which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV programme.[28] Despite the disapproval of the Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam's directorship.[28] Kalam played an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects.[28] His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in the 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an advanced missile programme under his directorship.[28] Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister, R. Venkataraman
R. Venkataraman
on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after another.[29] R Venkatraman was instrumental in getting the cabinet approval for allocating ₹388 crores for the mission, named Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme
Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme
(IGMDP) and appointed Kalam as the chief executive.[29] Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns.[29][30] Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation
Defence Research and Development Organisation
from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II
Pokhran-II
nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase.[11][31] Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country's best known nuclear scientist.[32] However, the director of the site test, K Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a "fizzle" and criticisied Kalam for issuing an incorrect report.[33] Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the claims.[34] In 1998, along with cardiologist Soma Raju, Kalam developed a low cost coronary stent, named the "Kalam-Raju Stent".[35][36] In 2012, the duo designed a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas, which was named the "Kalam-Raju Tablet".[37] Presidency Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K. R. Narayanan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing the 107,366 votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His term lasted from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007.[38] On 10 June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) which was in power at the time, expressed that they would nominate Kalam for the post of President,[39][40] and both the Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
and the Nationalist Congress Party
Nationalist Congress Party
backed his candidacy.[41][42] After the Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
announced its support for Kalam, Narayanan chose not to seek a second term in office, leaving the field clear.[43] Kalam said of the announcement of his candidature:

I am really overwhelmed. Everywhere both in Internet and in other media, I have been asked for a message. I was thinking what message I can give to the people of the country at this juncture.[44]

On 18 June, Kalam filed his nomination papers in the Indian Parliament, accompanied by Vajpayee and his senior Cabinet colleagues.[45]

Kalam along with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
during his presidency

The polling for the presidential election began on 15 July 2002 in Parliament and the state assemblies, with the media claiming that the election was a one-sided affair and Kalam's victory was a foregone conclusion; the count was held on 18 July.[46] Kalam became the 11th president of the Republic of India
India
in an easy victory,[47] and moved into the Rashtrapati Bhavan
Rashtrapati Bhavan
after he was sworn in on 25 July.[48] Kalam was the third President of India
President of India
to have been honoured with a Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour, before becoming the President. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(1954) and Dr Zakir Hussain (1963) were the earlier recipients of Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
who later became the President of India.[49] He was also the first scientist and the first bachelor to occupy Rashtrapati Bhawan.[50] During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People's President,[51][52][53] saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure.[54][55][56] Kalam was criticised for his inaction in deciding the fate of 20 out of the 21 mercy petitions submitted to him during his tenure.[57] Article 72 of the Constitution of India
India
empowers the President of India
President of India
to grant pardons, and suspend or commute the death sentence of convicts on death row.[57][58] Kalam acted on only one mercy plea in his five-year tenure as president, rejecting the plea of rapist Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was later hanged.[57] Perhaps the most notable plea was from Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted of conspiracy in the December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of India
India
in 2004.[58] While the sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20 October 2006, the pending action on his mercy plea resulted in him remaining on death row.[58] He also took the controversial decision to impose President's Rule in Bihar in 2005.[59] In September 2003, in an interactive session in PGI Chandigarh, Kalam supported the need of Uniform Civil Code
Uniform Civil Code
in India, keeping in view the population of the country.[60][61][62][63] At the end of his term, on 20 June 2007, Kalam expressed his willingness to consider a second term in office provided there was certainty about his victory in the 2007 presidential election.[64] However, two days later, he decided not to contest the Presidential election again stating that he wanted to avoid involving Rashtrapati Bhavan from any political processes.[65] He did not have the support of the left parties, Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
and UPA constituents, to receive a renewed mandate.[66][67] Nearing the expiry of the term of the 12th President Pratibha Patil
Pratibha Patil
on 24 July 2012, media reports in April claimed that Kalam was likely to be nominated for his second term.[68][69][70] After the reports, social networking sites witnessed a number of people supporting his candidature.[71][72] The BJP potentially backed his nomination, saying that the party would lend their support if the Trinamool Congress, Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
and Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
proposed him for the 2012 presidential election.[73][74] A month ahead of the election, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mamata Banerjee
Mamata Banerjee
also expressed their support for Kalam.[75] Days afterwards, Mulayam Singh Yadav
Mulayam Singh Yadav
backed out, leaving Mamata Banerjee
Mamata Banerjee
as the solitary supporter.[76] On 18 June 2012, Kalam declined to contest the 2012 presidential poll. He said of his decision not to do so:

Many, many citizens have also expressed the same wish. It only reflects their love and affection for me and the aspiration of the people. I am really overwhelmed by this support. This being their wish, I respect it. I want to thank them for the trust they have in me.[77]

Post-presidency After leaving office, Kalam became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Management Indore; an honorary fellow of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore;[78] chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram; professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University; and an adjunct at many other academic and research institutions across India. He taught information technology at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and technology at Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University and Anna University.[79] In May 2012, Kalam launched a programme for the youth of India
India
called the What Can I Give Movement, with a central theme of defeating corruption.[80][81] In 2011, Kalam was criticised by civil groups over his stand on the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant; he supported the establishment of the nuclear power plant and was accused of not speaking with the local people.[82] The protesters were hostile to his visit as they saw him as a pro-nuclear scientist and were unimpressed by the assurances he provided regarding the safety features of the plant.[83] Death

Kalam at Bijnor
Bijnor
a week before his death

Wikinews has related news: Former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam dies at age 83

On 27 July 2015, Kalam travelled to Shillong
Shillong
to deliver a lecture on "Creating a Livable Planet Earth" at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. While climbing a flight of stairs, he experienced some discomfort, but was able to enter the auditorium after a brief rest.[84] At around 6:35 p.m. IST, only five minutes into his lecture, he collapsed.[85][86] He was rushed to the nearby Bethany Hospital in a critical condition; upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life.[85] Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7:45 p.m IST.[85][87][88] His last words, to his aide Srijan Pal Singh, were reportedly: "Funny guy! Are you doing well?"[89] Following his death, Kalam's body was airlifted in an Indian Air Force helicopter from Shillong
Shillong
to Guwahati, from where it was flown to New Delhi on the morning of 28 July in an air force C-130J Hercules. The flight landed at Palam Air Base that afternoon and was received by the President, the Prime Minister, Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal, and the three service chiefs of the Indian Armed Forces, who laid wreaths on Kalam's body.[90] His body was then placed on a gun carriage draped with the Indian flag and taken to his Delhi residence at 10 Rajaji Marg; there, the public and numerous dignitaries paid homage, including former prime minister Manmohan Singh, Congress President Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
and Vice-President Rahul Gandhi, and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav.[91] On the morning of 29 July, Kalam's body, wrapped in the Indian flag, was taken to Palam Air Base and flown to Madurai
Madurai
in an air force C-130J aircraft, arriving at Madurai
Madurai
Airport that afternoon. His body was received at the airport by the three service chiefs and national and state dignitaries, including cabinet ministers Manohar Parrikar, Venkaiah Naidu, Pon Radhakrishnan
Pon Radhakrishnan
and the governors of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Meghalaya, K Rosaiah
K Rosaiah
and V. Shanmuganathan. After a brief ceremony, Kalam's body was flown by air force helicopter to the town of Mandapam, from where it was taken in an army truck to his hometown of Rameswaram. Upon arriving at Rameswaram, his body was displayed in an open area in front of the local bus station to allow the public to pay their final respects until 8 p.m. that evening.[92][93] On 30 July 2015, the former president was laid to rest at Rameswaram's Pei Karumbu Ground with full state honours. Over 350,000 people attended the last rites, including the Prime Minister, the governor of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and the chief ministers of Karnataka, Kerala
Kerala
and Andhra Pradesh.[94][95] Reactions India
India
reacted to Kalam's death with an outpouring of grief; numerous tributes were paid to the former president across the nation and on social media.[96] The Government of India
India
declared a seven-day state mourning period as a mark of respect.[97] President Pranab Mukherjee, Vice-President Hamid Ansari, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, and other leaders condoled the former President's demise.[87] Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
said "[Dr. Kalam's] death is a great loss to the scientific community. He took India
India
to great heights. He showed the way."[98] Former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, who had served as prime minister under Kalam, said, "our country has lost a great human being who made phenomenal contributions to the promotion of self reliance in defence technologies. I worked very closely with Dr. Kalam as prime minister and I greatly benefited from his advice as president of our country. His life and work will be remembered for generations to come."[99] ISRO
ISRO
chairman A. S. Kiran Kumar
A. S. Kiran Kumar
called his former colleague "a great personality and a gentleman", while former chairman G. Madhavan Nair
G. Madhavan Nair
described Kalam as "a global leader" for whom "the downtrodden and poor people were his priority. He always had a passion to convey what is in his mind to the young generation", adding that his death left a vacuum which none could fill.[100][101] South Asian leaders expressed condolences and lauded the late statesman. The Bhutanese government ordered the country's flags to fly at half-staff to mourn Kalam's death, and lit 1000 butter lamps in homage. Bhutanese Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay
Tshering Tobgay
expressed deep sadness, saying Kalam "was a leader greatly admired by all people, especially the youth of India
India
who have referred to him as the people's President".[102] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina
Sheikh Hasina
described Kalam as "a rare combination of a great statesman, acclaimed scientist, and a source of inspiration to the young generation of South Asia" and termed his death an "irreparable loss to India
India
and beyond". Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nationalist Party chief Khaleda Zia
Khaleda Zia
said "as a nuclear scientist, he engaged himself in the welfare of the people". Ashraf Ghani, the President of Afghanistan, called Kalam "an inspirational figure to millions of people," noting that "we have a lot to learn from his life". Nepalese Prime Minister Sushil Koirala recalled Kalam's scientific contributions to India: "Nepal has lost a good friend and I have lost an honoured and ideal personality." The President of Pakistan, Mamnoon Hussain, and Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif
Nawaz Sharif
also expressed their grief and condolences on his death.[103][104][105] The President of Sri Lanka, Maithripala Sirisena, also expressed his condolences. "Dr. Kalam was a man of firm conviction and indomitable spirit, and I saw him as an outstanding statesman of the world. His death is an irreparable loss not only to India
India
but to the entire world."[106] Maldivian President Abdulla Yameen and Vice-President Ahmed Adheeb condoled Kalam's death, with Yameen naming him as a close friend of the Maldives who would continue to be an inspiration to Indians and generations of South Asians. Former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who had made an official visit to India
India
during Kalam's presidency, termed his demise as a great loss to all of humankind.[107] The Commander-in-Chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, expressed condolences on behalf of the Myanmar government.[108] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
expressed his sadness and offered condolences and prayers, calling Kalam's death "an irreparable loss".[109] Kathleen Wynne, the Premier of Ontario, which Kalam had visited on numerous occasions, expressed "deepest condolences ... as a respected scientist, he played a critical role in the development of the Indian space programme. As a committed educator, he inspired millions of young people to achieve their very best. And as a devoted leader, he gained support both at home and abroad, becoming known as 'the people's President'. I join our Indo–Canadian families, friends, and neighbours in mourning the passing of this respected leader."[110] United States President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
extended "deepest condolences to the people of India
India
on the passing of former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam", and highlighted his achievements as a scientist and as a statesman, notably his role in strengthening US– India
India
relations and increasing space co-operation between the two nations. "Suitably named 'the People's President', Dr. Kalam's humility and dedication to public service served as an inspiration to millions of Indians and admirers around the world."[111] Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed sincere condolences and conveyed his sympathy and support "to the near and dear ones of the deceased leader, to the government, and entire people of India". He remarked on Kalam's outstanding "personal contribution to the social, economic, scientific, and technical progress of India
India
and in ensuring its national security," adding that Dr Kalam would be remembered as a "consistent exponent of closer friendly relations between our nations, who has done a lot for cementing mutually beneficial Russian–Indian cooperation."[112] Other international leaders—including former Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, President of the United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and Vice-President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and emir of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum—also paid tribute to Kalam.[113][114] In a special gesture, Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
visited the Permanent Mission of India
India
to the UN and signed a condolence book. "The outpouring of grief around the world is a testament of the respect and inspiration he has garnered during and after his presidency. The UN joins the people of India
India
in sending our deepest condolences for this great statesman. May he rest in peace and eternity", Ban wrote in his message.[115] Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam National Memorial Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam National Memorial[116] is a memorial in memory of the late President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. The memorial is situated at Pei Karumbu, in the island town of Rameswaram, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. This Memorial was inaugurated on the 27th July, 2017[117] by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. The memorial was built by Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO).[118] On display are the replicas of rockets and missiles with which Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam had worked with. Acrylic paintings about his life are also displayed along with hundreds of portraits depicting the life of the mass leader. There is a statue of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam in the entrance showing him playing Veena
Veena
(musical instrument). There are two other smaller statues of the leader in sitting and standing posture. Personal life Kalam was the youngest of five siblings, the eldest of whom was a sister, Asim Zohra (d. 1997), followed by three elder brothers: Mohammed Muthu Meera Lebbai Maraikayar (born 4 November 1916),[119] Mustafa Kalam (d. 1999) and Kasim Mohammed (d. 1995).[120] He was extremely close to his elder siblings and their extended families throughout his life, and would regularly send small sums of money to his older relations, himself remaining a lifelong bachelor.[120][121] Kalam was noted for his integrity and his simple lifestyle.[121] He never owned a television, and was in the habit of rising at 6:30 or 7 a.m and sleeping by 2 a.m.[122] His few personal possessions included his books, his veena, some articles of clothing, a CD player and a laptop; at his death, he left no will, and his possessions went to his eldest brother, who survived him.[123][124] In the 2011 Hindi film I Am Kalam, Kalam is portrayed as a positive influence on a poor but bright Rajasthani boy named Chhotu, who renames himself Kalam in honour of his idol.[125] Religious and spiritual views Religion and spirituality were very important to Kalam throughout his life.[126] In fact, he made his own spiritual journey the subject of his final book, Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji.[127][128] Islam A proud and practising Muslim, daily namāz and fasting during Ramadan were integral to Kalam's life.[9][129][130] His father, the imam of a mosque in his hometown of Rameswaram, had strictly instilled these Islamic customs in his children.[9] His father had also impressed upon the young Kalam the value of interfaith respect and dialogue. As Kalam recalled: "Every evening, my father A.P. Jainulabdeen, an imam, Pakshi Lakshmana Sastry, the head priest of the Ramanathaswamy Hindu
Hindu
temple, and a church priest used to sit with hot tea and discuss the issues concerning the island."[127][131] Such early exposure convinced Kalam that the answers to India's multitudinous issues lay in "dialogue and cooperation" among the country's religious, social, and political leaders.[129] Moreover, since Kalam believed that "respect for other faiths" was one of the key cornerstones of Islam, he was fond of saying: "For great men, religion is a way of making friends; small people make religion a fighting tool."[132] Syncretism One component of Kalam's widespread popularity among diverse groups in India, and an enduring aspect of his legacy, is the syncretism he embodied in appreciating various elements of the many spiritual and cultural traditions of India.[129][130][133][134] In addition to his faith in the Koran and Islamic practice, Kalam was well-versed in Hindu
Hindu
traditions; he learnt Sanskrit,[135][136] read the Bhagavad Gita[137][138] and he was a vegetarian.[139] Kalam also enjoyed writing Tamil poetry, playing the veena (a South Indian string instrument),[140] and listening to Carnatic devotional music every day.[130] In 2002, in one of his early speeches to Parliament after becoming President, he reiterated his desire for a more united India, stating that "[d]uring the last one year I met a number of spiritual leaders of all religions ... [and] I would like to endeavour to work for bringing about unity of minds among the divergent traditions of our country".[133] Describing Kalam as a unifier of diverse traditions, Congress leader Shashi Tharoor
Shashi Tharoor
stated, "Kalam was a complete Indian, an embodiment of the eclecticism of India's heritage of diversity".[130] BJP leader L. K. Advani
L. K. Advani
concurred that Kalam was "the best exemplar of the Idea of India, one who embodied the best of all the cultural and spiritual traditions that signify India's unity in immense diversity. This was most strikingly evident in the second-to-last book he published, presciently titled Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swami.[134] Pramukh Swami
Pramukh Swami
as Guru Kalam's desire to meet spiritual leaders to help create a more prosperous, spiritual, and unified India
India
was what initially led him to meet Pramukh Swami, the Hindu
Hindu
guru of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya, who Kalam would come to consider his ultimate spiritual teacher and guru.[127][129] The first of eight meetings between Kalam and Pramukh Swami
Pramukh Swami
over a fourteen-year period took place on 30 June 2001 in New Delhi, during which Kalam described being immediately drawn to Pramukh Swami's simplicity and spiritual purity.[141] Kalam stated that he was inspired by Pramukh Swami
Pramukh Swami
throughout their numerous interactions. One such incident occurred the day following the terrorist attack on BAPS' Akshardham, Gandhinagar complex in September 2002; Pramukh Swami
Pramukh Swami
prayed for, and sprinkled holy water upon, the sites of all of the deceased, including the terrorists, demonstrating the view that all human life is sacred. Kalam recalled being moved by Pramukh Swami's equanimity and compassion, citing this incident as one of his motivations for writing Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji.[142] Summarising the effect that Pramukh Swami had on him, Kalam stated that "[Pramukh Swami] has indeed transformed me. He is the ultimate stage of the spiritual ascent in my life ... Pramukh Swamiji has put me in a God-synchronous orbit. No manoeuvres are required any more, as I am placed in my final position in eternity."[129][143] Following Kalam's death a month after his final book was released, co-author Arun Tiwari pointed to this passage as potentially prophetic and premonitory of Kalam's death.[144] Writings

A P J Abdul Kalam delivering a speech

In his book India
India
2020, Kalam strongly advocated an action plan to develop India
India
into a "knowledge superpower" and a developed nation by the year 2020. He regarded his work on India's nuclear weapons programme as a way to assert India's place as a future superpower.[145]

I have identified five areas where India
India
has a core competence for integrated action: (1) agriculture and food processing; (2) education and healthcare; (3) information and communication technology; (4) infrastructure, reliable and quality electric power, surface transport and infrastructure for all parts of the country; and (5) self-reliance in critical technologies. These five areas are closely inter-related and if advanced in a coordinated way, will lead to food, economic and national security.

Kalam describes a "transformative moment" in his life when he asked Pramukh Swami, the guru of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya, how India might realise this five-pronged vision of development.  Pramukh Swami's answer—to add a sixth area developing faith in God and spirituality to overcome the current climate of crime and corruption—became the spiritual vision for the next 15 years Kalam's life, which he describes in his final book, Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji, published just a month before his death.[141] It was reported that there was considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him.[146] Kalam took an active interest in other developments in the field of science and technology, including a research programme for developing biomedical implants. He also supported open source technology over proprietary software, predicting that the use of free software on a large scale would bring the benefits of information technology to more people.[147] Kalam set a target of interacting with 100,000 students during the two years after his resignation from the post of scientific adviser in 1999.[21] He explained, "I feel comfortable in the company of young people, particularly high school students. Henceforth, I intend to share with them experiences, helping them to ignite their imagination and preparing them to work for a developed India
India
for which the road map is already available." His dream is to let every student to light up the sky with victory using their latent fire in the heart. [21] Awards and honours Kalam received 7 honorary doctorates from 40 universities.[148][149] The Government of India
India
honoured him with the Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
in 1990 for his work with ISRO
ISRO
and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government.[150] In 1997, Kalam received India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernisation of defence technology in India.[151] In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society
National Space Society
"to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space-related project".[152] Following his death, Kalam received numerous tributes. The Tamil Nadu state government announced that his birthday, 15 October, would be observed across the state as "Youth Renaissance Day;" the state government further instituted the "Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Award," constituting an 8-gram gold medal, a certificate and ₹500,000 (US$7,700). The award will be awarded annually on Independence Day, beginning in 2015, to residents of the state with achievements in promoting scientific growth, the humanities or the welfare of students.[153] On the anniversary of Kalam's birth in 2015 the CBSE set topics on his name in the CBSE expression series.[154] The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, ceremonially released postage stamps commemorating Kalam at DRDO Bhawan in New Delhi
New Delhi
on 15 October 2015, the 84th anniversary of Kalam's birth. Researchers at the NASA
NASA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL), had discovered a new bacterium on the filters of the International Space Station (ISS) and named it Solibacillus kalamii to honour the late president Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.[155] Educational and scientific institutions Several educational and scientific institutions and other locations were renamed or named in honour of Kalam following his death.

An agricultural college at Kishanganj, Bihar, was renamed the "Dr. Kalam Agricultural College, Kishanganj" by the Bihar state government on the day of Kalam's funeral. The state government also announced it would name a proposed science city after Kalam.[156] Uttar Pradesh Technical University
Uttar Pradesh Technical University
(UPTU) was renamed "A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University" by the Uttar Pradesh state government.[157] A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Memorial Travancore Institute of Digestive Diseases, a new research institute in Kollam
Kollam
city, Kerala
Kerala
attached to the Travancore Medical College Hospital.[158] A new academic complex at Mahatma Gandhi University in Kerala.[159] A new science centre and planetarium in Lawspet, Puducherry.[160] India
India
and the US have launched the Fulbright-Kalam Climate Fellowship In September 2014. The first call for applicants was announced on Friday 12 March 2016, for the fellowship which will enable up to 6 Indian PhD students and post-doctoral researchers to work with US host institutions for a period of 6–12 months. The fellowship will be operated by the binational US- India
India
Educational Foundation (USIEF) under the Fulbright programme.[161] Kerala
Kerala
Technological University, headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram where Kalam lived for years, was renamed to A P J Abdul Kalam Technological University after his death.

Island Wheeler Island, a national missile test site in Odisha, was renamed Abdul Kalam Island
Abdul Kalam Island
in September 2015.[162] Road A prominent road in New Delhi
New Delhi
was renamed from Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Road to Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Road[163][164] in August 2015.[165] Plant species In February 2018, scientists from the Botanical Survey of India
India
named a newly found plant species as Drypetes kalamii, in his honour.[166] Other awards and honours

Year of award or honour Name of award or honour Awarding organisation

2014 Doctor of Science Edinburgh University, UK[167]

2013 Von Braun Award National Space Society

2012 Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa) Simon Fraser University[168]

2011 IEEE
IEEE
Honorary Membership IEEE[169]

2010 Doctor of Engineering University of Waterloo[170]

2009 Honorary Doctorate Oakland University[171]

2009 Hoover Medal ASME Foundation, USA[172]

2009 International von Kármán Wings Award California Institute of Technology, USA[173]

2008 Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa) Nanyang Technological University, Singapore[174]

2008 Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) Aligarh Muslim
Muslim
University, Aligarh[175][176]

2007 Honorary Doctorate
Honorary Doctorate
of Science and Technology Carnegie Mellon University[177]

2007 King Charles II Medal Royal Society, UK[178][179][180]

2007 Honorary Doctorate
Honorary Doctorate
of Science University of Wolverhampton, UK[181]

2000 Ramanujan Award Alwars Research Centre, Chennai[182]

1998 Veer Savarkar Award Government of India[13]

1997 Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Award for National Integration Indian National Congress[13][182]

1997 Bharat Ratna Government of India[182][183]

1995 Honorary Fellow National Academy of Medical Sciences,[184]

1994 Distinguished Fellow Institute of Directors (India)[185]

1990 Padma Vibhushan Government of India[182][186]

1981 Padma Bhushan Government of India[182][186]

Books and documentaries

Kalam's writings

[proposed to be deleted: this "book" is a commemorative collection of papers with Kalam and Narasimha as editors. Given URL clearly mentions this]Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology by A P J Abdul Kalam and Roddam Narasimha; Indian Academy of Sciences, 1988[187] India
India
2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A P J Abdul Kalam, Y. S. Rajan; New York, 1998.[188] Wings of Fire: An Autobiography by A P J Abdul Kalam, Arun Tiwari; Universities Press, 1999.[11] Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India
India
by A P J Abdul Kalam; Viking, 2002.[189] The Luminous Sparks by A P J Abdul Kalam, by; Punya Publishing Pvt Ltd., 2004.[190] Mission India
India
by A P J Abdul Kalam, Paintings by Manav Gupta; Penguin Books, 2005[191] Inspiring Thoughts by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal & Sons, 2007[192] Indomitable Spirit by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal and Sons Publishing[193] Envisioning an Empowered Nation by A P J Abdul Kalam with A Sivathanu Pillai; Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond by A P J Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2011.[194] Turning Points: A journey through challenges by A P J Abdul Kalam; Harper Collins
Harper Collins
India, 2012.[195] Target 3 Billion
Target 3 Billion
by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; December 2011 Publisher Penguin Books. My Journey: (titled எனது பயணம் - Tamil) Transforming Dreams into Actions by A P J Abdul Kalam; August 2013 by the Rupa Publication. A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India
India
2020 by A P J Abdul Kalam and V Ponraj; July 2014 by Harper Collins.[196] Forge your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring by A P J Abdul Kalam; by Rajpal and Sons, 29 October 2014.[197] Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; by Penguin India, 14 May 2015.[198] Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji by A P J Abdul Kalam with Arun Tiwari; HarperCollins Publishers, June 2015[199] Advantage India: From Challenge to Opportunity by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; HarperCollins Publishers,15 Oct 2015.[200]

Biographies

Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr Kalam by S Chandra; Pentagon Publishers, 2002.[201] President A P J Abdul Kalam by R K Pruthi; Anmol Publications, 2002.[202] A P J Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India
India
by K Bhushan, G Katyal; A P H Pub Corp, 2002.[203] A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal; Minveli Media Works Private Limited, 2008.[204] The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P M Nair; Harper Collins, 2008.[205] My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr A K George; Novel Corporation, 2009.[206]

See also

List of Presidents of India The Greatest Indian Indian presidential election, 2002 Pokhran-II

References

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Today. 5 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2017.  ^ a b "We thought he would be with us for another decade: Kalam's nephew". Mid-Day. 29 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ a b "Man of integrity, Kalam insulated family from trappings of power". The Times of India. 31 July 2015. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "Kalam Tribute: Sir Never Had a TV at Home, Recalls Secretary of 24 Years". NDTV.com. 28 July 2015. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "Kalam had no property". The Hindu. 3 August 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "Guru Kalam's assets, royalties to go to elder brother". OneIndia.com. 3 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "I Am Kalam: Movie Review". The Times of India. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.  ^ Lama, The Office of His Holiness the 14th Dalai. "News The Office of His Holiness The Dalai Lama". www.dalailama.com. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ a b c Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2015). Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. Noida: HarperCollins India. pp. ix–xi. ISBN 978-93-5177-405-1.  ^ "Transcending boundaries with Swamiji - Ahmedabad Mirror -". Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ a b c d e "Dr Kalam, India's Most Non-Traditional President". Archived from the original on 20 March 2016.  ^ a b c d Shashi Tharoor
Shashi Tharoor
(28 June 2015). "Abdul Kalam: People's president, extraordinary Indian". BBC. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.  ^ "Ramzan & Rameswaram: His ties with the island - The Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ "APJ Abdul Kalam: Not Hindu, Not Muslim
Muslim
– Death of an 'Indian'". Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ a b "Remembering Kalam: Greatly beloved, but he maybe missed being truly great - Firstpost". Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ a b "Kalam served India
India
till last breath: Advani". Archived from the original on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ "Abdul Kalam or Abul Kalam- the message is same". Archived from the original on 24 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2015.  ^ "Kalam on why Sanskrit
Sanskrit
is important". Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2007.  ^ "Three books that influenced APJ Abdul Kalam deeply - Firstpost". Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ "Kalam, Islam
Islam
and Dr Rafiq Zakaria". Archived from the original on 31 July 2015.  ^ "Of Rasam and Rice: The Humble Lifestyle of Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam - NDTV
NDTV
Food". Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ "India's A.P.J. Abdul Kalam". Time. 30 November 1998. Archived from the original on 28 February 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ a b Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul; Tiwari, Arun (2015). Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. Noida, India: HarperCollins India. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-93-5177-405-1.  ^ Kalam, APJ Abdul; Tiwari, Arun (2015). Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. Noida: HarperCollins India. pp. 14–18. ISBN 978-93-5177-405-1.  ^ Kalam, APJ Abdul; Tiwari, Arun (2015). Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. Noida: HarperCollins India. p. 50. ISBN 978-93-5177-405-1.  ^ "Did Kalam sense his end was near? Arun Tiwari suspects". The Hindu. 30 July 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2015.  ^ Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (1 October 2011). "IDG Session Address" (PDF). NUJS Law Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2015.  ^ "Kalam, the author catching on in South Korea". Outlook magazine. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2012.  ^ Becker, David (29 May 2003). " India
India
leader advocates open source". CNET. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ "Dr.Kalam's Page". abdulKalam.com. Retrieved 1 March 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ Dayekh, Ribal (16 April 2011). "Dr Abdul Kalam former President of India
India
arrives to Dubai". Zawya. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2012.  ^ "Kalam receives honorary doctorate from Queen's University Belfast". Oneindia.in. 11 June 2009. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ " Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
conferred on Dr Abdul Kalam". Rediff.com. 26 November 1997. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ National Space Society, NSS Von Braun Award Archived 2 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. retrieved 10 February 2015 ^ "Award in Kalam's name, birthday to be observed as 'Youth Renaissance Day'". Economic Times. 31 July 2015. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2015.  ^ "APJ_Abdul_Kalam.pdf" (PDF). CBSE. 16 October 2015. pp. 1, 4–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ " NASA
NASA
pays tribute to APJ Abdul Kalam by naming new species after him". International Business Times. 21 May 2017. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.  ^ "Bihar govt names college, science city after 'People's President' APJ Abdul Kalam". The Hindu. 30 July 2015. Archived from the original on 2 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "UPTU is now APJ Abdul Kalam Tech University". Times of India. 1 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "Institute to be named after Kalam". The Hindu. 31 July 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "Complex to be named after Abdul Kalam". The Hindu. 4 August 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "Science centre-cum-planetarium named after Abdul Kalam". The Hindu. 16 August 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "India, US Launch Fulbright-Kalam Climate Fellowship". Ndtv.com. 12 March 2016. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Odisha's Wheeler Island to be renamed after APJ Abdul Kalam". Hindustan Times. 4 September 2015. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ "Ex- President of India
President of India
Abdul Kalam visits the Forum". University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.  ^ "Honorary Degrees – Convocation". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.  ^ " IEEE Honorary Membership Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ "Yet another honorary doctorate for Kalam". Rediff.com. 6 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ "A.P.J Abdul Kalam – Honorary Degree, 2009". Oakland University. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013.  ^ "Former President Kalam chosen for Hoover Medal". The Times of India. New York. 27 March 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2010.  ^ "Caltech GALCIT International von Kármán Wings Award". galcit.caltech.edu. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ "Dr Abdul Kalam, former President of India, receives NTU Honorary Degree of Doctor of Engineering". Nanyang Technological University. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ "AMU to honour Kalam with doctorate". The Economics Times. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.  ^ "AMU to honour Kalam with doctorate". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2017-04-17.  ^ " Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
Awards Honorary Doctorate
Honorary Doctorate
To Former India
India
President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam". cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.  ^ "King Charles II Medal for President". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 12 July 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ "King Charles II Medal for Kalam". The Economic Times. India. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ " Royal Society
Royal Society
King Charles II Medal". Royal Society. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.  ^ "Kalam conferred Honorary Doctorate
Honorary Doctorate
of Science". The Economic Times. India. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ a b c d e "Dr. Abdul Kalam's Diverse Interests: Prizes/Awards". Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ "List of recipients of Bharat Ratna" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ "List of Fellows - NAMS" (PDF). National Academy of Medical Sciences. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ "List of Distinguished Fellows". Institute of Directors. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.  ^ a b " Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
conferred on Dr Abdul Kalam". Rediff.com. 26 November 1997. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ "Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology". National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul; Y.S., Rajan (1998). India
India
2020: A Vision for the New Millennium. New York. ISBN 978-0-670-88271-7.  ^ Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2002). Ignited minds: unleashing the power within India. Viking.  ^ Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2004). The luminous sparks : a biography in verse and colours. Bangalore: Punya Pub. ISBN 978-81-901897-8-1.  ^ Rajan, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam with Y.S. (2005). Mission India : a vision for Indian youth. New Delhi, India: Puffin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-333499-6.  ^ Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2007). Inspiring thoughts. Delhi: Rajpal & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7028-684-4.  ^ Kalam, A.P.J. Abdul (2006). Indomitable Spirit. Delhi: Rajpal & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7028-654-7.  ^ You Are Born To Blossom : Take My Journey Beyond. New Delhi, India: Ocean Books. ISBN 81-8430-037-9.  ^ "Turning Points:A journey through challenges". Harper Collins
Harper Collins
India. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012.  ^ "Dr. Abdul Kalam's new Book A Manifesto for Change to release on July 14". news.biharprabha.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ Abdul Kalam, A P J (29 October 2014). Forge Your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring. Rajpal and Sons. ISBN 978-93-5064-279-5. ASIN 9350642794.  ^ Abdul Kalam, A P J; Pal Singh, Srijan (14 May 2015). Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future. Penguin India. ISBN 978-0-14-333354-8. ASIN 0143333542.  ^ Dr. Abdul Kalam's new Book Transcendence My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji to release on June 15. Harper Collins
Harper Collins
India Publication. ASIN 9351774058.  ^ A P J, Abdul Kalam; Srijan, Pal Singh. Advantage India: From Challenge to Opportunity. ISBN 935177645X.  ^ Rohde, David (19 July 2002). "Nuclear Scientist, 70, a Folk Hero, Is Elected India's President". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  ^ Pruthi, Raj (2003). President Apj Abdul Kalam. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-1344-6. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016.  ^ Bhushan, K.; Katyal, G. (2002). A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-380-3. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016.  ^ "Documentary on Kalam released". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 12 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2009.  ^ Nair, P. M. (2008). The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President. HarperCollins Publishers, a joint venture with the India
India
Today Group. ISBN 978-81-7223-736-3. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016.  ^ Fr A K George (2009). My Days with Mahatma Abdul Kalam. Novel Corp. ISBN 978-81-904529-5-3. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.

Official website

Wikiquote has quotations related to: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

v t e

Presidents of India
India
(List)

Rajendra Prasad Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Zakir Hussain V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(acting) Mohammad Hidayatullah
Mohammad Hidayatullah
(acting) V. V. Giri Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed B. D. Jatti
B. D. Jatti
(acting) Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Zail Singh R. Venkataraman Shankar Dayal Sharma K. R. Narayanan A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Pratibha Patil Pranab Mukherjee Ram Nath Kovind

v t e

Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
laureates

1954–1960

C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
(1954) Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1955) Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
(1957) Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve
(1958)

1961–1980

Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy
and Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
(1961) Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1962) Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane
Pandurang Vaman Kane
(1963) Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
(1966) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1971) V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(1975) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1976) Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
(1980)

1981–2000

Vinoba Bhave
Vinoba Bhave
(1983) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(1987) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1988) B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(1990) Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
(1991) Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1992) Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(1997) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
and Chidambaram Subramaniam
Chidambaram Subramaniam
(1998) Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999)

2001–present

Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
and Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(2001) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(2008) C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
and Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
(2014) Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(2015)

v t e

Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
award recipients

Arts

Ebrahim Alkazi Kishori Amonkar Amitabh Bachchan M. Balamuralikrishna T. Balasaraswati Asha Bhosle Nandalal Bose Hariprasad Chaurasia Girija Devi Kumar Gandharva Adoor Gopalakrishnan Satish Gujral Gangubai Hangal Bhupen Hazarika M. F. Husain Ilaiyaraaja Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer Bhimsen Joshi Ali Akbar Khan Amjad Ali Khan Allauddin Khan Bismillah Khan Ghulam Mustafa Khan Yamini Krishnamurthy Dilip Kumar R. K. Laxman Birju Maharaj Kishan Maharaj Lata Mangeshkar Sonal Mansingh Mallikarjun Mansur Zubin Mehta Mario Miranda Kelucharan Mohapatra Raghunath Mohapatra Jasraj
Jasraj
Motiram Benode Behari Mukherjee Hrishikesh Mukherjee Rajinikanth Ram Narayan D. K. Pattammal K. Shankar Pillai Akkineni Nageswara Rao Kaloji Narayana Rao Satyajit Ray S. H. Raza Zohra Sehgal Uday Shankar Ravi Shankar V. Shantaram Shivkumar Sharma Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman M. S. Subbulakshmi K. G. Subramanyan Kapila Vatsyayan Homai Vyarawalla K. J. Yesudas

Civil Service

Bimala Prasad Chaliha Naresh Chandra T. N. Chaturvedi Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri Suranjan Das Rajeshwar Dayal Basanti Devi P. N. Dhar Jyotindra Nath Dixit M. S. Gill Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim H. V. R. Iyengar Bhola Nath Jha Dattatraya Shridhar Joshi Ajudhia Nath Khosla Rai Krishnadasa V. Krishnamurthy P. Prabhakar Kumaramangalam Pratap Chandra Lal K. B. Lall Sam Manekshaw Om Prakash Mehra Mohan Sinha Mehta M. G. K. Menon Brajesh Mishra Sumati Morarjee A. Ramasamy Mudaliar Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda Chakravarthi V. Narasimhan Braj Kumar Nehru Bhairab Dutt Pande Ghananand Pande Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit T. V. Rajeswar C. R. Krishnaswamy Rao Pattadakal Venkanna R Rao V. K. R. V. Rao Khusro Faramurz Rustamji Harish Chandra Sarin Binay Ranjan Sen Homi Sethna Arjan Singh Harbaksh Singh Kirpal Singh Manmohan Singh Tarlok Singh Lallan Prasad Singh Balaram Sivaraman Chandrika Prasad Srivastava T. Swaminathan Arun Shridhar Vaidya Dharma Vira Narinder Nath Vohra

Literature and Education

V. S. R. Arunachalam Jagdish Bhagwati Satyendra Nath Bose Tara Chand Suniti Kumar Chatterji D. P. Chattopadhyaya Bhabatosh Datta Avinash Dixit Mahasweta Devi John Kenneth Galbraith Sarvepalli Gopal Lakshman Shastri Joshi Kaka Kalelkar Dhondo Keshav Karve Gopinath Kaviraj Kuvempu O. N. V. Kurup Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Sitakant Mahapatra John Mathai Kotha Satchidanda Murthy Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri Bal Ram Nanda R. K. Narayan P. Parameswaran Amrita Pritam K. N. Raj C. Rangarajan Raja Rao Ramoji Rao Hormasji Maneckji Seervai Rajaram Shastri Kalu Lal Shrimali Govindbhai Shroff Khushwant Singh Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh Premlila Vithaldas Thackersey Mahadevi Varma Bashir Hussain Zaidi

Medicine

Jasbir Singh Bajaj B. K. Goyal Purshotam Lal A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar S. I. Padmavati Autar Singh Paintal Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti Balu Sankaran V. Shanta Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar Prakash Narain Tandon Brihaspati Dev Triguna M. S. Valiathan

Other

Sunderlal Bahuguna B. K. S. Iyengar Rambhadracharya Ravi Shankar Jaggi Vasudev

Public Affairs

L. K. Advani Montek Singh Ahluwalia Aruna Asaf Ali Fazal Ali Adarsh Sein Anand Madhav Shrihari Aney Parkash Singh Badal Sikander Bakht Milon K. Banerji Mirza Hameedullah Beg P. N. Bhagwati Raja Chelliah Chandra Kisan Daphtary Niren De C. D. Deshmukh Anthony Lancelot Dias Uma Shankar Dikshit Kazi Lhendup Dorjee P. B. Gajendragadkar Benjamin A. Gilman Zakir Husain V. R. Krishna Iyer Jagmohan Lakshmi Chand Jain Aditya Nath Jha Murli Manohar Joshi Mehdi Nawaz Jung Ali Yavar Jung Vijay Kelkar Hans Raj Khanna V. N. Khare Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai Jivraj Narayan Mehta V. K. Krishna Menon Hirendranath Mukherjee Ajoy Mukherjee Pranab Mukherjee Padmaja Naidu Gulzarilal Nanda Govind Narain Fali Sam Nariman Hosei Norota Nanabhoy Palkhivala K. Parasaran Hari Vinayak Pataskar Sunder Lal Patwa Sharad Pawar Naryana Raghvan Pillai Sri Prakasa N. G. Ranga Ravi Narayana Reddy Y. Venugopal Reddy Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq Lakshmi Sahgal P. A. Sangma M. C. Setalvad Karan Singh Nagendra Singh Swaran Singh Walter Sisulu Soli Sorabjee Kalyan Sundaram Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi Atal Bihari Vajpayee M. N. Venkatachaliah Kottayan Katankot Venugopal Jigme Dorji Wangchuck

Science and Engineering

V. K. Aatre Salim Ali Norman Borlaug Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Rajagopala Chidambaram Charles Correa Satish Dhawan Anil Kakodkar A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan Har Gobind Khorana Daulat Singh Kothari Verghese Kurien Raghunath Anant Mashelkar G. Madhavan Nair Roddam Narasimha Jayant Narlikar Rajendra K. Pachauri Benjamin Peary Pal Yash Pal I. G. Patel Venkatraman Ramakrishnan K. R. Ramanathan Raja Ramanna C. R. Rao C. N. R. Rao Palle Rama Rao Udupi Ramachandra Rao Vikram Sarabhai Man Mohan Sharma Obaid Siddiqi E. Sreedharan M. R. Srinivasan George Sudarshan M. S. Swaminathan

Social Work

Baba Amte Pandurang Shastri Athavale Janaki Devi Bajaj Mirabehn Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Durgabai Deshmukh Nanaji Deshmukh Nirmala Deshpande Mohan Dharia U. N. Dhebar Valerian Gracias Veerendra Heggade Mary Clubwala Jadhav Gaganvihari Lallubhai Mehta Usha Mehta Sister Nirmala Nellie Sengupta

Sports

Viswanathan Anand Edmund Hillary Sachin Tendulkar

Trade and Industry

Dhirubhai Ambani Ghanshyam Das Birla Ashok Sekhar Ganguly Karim Al Hussaini Aga Khan Lakshmi Mittal N. R. Narayana Murthy M. Narasimham Prithvi Raj Singh Oberoi Azim Premji Prathap C. Reddy J. R. D. Tata Ratan Tata

Portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
award recipients (1980–1989)

1980

Sunil Gavaskar

1981

Vainu Bappu Prafulla Desai A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Gopinath Mohanty Amritlal Nagar Mrinal Sen Avabai Bomanji Wadia

1982

Jasbir Singh Bajaj Sundaram Balachander Gottipati Brahmaiah Rani Gaidinliu Khadim Hussain Khan Stella Kramrisch Jal Minocher Mehta Grace Morley Syed Zahoor Qasim Kamal Ranadive P. N. Pattabhirama Sastri Jhabarmal Sharma Ajit Ram Verma

1983

Richard Attenborough Doraiswamy Iyengar V. G. Jog K. Sankaran Nair Prem Nazir Swraj Paul, Baron Paul Rajkumar K. G. Ramanathan Kershasp Tehmurasp Satarawala Subodh Chandra Sengupta Adi M. Sethna Arun Kumar Sharma Benudhar Sharma Bhalindra Singh Umrao Singh

1984

Horace Alexander Michael Ferreira Sivaji Ganesan Jnan Prakash Ghosh Kotha Satchidananda Murthy Hosur Narasimhaiah Sripada Pinakapani Ishwari Prasad B. C. Sanyal Marie Seton Archana Sharma Obaid Siddiqi Natwar Singh Ganda Singh Vijay Tendulkar Baldev Upadhyaya

1985

Durga Das Basu Shiba P. Chatterjee Virender Lal Chopra Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon Santidev Ghosh Bhimsen Joshi Sadat Abul Masud Kalanidhi Narayanan Bernard Peters Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai Gopala Ramanujam S. Ramaseshan Amarjit Singh Tribhuvandas Luhar Gurbachan Singh Talib Bhalchandra Udgaonkar Srinivasan Varadarajan

1986

Pushpa Mittra Bhargava Ela Bhatt Manohar Lal Chibber Aminuddin Dagar V. Krishnamurthy Jean Riboud Sidney Dillon Ripley Rajeev Sethi Martand Singh Badri Nath Tandon Gulshan Lal Tandon R. K. Trivedi

1987

Balamani Amma Kishori Amonkar Nikhil Banerjee Roddam Narasimha R. D. Pradhan Annada Shankar Ray Julio Ribeiro Man Mohan Sharma Farokh Udwadia Mohammad Yunus

1988

19th Kushok Bakula Rinpoche Ram Prakash Bambah Kartar Singh Duggal Ashok Sekhar Ganguly Abid Hussain Shreyans Prasad Jain Kelucharan Mohapatra Bal Ram Nanda Akkineni Nageswara Rao Pratury Trirumala Rao Renuka Ray B. V. Sreekantan Satya Pal Wahi

1989

Fenner Brockway, Baron Brockway Banoo Jehangir Coyaji Girija Devi Kattingeri Krishna Hebbar Girilal Jain Anna Rajam Malhotra M. V. Mathur Ashesh Prosad Mitra Russi Mody Suresh Shankar Nadkarni Narinder Singh Randhawa Yoshio Sakurauchi Lakshman Singh Prakash Narain Tandon

# Posthumous conferral

1954–1959 1960–1969 1970–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 2010–2019

v t e

Defence Research and Development Organisation
Defence Research and Development Organisation
(DRDO)

Aeronautics

Avionics

Tejas Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft

Other HAL programmes

HJT-36 HTT-40 Dhruv Rudra Light Combat Helicopter Light Utility Helicopter

Unmanned aerial vehicles

Nishant Rustom Lakshya Kapothaka Ulka Fluffy AURA UAV Imperial Eagle Netra

Armaments

Small arms

INSAS Vidhwansak MSMC MCIWS

Artillery systems and ammunition

Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher M-46 Catapult Bhim-T6 Dhanush Howitzer

Armoured fighting vehicles

Tanks

Arjun Arjun Mk-II Tank EX DRDO light tank

Infantry fighting vehicle

Abhay IFV

Other vehicles

Carrier Mortar Tracked Armoured Engineer Reconnaissance Vehicle Light Armoured Vehicle Kartik BLT Daksh

Electronics and Computer Sciences

Electronic warfare

Samyukta Tarang

Radars

INDRA Rajendra Radar Swordfish Long Range Tracking Radar Multi-mode radar 3D Airborne Warning and Control Super Vision-2000 BFSR-SR 3D-CAR Swathi Weapon Locating Radar

Software

NETRA

Missile systems

Ballistic missiles

Agni

Agni-I Agni-II Agni-III Agni-IV Agni-V Agni-VI

Prithvi

I II III Dhanush

SRBM

Shaurya Prahaar

SLBM

K-15 K-4 K-5

Cruise missiles

Nirbhay BrahMos

II

HSTDV

Air-to-air missiles

Astra BVRAAM DRDO Anti-Radiation Missile

Anti-tank missiles

Nag DRDO Anti Tank Missile

Surface-to-air

Akash Trishul Maitri missile Barak 8

Air-to-surface

Helina BrahMos
BrahMos
Air launched Variant

Anti-ballistic

Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) Advanced Air Defence (AAD)

Torpedoes

Advanced Light Torpedo
Torpedo
Shyena Varunastra Heavy Weight Torpedo

Bombs

Laser-guided

Sudarshan Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon

People

Scientists

Maj General Ranjit Lal Jetley Ram Narain Agarwal A. P. J. Abdul Kalam A. Sivathanu Pillai W Selvamurthy V. K. Saraswat V. K. Aatre Raja Ramanna V. S. Mahalingam Keshav Dattatreya Nayak

Engines

GTX 37-14U GTX-35VS Kaveri Kaveri Marine Gas Turbine GATET engine

Important programmes

Project Indigo Project Valiant Project Devil IGMDP Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme

Indian Missile Programme Indian Armed Forces

v t e

Indian space programme

Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO)

Organisations

Department of Space
Department of Space
(DoS) Antrix Corporation Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
(IIST) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing
(IIRS) Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems
Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems
(LEOS) National Atmospheric Research Laboratory
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory
(NARL) Physical Research Laboratory
Physical Research Laboratory
(PRL) Physical Research Laboratory
Physical Research Laboratory
(DECU)

Programmes

Bhaskara GAGAN GSAT INSAT IRNSS IRS

Cartosat

RISAT Rohini SROSS Chandrayaan Human spaceflight programme

Orbital Vehicle

Satellites

APPLE Aditya-L1 Aryabhata Astrosat AstroSat-2 HAMSAT IMS-1 Megha-Tropiques NISAR SARAL South Asia
South Asia
Satellite SRE SRE II Kalpana-1 CARE

Space probes

Chandrayaan-1

Moon Impact Probe

Chandrayaan-2 Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Orbiter Mission
Mars Orbiter Mission
2 (proposed) Venus orbiter mission (proposed)

Rockets

Engine

CE-7.5 CE-20

Orbital

SLV ASLV PSLV GSLV GSLV Mark III

Suborbital

Rohini ATV

Concepts

ULV

Under development

RLV Technology Demonstration Programme

RLV-TD

Facilities

Indian Deep Space Network
Indian Deep Space Network
(IDSN) ISRO
ISRO
Satellite Centre (ISAC) ISRO
ISRO
Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) Master Control Facility
Master Control Facility
(MCF) Satish Dhawan
Satish Dhawan
Space Centre (SDSC) Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station
(TERLS) ISRO
ISRO
Satellite Integration and Testing Establishment (ISITE) Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai
Space Center (VSSC) Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre
(LPSC) ISRO
ISRO
Propulsion Complex

See also

SAGA-220
SAGA-220
(supercomputer)

List of Indian satellites List of Satish Dhawan
Satish Dhawan
Space Centre launches List of ISRO
ISRO
missions

v t e

Smiling Buddha
Smiling Buddha
(Pokhran-I)

Sites

Trombay Pokhran CIRUS reactor Rajasthan Thar Desert

Research Institutes

Defence Research and Development Organisation Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory High Energy Materials Research Laboratory Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

Administrators

Indira Gandhi Jagjivan Ram Tapishwar Narain Raina Swaran Singh

Scientists

Raja Ramanna Homi Sethna Waman Dattatreya Patwardhan P. K. Iyengar Rajagopala Chidambaram Ravi Grover Anil Kakodkar M. P. Parameswaran

Related articles

Indian nuclear programme History of nuclear weapons Pokhran-II
Pokhran-II
(May 13, 1998) Indo-American nuclear deal Nuclear proliferation

See also: Nuclear power in India

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49404258 LCCN: n98925888 ISNI: 0000 0000 8128 1158 GND: 124468047 SUDOC: 061027200 BNF: cb13756488m (data) NLA: 4150

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