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ARCHIBALD JOSEPH CRONIN, MBChB, MD, DPH, MRCP (19 July 1896 – 6 January 1981) was a Scottish novelist and physician .

His best-known novel is The Citadel (1937), the story of a doctor from a Welsh mining village who quickly moves up the career ladder in London. Cronin had observed this scene closely as a Medical Inspector of Mines and later as a doctor in Harley Street
Harley Street
. The book promoted what were then controversial new ideas about medical ethics and helped to inspire the launch of the National Health Service . Another popular mining novel of Cronin's, set in the North East of England , is The Stars Look Down . Both these novels have been adapted as films, as have Hatter\'s Castle , The Keys of the Kingdom and The Green Years . Cronin's novella Country Doctor was adapted as a long-running BBC radio and TV series Dr Finlay\'s Casebook , revived many years later.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Medical career * 3 Writing career * 4 Influence of The Citadel * 5 Religion * 6 Family * 7 Later years * 8 Honours * 9 Bibliography * 10 Selected periodical publications * 11 Film adaptations * 12 Selected television credits * 13 Selected radio credits * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

EARLY LIFE

Rosebank Cottage, Cronin's birthplace

Cronin was born in Cardross, Scotland, the only child of a Protestant mother, Jessie Cronin (née Montgomerie), and a Catholic father, Patrick Cronin. Cronin often wrote of young men from similarly mixed backgrounds. His paternal grandparents had emigrated from County Armagh , Ireland, and become glass and china merchants in Alexandria . Owen Cronin, his grandfather, had had his surname changed from Cronague in 1870. His maternal grandfather, Archibald Montgomerie, was a hatter who owned a shop in Dumbarton
Dumbarton
. After their marriage Cronin's parents moved to Helensburgh , where he attended Grant Street School. When he was seven years old, his father, an insurance agent and commercial traveller , died from tuberculosis . He and his mother moved to her parents' home in Dumbarton, and she soon became a public health inspector in Glasgow
Glasgow

Cronin was not only a precocious student at Dumbarton
Dumbarton
Academy who won many prizes in writing competitions, but also an excellent athlete and footballer . From an early age he was an avid golfer , and he enjoyed the sport throughout his life. He also loved salmon fishing .

The family later moved to Yorkhill
Yorkhill
, Glasgow
Glasgow
, where Cronin attended St Aloysius\' College in the Garnethill
Garnethill
area of the city. He played football for the First XI there, an experience he included in one of his last novels, The Minstrel Boy . A family decision that he should study either to join the church or to practise medicine was settled by Cronin himself when he chose "the lesser of two evils". He won a Carnegie scholarship to study medicine at the University of Glasgow
Glasgow
in 1914. He was absent in 1916–1917 for naval service. In 1919 he graduated, with highest honours, with the degree of MBChB. Later that year he made a trip to India as ship's surgeon on a liner. Cronin went on to earn additional qualifications, including a Diploma in Public Health (1923) and his MRCP (1924). In 1925 he was awarded an MD by the University of Glasgow
Glasgow
for his dissertation , entitled "The History of Aneurysm ".

MEDICAL CAREER

During the First World War
First World War
Cronin served as a surgeon sub-lieutenant in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve before graduating from medical school. After the war he trained at various hospitals, including Bellahouston and Lightburn Hospitals in Glasgow, and the Rotunda Hospital in Dublin
Dublin
. He undertook general practice in a small village on the Clyde , Garelochhead , as well as in Tredegar
Tredegar
, a mining town in South Wales
South Wales
. In 1924 he was appointed Medical Inspector of Mines for Great Britain, and his survey of medical regulations in collieries , and his reports on the correlation between coal dust inhalation and pulmonary disease , were published over the next few years. He was involved in the disaster at Ystfad Colliery
Colliery
in Pengelly, where thirty-eight miners were drowned and the remaining twenty-three were rescued after eight days. Cronin drew on this haunting experience and his research on the occupational hazards of the mining industry for his later novels The Citadel , set in Wales, and The Stars Look Down , set in Northumberland
Northumberland
. He subsequently moved to London, where he practised in Harley Street
Harley Street
before opening his own thriving medical practice in Notting Hill . Cronin was also the medical officer for Whiteleys
Whiteleys
at this time and was becoming increasingly interested in ophthalmology .

WRITING CAREER

In 1930 Cronin was diagnosed with a chronic duodenal ulcer and was told that he must take six months' complete rest in the country on a milk diet. At Dalchenna Farm by Loch Fyne he was finally able to indulge his lifelong desire to write a novel, having previously "written nothing but prescriptions and scientific papers". From Dalchenna Farm he travelled to Dumbarton
Dumbarton
to research the background of his first novel, using the files of Dumbarton
Dumbarton
Library, which still has the letter from Cronin requesting advice. He composed Hatter\'s Castle in the span of three months, and the manuscript was quickly accepted by Gollancz , the only publishing house to which it had been submitted (it was apparently chosen when his wife randomly stuck a pin into a list of publishers). This novel, which was an immediate and sensational success, launched Cronin's career as a prolific author, and he never returned to practising medicine.

Many of Cronin's books were bestsellers in their day and have been translated into many languages. Some of his stories draw on his medical career, dramatically mixing realism, romance and social criticism. Cronin's works examine moral conflicts between the individual and society, as his idealistic heroes pursue justice for the common man. One of his early novels, The Stars Look Down (1935), chronicles transgressions in a mining community in Northeast England and an ambitious miner's rise to be a Member of Parliament .

A prodigiously fast writer, Cronin liked to average 5,000 words a day, meticulously planning the details of his plots in advance. He was known to be tough in business dealings, although in private life he was a person whose "pawky humour ... peppered his conversations," according to one of his editors, Peter Haining .

Cronin also contributed many stories and essays to various international publications. During the Second World War
Second World War
he worked for the British Ministry of Information , writing articles as well as participating in radio broadcasts to foreign countries.

INFLUENCE OF THE CITADEL

The Citadel (1937), a tale of a mining company doctor's struggle to balance scientific integrity with social obligations, helped to incite the establishment of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom by exposing the inequity and incompetence of medical practice at the time. In the novel Cronin advocated a free public health service in order to defeat the wiles of those doctors who "raised guinea -snatching and the bamboozling of patients to an art form." Dr Cronin and Aneurin Bevan
Aneurin Bevan
had both worked at the Tredegar
Tredegar
Cottage Hospital in Wales, which served as one of the bases for the NHS. The author quickly made enemies in the medical profession, and there was a concerted effort by one group of specialists to get The Citadel banned. Cronin's novel, which was the highest-selling book ever published by Victor Gollancz, informed the public about corruption within the medical system, planting a seed that eventually led to reform. Not only were the author's pioneering ideas instrumental in the creation of the NHS, but the historian Raphael Samuel asserted in 1995 that the popularity of Cronin's novels played a substantial role in the Labour Party 's landslide victory in 1945.

By contrast, according to one of Cronin's biographers, Alan Davies, the book's reception was mixed. A few of the more vociferous medical practitioners of the day took exception to one of its many messages: that a few well-heeled doctors in fashionable practices were ripping off their equally well-off patients. Some pointed to the lack of balance between criticism and praise for hard-working doctors. The majority accepted it for what it was, a topical novel. The press attempted to incite passions within the profession in an attempt to sell copy, while Victor Gollancz followed suit in an attempt to promote the book, all overlooking the fact that it was a work of fiction, not a scientific piece of research, and not autobiographical.

In the United States The Citadel won the National Book Award , Favorite Fiction of 1937, voted by members of the American Booksellers Association . According to a Gallup poll conducted in 1939, The Citadel was voted the most interesting book readers had ever read.

RELIGION

Some of Cronin's novels also deal with religion, which had grown away from during his medical training and career, but which he reacquainted himself with during the 1930s. At medical school, as he recounts in his autobiography, he had become an agnostic: "When I thought of God it was with a superior smile, indicative of biological scorn for such an outworn myth." During his practice in Wales, however, the deep religious faith of the people he worked among made him start to wonder whether "the compass of existence held more than my text-books had revealed, more than I had ever dreamed of. In short I lost my superiority, and this, though I was not then aware of it, is the first step towards finding God."

Cronin also came to feel that "If we consider the physical universe ,... we cannot escape the notion of a primary Creator.... Accept evolution with its fossils and elementary species , its scientific doctrine of natural causes. And still you are confronted with the same mystery, primary and profound. Ex nihilo nihil , as the Latin tag of our schooldays has it: nothing can come of nothing." This was brought home to him in London, where in his spare time he had organized a working boys' club. One day he invited a distinguished zoologist to deliver a lecture to the members. The speaker, adopting "a frankly atheistic approach," described the sequence of events leading to the emergence, "though he did not say how," of the first primitive life-form from lifeless matter . When he concluded, there was polite applause. Then, "a mild and very average youngster rose nervously to his feet" and with a slight stammer asked how there came to be anything in the first place. The naïve question took everyone by surprise. The lecturer "looked annoyed, hesitated, slowly turned red. Then, before he could answer, the whole club burst into a howl of laughter. The elaborate structure of logic offered by the test-tube realist had been crumpled by one word of challenge from a simple-minded boy."

FAMILY

Cronin with family in 1938

It was at university that Cronin met his future wife, Agnes Mary Gibson (May) (1898–1981), who was also a medical student. She was the daughter of Robert Gibson, a master baker , and Agnes Thomson Gibson (née Gilchrist) of Hamilton , Lanarkshire. The couple married on 31 August 1921. As a physician, May worked with her husband briefly in the dispensary while he was employed by the Tredegar
Tredegar
Medical Aid Society ; she also assisted him with his practice in London. When he became an author, she would proofread his manuscripts . Their first son, Vincent , was born in Tredegar
Tredegar
in 1924. Their second son, Patrick , was born in London
London
in 1926. Andrew, their youngest son, was born in London
London
in 1937.

With his stories being adapted to Hollywood
Hollywood
films, Cronin and his family moved to the United States in 1939, living in Bel Air , California; Nantucket
Nantucket
, Massachusetts; Greenwich , Connecticut; and Blue Hill , Maine. In 1945, the Cronins sailed back to England aboard the RMS Queen Mary , where they stayed briefly in Hove
Hove
and then in Raheny
Raheny
, Ireland before returning to the U.S. the following year. They subsequently took up residence at the Carlyle Hotel in New York City and then in Deerfield , Massachusetts before settling in New Canaan , Connecticut in 1947. Ever the nomad, Cronin also frequently travelled to his homes in Bermuda
Bermuda
and Cap-d\'Ail , France, where he summered.

LATER YEARS

Ultimately Cronin returned to Europe, to reside in Lucerne
Lucerne
and Montreux
Montreux
, Switzerland, for the last 25 years of his life. He continued to write into his eighties. He included among his friends Laurence Olivier , Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
and Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
, to whose first son he was godfather .

Although the latter part of his life was spent entirely abroad, Cronin retained a great affection for the district of his childhood, writing in 1972 to a local teacher: "Although I have travelled the world over I must say in all sincerity that my heart belongs to Dumbarton. ... In my study there is a beautiful 17th-century coloured print of the Rock ... I even follow with great fervour the fortunes of the Dumbarton
Dumbarton
football team." Further evidence of Cronin's lifelong support of Dumbarton
Dumbarton
F. C. comes from a framed typewritten letter hanging in the foyer of the club's stadium. In the letter, written in 1972 and addressed to the club's then secretary, Cronin congratulates Dumbarton
Dumbarton
on their return to the top division after an absence of 50 years and recalls his childhood supporting the Sons (the club's nickname) and on occasion being "lifted over" the turnstiles (a common practice in times past so that children did not have to pay).

Cronin died on 6 January 1981 in Montreux, and is interred at La Tour-de-Peilz . Many of Cronin's writings, including published an unpublished literary manuscripts, drafts, letters, school exercise books and essays, laboratory books, and his M.D. thesis, are held at the National Library of Scotland and at the Harry Ransom Center
Harry Ransom Center
at the University of Texas
University of Texas
.

HONOURS

* National Book Award (U.S.), Favorite Novel
Novel
of 1937, for The Citadel * D.Litt. from Bowdoin College and Lafayette College
Lafayette College
* On 27 March 2015 a plaque was unveiled by the RCGP a 152 Westbourne Grove
Westbourne Grove
in Notting Hill

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cronin in 1939

* Hatter\'s Castle (novel , 1931), ISBN 0-450-03486-0 * Three Loves (novel, 1932), ISBN 0-450-02202-1 * Kaleidoscope in "K" (novella , 1933) * Grand Canary (serial novel, 1933), ISBN 0-450-02047-9 * Woman of the Earth (novella, 1933) ISBN 978-1543185812 * Country Doctor (novella, 1935) ISBN 978-1523347100 * The Stars Look Down (novel, 1935), ISBN 0-450-00497-X * Lady with Carnations (serial novel, 1935), ISBN 0-450-03631-6 * The Citadel (novel, 1937), ISBN 0-450-01041-4 * Vigil in the Night (serial novella, 1939) ISBN 978-0-9727439-6-9 * Jupiter Laughs (play, 1940), ISBN B000OHEBC2 * Child of Compassion (novelette, 1940), ISBN 978-1530135349 * Enchanted Snow (novel, 1940), ISBN 978-1523950119 * The Valorous Years (serial novella, 1940) ISBN 978-0-9727439-7-6 * The Keys of the Kingdom (novel, 1941), ISBN 0-450-01042-2 * Adventures of a Black Bag (short stories, 1943, rev. 1969), ISBN 0-450-00306-X * The Green Years (novel, 1944), ISBN 0-450-01820-2 * The Man Who Couldn\'t Spend Money (novelette, 1946), ISBN 978-1530135349 * Shannon\'s Way (novel, 1948; sequel to The Green Years), ISBN 0-450-03313-9 * Gracie Lindsay (serial novel, 1949), ISBN 0-450-04536-6 * The Spanish Gardener (novel, 1950), ISBN 0-450-01108-9 * Adventures in Two Worlds (autobiography, 1952), ISBN 0-450-03195-0

* Beyond This Place (novel, 1953), ISBN 0-450-01708-7 * Escape from Fear (serial novella, 1954), ISBN 978-1523326921 * A Thing of Beauty (novel, 1956), ISBN 0-515-03379-0 ; also published as Crusader\'s Tomb (1956), ISBN 0-450-01394-4 * The Northern Light (novel, 1958), ISBN 0-450-01538-6 * The Innkeeper\'s Wife (short story republished as a book, 1958), ISBN 978-1543220940 * The Cronin Omnibus (three earlier novels, collected in 1958), ISBN 0-575-05836-6 * The Native Doctor ; also published as An Apple in Eden (novel, 1959), ISBN 978-1523392537 * The Judas Tree (novel, 1961), ISBN 0-450-01393-6 * A Song of Sixpence (novel, 1964), ISBN 0-450-03312-0 * Further Adventures of a Black Bag (short stories, 1966), ISBN 0-563-49432-8 * A Pocketful of Rye (novel, 1969; sequel to A Song of Sixpence), ISBN 0-450-39010-1 * Desmonde (novel, 1975), ISBN 0-316-16163-2 ; also published as The Minstrel Boy (1975), ISBN 0-450-03279-5 * Doctor Finlay of Tannochbrae (short stories, 1978), ISBN 0-450-04246-4 * Dr Finlay's Casebook (omnibus edition – 2010), ISBN 978-1-84158-854-4 * Further Adventures of a Country Doctor (twelve late-1930s short stories, collected in 2017), ISBN 978-1543289190

SELECTED PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS

* "Lily of the Valley," Hearst's International-Cosmopolitan, (February 1936), ISBN 978-1543220940 * "Mascot for Uncle," Good Housekeeping, (February 1938), ISBN 978-1530135349 * "The Most Unforgettable Character I Ever Met: The Doctor of Lennox," Reader's Digest, 35 (September 1939): 26–30. * "The Portrait," Hearst's International-Cosmopolitan, (December 1940), ISBN 978-1543220940 * "Turning Point of My Career," Reader's Digest, 38 (May 1941): 53–57. * "Diogenes in Maine," Reader's Digest, 39 (August 1941): 11–13. * "Reward of Mercy," Reader's Digest, 39 (September 1941): 25–37. * "How I Came to Write a Novel
Novel
of a Priest," Life, 11 (20 October 1941): 64–66. * "Drama in Everyday Life," Reader's Digest, 42 (March 1943): 83–86. * "Candles in Vienna," Reader's Digest, 48 (June 1946): 1–3. * "Star of Hope Still Rises," Reader's Digest, 53 (December 1948): 1–3. * "Johnny Brown Stays Here," Reader's Digest, 54 (January 1949): 9–12. * Two Gentlemen of Verona," Reader's Digest, 54 (February 1949): 1–5. * "Greater Gift," Reader's Digest, 54 (March 1949): 88–91. * "The One Chance," Redbook, (March 1949), ISBN 978-1543220940 * "An Irish Rose," Reader's Digest, 56 (January 1950): 21–24. * "Monsieur le Maire," Reader's Digest, 58 (January 1951): 52–56. * "Best Investment I Ever Made," Reader's Digest, 58 (March 1951): 25–28. * "Quo Vadis?", Reader's Digest, 59 (December 1951): 41–44. * "Tombstone for Nora Malone," Reader's Digest, 60 (January 1952): 99–101. * "When You Dread Failure," Reader's Digest, 60 (February 1952): 21–24. * "What I Learned at La Grande Chartreuse," Reader's Digest, 62 (February 1953): 73–77. * "Grace of Gratitude," Reader's Digest, 62 (March 1953): 67–70. * "Thousand and One Lives," Reader's Digest, 64 (January 1954): 8–11. * "How to Stop Worrying," Reader's Digest, 64 (May 1954): 47–50. * "Don't Be Sorry for Yourself!," Reader's Digest, 66 (February 1955): 97–100. * "Unless You Deny Yourself," Reader's Digest, 68 (January 1956): 54–56. * "Resurrection of Joao Jacinto," Reader's Digest, 89 (November 1966): 153–157.

FILM ADAPTATIONS

* 1934– Once to Every Woman (from short story, Kaleidoscope in "K" )–directed by Lambert Hillyer, featuring Ralph Bellamy , Fay Wray
Fay Wray
, Walter Connolly , Mary Carlisle , and Walter Byron * 1934–Grand Canary –directed by Irving Cummings , featuring Warner Baxter
Warner Baxter
, Madge Evans , Marjorie Rambeau , Zita Johann , and H. B. Warner * 1938–The Citadel –directed by King Vidor , featuring Robert Donat , Rosalind Russell , Ralph Richardson , and Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
* 1940– Vigil in the Night –directed by George Stevens , featuring Carole Lombard , Brian Aherne , Anne Shirley , and Robert Coote * 1940– The Stars Look Down –directed by Carol Reed , narrated by Lionel Barrymore
Lionel Barrymore
(US version), featuring Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
, Margaret Lockwood , Emlyn Williams , Nancy Price , and Cecil Parker * 1941– Shining Victory (from play, Jupiter Laughs )–directed by Irving Rapper , featuring James Stephenson , Geraldine Fitzgerald , Donald Crisp , Barbara O\'Neil , and Bette Davis
Bette Davis
* 1942–Hatter\'s Castle –directed by Lance Comfort, featuring Robert Newton , Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
, James Mason
James Mason
, Emlyn Williams , and Enid Stamp Taylor * 1944– The Keys of the Kingdom –directed by John M. Stahl , featuring Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
, Thomas Mitchell , Vincent Price , Rose Stradner, Edmund Gwenn , Benson Fong , Cedric Hardwicke , Jane Ball, and Roddy McDowall
Roddy McDowall
* 1946– The Green Years –directed by Victor Saville, featuring Charles Coburn , Tom Drake , Beverly Tyler, Hume Cronyn , Gladys Cooper , Dean Stockwell , Selena Royle, and Jessica Tandy * 1953– Ich suche Dich ("I Seek You" – from play, Jupiter Laughs )–directed by O. W. Fischer , featuring O.W. Fischer, Anouk Aimée , Nadja Tiller , and Otto Brüggemann * 1955– Sabar Uparey (from novel, Beyond This Place )–directed by Agradoot , featuring Uttam Kumar
Uttam Kumar
, Suchitra Sen , Chhabi Biswas , Pahadi Sanyal and Nitish Mukherjee * 1957– The Spanish Gardener –directed by Philip Leacock , featuring Dirk Bogarde , Jon Whiteley , Michael Hordern , Cyril Cusack , and Lyndon Brook * 1958– Kala Pani ("Black Water" – from novel, Beyond This Place )–directed by Raj Khosla , featuring Dev Anand , Madhubala
Madhubala
, Nalini Jaywant , and Agha * 1959– Web of Evidence (from novel, Beyond This Place )–directed by Jack Cardiff , featuring Van Johnson , Vera Miles , Emlyn Williams , Bernard Lee , and Jean Kent * 1967– Poola Rangadu (from novel, Beyond This Place )–directed by Adurthi Subba Rao, featuring ANR , Jamuna , and Nageshwara Rao Akkineni * 1971–Tere Mere Sapne ("Our Dreams" – from novel, The Citadel )–directed by Vijay Anand , featuring Dev Anand , Mumtaz , Hema Malini , Vijay Anand , and Prem Nath
Prem Nath
* 1972– Jiban Saikate (from novel, The Citadel )–directed by Swadesh Sarkar, featuring Soumitra Chatterjee and Aparna Sen
Aparna Sen
* 1975–Mausam ("Seasons" – from novel, The Judas Tree )–directed by Gulzar , featuring Sharmila Tagore
Sharmila Tagore
, Sanjeev Kumar , Dina Pathak , and Om Shivpuri * 1982– Madhura Swapnam (from novel, The Citadel )–directed by K. Raghavendra Rao , featuring Jaya Prada , Jayasudha , and Krishnamraju

SELECTED TELEVISION CREDITS

* 1955–Escape From Fear ( CBS
CBS
), featuring William Lundigan
William Lundigan
, Tristram Coffin , Mari Blanchard , Howard Duff , and Jay Novello * 1957– Beyond This Place ( CBS
CBS
), featuring Farley Granger , Peggy Ann Garner , Max Adrian , Brian Donlevy , and Shelley Winters * 1958–Nicholas ( TV Tupi ), featuring Ricardinho, Roberto de Cleto, and Rafael Golombeck * 1960–The Citadel (ABC ), featuring James Donald , Ann Blyth , Lloyd Bochner
Lloyd Bochner
, Hugh Griffith , and Torin Thatcher * 1960–The Citadel , featuring Eric Lander, Zena Walker , Jack May , Elizabeth Shepherd , and Richard Vernon * 1962-1971–Dr Finlay\'s Casebook ( BBC
BBC
), featuring Bill Simpson, Andrew Cruickshank , and Barbara Mullen * 1962 & 1963–The Ordeal of Dr Shannon ( NBC
NBC
border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Novels portal * Biography portal

* Physician
Physician
writer

REFERENCES

* ^ The University of Glasgow
Glasgow
Story: Biography of AJ Cronin * ^ A B Liukkonen, Petri. "A. J. Cronin". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. * ^ A B C D E F Haining, Peter (1994) On Call with Doctor Finlay. London: Boxtree Limited. ISBN 1852834714 * ^ Cronin, A. J. Adventures in Two Worlds . Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1952, pp. 261–2. * ^ Samuel, R. (22 June 1995). "North and South: A Year in a Mining Village". London
London
Review of Books. 17 (12): 3–6. * ^ A B "Booksellers Give Prize to 'Citadel': Cronin's Work About Doctors Their Favorite–'Mme. Curie' Gets Non-Fiction Award TWO OTHERS WIN HONORS Fadiman Is 'Not Interested' in What Pulitzer Committee Thinks of Selections", The New York Times, 2 March 1938, page 14. ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851–2007). * ^ Gallup Jr., Alec M. (2009). The Gallup Poll Cumulative Index: Public Opinion, 1935–1997, p. 135, Rowman ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Works by A. J. Cronin
A. J. Cronin

NOVELS

* Hatter\'s Castle * Three Loves * Grand Canary * Woman of the Earth * Country Doctor * The Stars Look Down * The Citadel * Vigil in the Night * Enchanted Snow * The Valorous Years * The Keys of the Kingdom * The Green Years * Shannon\'s Way * The Spanish Gardener * Beyond This Place * Escape from Fear * A Thing of Beauty/Crusader\'s Tomb * The Northern Light * The Native Doctor/An Apple in Eden * The Judas Tree * A Song of Sixpence * A Pocketful of Rye * The Minstrel Boy/ Desmonde * Lady with Carnations * Gracie Lindsay

SHORT STORIES

* " Kaleidoscope in "K" " * "The Innkeeper\'s Wife "

PLAY

* Jupiter Laughs

AUTOBIOGRAPHY

* Adventures in Two Worlds

FILM ADAPTATIONS

* Once to Every Woman * Grand Canary * The Citadel * Vigil in the Night * The Stars Look Down * Shining Victory * Hatter\'s Castle * The Keys of the Kingdom * The Green Years * The Spanish Gardener * Web of Evidence

TELEVISION ADAPTATIONS

* Escape From Fear * Beyond This Place * Nicholas * The Citadel (1960 American) * The Citadel (1960 British) * Dr. Finlay\'s Casebook * The Ordeal of Dr. Shannon * Memorandum van een dokter * La Cittadella (1964) * Novi asistent * O Jardineiro Espanhol * E le stelle stanno a guardare * The Stars Look Down * Les Années d\'illusion * The Citadel (1983) * Doctor Finlay * La Cittadella (2003)

* v * t * e

A. J. Cronin's Beyond This Place

FILMS

* Sabar Uparey * Kala Pani * Beyond This Place (1959) * Poola Rangadu

TV

* Beyond This Place (1957)

* v * t * e

A. J. Cronin's The Citadel

FILMS

* The Citadel (1938) * Tere Mere Sapne (1971) * Jiban Saikate (1972) * Madhura Swapnam (1982)

TV

* The Citadel (1960 US) * The Citadel (1960 UK) * La Cittadella (1964) * The Citadel (1983) * La Cittadella (2003)

* v * t * e

A. J. Cronin's The Stars Look Down

FILMS

* The Stars Look Down (1940) * E le stelle stanno a guardare (1971)

TV

* The Stars Look Down (1975)

RELATED

* Billy Elliot * Billy Elliot the Musical

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 29726795 * LCCN : n50018375 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8108 9908 * GND : 11867739X * SELIBR : 238057 * SUDOC : 026805979 * BNF : cb11898204d (data) * NLA : 36281947 * NDL : 00436922 * NKC : jn19990001552 * ICCU : ITICCUCFIV061 * BNE : XX889567 * IATH : w6kd27fq

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